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# Free Body Diagrams

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### Free Body Diagrams

1. 1. Forging new generations of engineers
2. 2. Free Body Diagrams
3. 3. Gravity <ul><li>Weight, W , is a force. </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity, g , is an acceleration. </li></ul><ul><li>The acceleration of gravity on earth is approximately: </li></ul><ul><li>9.81 m/s² in SI units and </li></ul><ul><li>32.2 ft/s² in US Customary units. </li></ul><ul><li>We know from Newton’s 2nd law that </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force = mass * acceleration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F = m * a </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore we can write: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W = m * g </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
4. 4. The Statue of Liberty has a mass of 225,000 kg. How much does she weigh? Gravity W = m * g Write the formula: Substitute known values: W = (225,000 kg) * 9.81 m/s² Present solution with units: W = 2207250 N
5. 5. The Statue of Liberty weighs 2207250 Newtons, which is 496,210 pounds! If she is exerting a 496210 lb force down, the how much does Liberty Island have to push up on her to maintain static equilibrium? 496210 lb, according to Newton’s 3rd law Gravity
6. 6. Free-Body Diagram A scalar is simply a number, a magnitude alone. A force is usually shown as a vector , which includes both magnitude and a direction. Force (or free-body) diagrams show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting upon an object. The object must be isolated and “free” of its surroundings.
7. 7. This is a free-body diagram of the Statue of Liberty. She is represented by a simple box. The forces acting on her are labeled with a magnitude and the arrow shows direction. Notice the surrounding objects are stripped away and the forces acting on the object are shown. Free-Body Diagram 496210 lb 496210 lb
8. 8. W here represents the force of the weight of the statue. N is the normal force , which represents the force Liberty Island is pushing back up on the statue. The island has a great resistance to compression. The ground is exerting a force upward on the statue perpendicular, or normal, to the surface. Free-Body Diagram 496210 lb 496210 lb N = W =
9. 9. Think of the diagram on an XY plane. If “up” is assumed to be the positive direction, then N is positive and W is negative. Free-Body Diagram 496210 lb 496210 lb N = W = (Positive y-direction) +y +x (Positive x-direction)
10. 10. Free-Body Diagram <ul><li>The first line of this calculation reads, </li></ul><ul><li>“ The sum of the Forces in the positive y direction is W + N ” (  is the Greek symbol for “sum” ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+   F y = W + N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> F y = ( -496210 lb ) + ( +496210 lb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> F y = 0 </li></ul></ul>The sum of the forces in the y is zero. The forces acting on the object cancel each other out. 496210 lb 496210 lb N = W = (Positive y-direction) +y +x (Positive x-direction)
11. 11. <ul><li>We know F = m * a , where “a” is acceleration. </li></ul><ul><li>If a = 0 , then F = m * 0 = 0 . </li></ul><ul><li>When  F = 0, the object is not accelerating. </li></ul><ul><li>We we can then say that the forces acting on the object cancel each other out and it is in a state of static equilibrium. </li></ul>Static Equilibrium Review
12. 12. Force/Free Body Diagrams Sitting Gorilla Free Body Diagram of the Sitting Gorilla (The box represents the gorilla, W = weight of the gorilla, N = Normal force) Create a free body diagram (FBD) for each of the following situations. Draw a FBD of the gorilla: W N
13. 13. This is also an acceptable diagram. Sitting Gorilla Create a free body diagram (FBD) for each of the following situations. Draw a FBD of the gorilla: Force/Free Body Diagrams N W
14. 14. Parrot on wooden swing hung by ropes Draw a FBD of the wooden swing: Force/Free Body Diagrams Free Body Diagram of the wooden swing (The box represents the wooden swing, W = weight of the swing and the parrot, T represents the ropes that are in tension supporting the weight) W T2 T1
15. 15. Bungee jumping from crane Draw a FBD of bucket the bungee jumper leaped from: Free Body Diagram of the bucket (T represents the tensile force of the cable the bucket is suspended from, and W is the weight of the diver and the bucket) Force/Free Body Diagrams W T
16. 16. Traffic Light supported by cables Draw a FBD of the ring at point C : Free Body Diagram of the ring at point C (T represents the force of the cables that are in tension acting on the ring) T CA T CD T CB Force/Free Body Diagrams A B C D
17. 17. Draw a FBD of the traffic light : Free Body Diagram of the traffic light (T CD represents the force of the cables acting on the light and W is the weight acting on the light) Traffic Light supported by cables Force/Free Body Diagrams W T CD A B C D
18. 18. Pin-Connected Pratt Through Truss Bridge Draw a FBD of the pin at point A: Free Body Diagram of pin A (If you consider the third dimension, then there is an additional force acting on point A into the paper: The force of the beam that connects the front of the bridge to the back of the bridge.) Force/Free Body Diagrams A B E D C T AE T AC T AB T AD