the only God
He does not have parents and child
He, the most gracious and the most merciful
who creates and maintains the world
The Prophet Muhammad
Born in Mecca in Arabia
Raised by merchants
Received a revelation from Allah (God) during the month of Ramadan
Tension between Muhammad’s monotheism and the polytheism of the people of Mecca
The Holy Quran
Muslims believe the Quran is the direct word of Allah revealed to Muhammad
Written and read in Arabic
the Founder of zero (0)
the Founder of Algebra
"Algebra" is derived from al-jabr, one of the two operations
he used to solve quadratic equations.
Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi,
the Latin form of his name.
the Founder of Trigonometric Function
The writer of The Canon of Medicine (1025)
Also known as the Qanun, which means "law" in both
Arabic and Persian, the Canon of Medicine remained
a medical authority up until the 18th century. It set the
standards for medicine in Europe and the Islamic
The principles of medicine described by the Canonten centuries ago are still taught at UCLA and Yale University among others, as part of the history of medicine
The importance of Quarantine, Clinical pharmacology
Neuropsychiatry, Physiological psychology
The Islamic Caliphate
After the death of Muhammad, caliphs (leaders) controlled the Muslim world.
Most famous caliphates: the Umayyad dynasty and the Abbasid dynasty.
Umayyad capital city: Damascus (in Syria). Abbasid capital: Baghdad (in Iraq).
The Muslim World
Major groups of Muslims: Sunnis and Shi’ites
Most Muslims are Sunnis
Shi’ites are the majority in Iraq and Iran
The principal Islamic architectural types are:
the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort