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Introduction to git

Randal Schwartz
Randal Schwartz
Randal SchwartzDart and Flutter Developer at Stonehenge

These are the slides used in http://vimeo.com/35778382

Introduction to git

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Git: a brief
                                 introduction
                    Randal L. Schwartz, merlyn@stonehenge.com
                             Version 4.0.6 on 5 Jan 2012

                       This document is copyright 2011, 2012 by Randal L. Schwartz, Stonehenge Consulting Services, Inc.
                 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License
                                               http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/




Monday, February 6, 12                                                                                                     1
About me
                    •    Been tracking git since it was created
                    •    Used git on small projects
                    •    Used other systems on small and large projects
                    •    Read a lot of people talk about git on the
                         mailing list
                    •    Provided some patches to git, and suggestions
                         for user interface changes
                    •    Worked on small and medium teams with git
                         • But not large ones



Monday, February 6, 12                                                    2
What is git?
                    •    Git manages changes to a tree of files over time
                    •    Git is optimized for:
                         • Distributed development
                         • Large file counts
                         • Complex merges
                         • Making trial branches
                         • Being very fast
                         • Being robust



Monday, February 6, 12                                                     3
But not for...

                    •    Tracking file permissions and ownership
                    •    Tracking individual files with separate history
                    •    Making things painful




Monday, February 6, 12                                                    4
Why git?

                    •    Essential to Linux kernel development
                    •    Created as a replacement when BitKeeper
                         suddenly became “unavailable”
                    •    Now used by thousands of projects
                    •    Everybody has a “commit bit”




Monday, February 6, 12                                             5
Everyone can...

                    •    Clone the tree
                    •    Make and test local changes
                    •    Submit the changes as patches via mail
                    •    OR submit them as a published repository
                    •    Track the upstream to revise if needed




Monday, February 6, 12                                              6
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Introduction to git

  • 1. Git: a brief introduction Randal L. Schwartz, merlyn@stonehenge.com Version 4.0.6 on 5 Jan 2012 This document is copyright 2011, 2012 by Randal L. Schwartz, Stonehenge Consulting Services, Inc. This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ Monday, February 6, 12 1
  • 2. About me • Been tracking git since it was created • Used git on small projects • Used other systems on small and large projects • Read a lot of people talk about git on the mailing list • Provided some patches to git, and suggestions for user interface changes • Worked on small and medium teams with git • But not large ones Monday, February 6, 12 2
  • 3. What is git? • Git manages changes to a tree of files over time • Git is optimized for: • Distributed development • Large file counts • Complex merges • Making trial branches • Being very fast • Being robust Monday, February 6, 12 3
  • 4. But not for... • Tracking file permissions and ownership • Tracking individual files with separate history • Making things painful Monday, February 6, 12 4
  • 5. Why git? • Essential to Linux kernel development • Created as a replacement when BitKeeper suddenly became “unavailable” • Now used by thousands of projects • Everybody has a “commit bit” Monday, February 6, 12 5
  • 6. Everyone can... • Clone the tree • Make and test local changes • Submit the changes as patches via mail • OR submit them as a published repository • Track the upstream to revise if needed Monday, February 6, 12 6
  • 7. How does git do it? • Universal public identifiers • None of the SVK “my @245 is your @992” • Multi-protocol transport: HTTP, SSH, GIT • Efficient object storage • Everyone has entire repo (disk is cheap) • Easy branching and merging • Common ancestors are computable • Patches (and repo updates) can be transported or mailed • Binary “patches” are supported Monday, February 6, 12 7
  • 8. The SHA1 is King • Every “object” has a SHA1 to uniquely identify it • “objects” consist of: • Blobs (the contents of a file) • Trees (directories of blobs or other trees) • Commits: • A tree • Plus zero or more parent commits • Plus a message about why • And tags Monday, February 6, 12 8
  • 9. Tags • An object (usually a commit) • Plus an optional subject (if anything else is given) • Plus an optional payload to sign it off • Plus an optional gpg signature • Designed to be immobile • Changes not tracked during cloning • Use a branch if you want to move around Monday, February 6, 12 9
  • 10. Objects live in the repo • Git efficiently creates new objects • Objects are generally added, not destroyed • Unreferenced objects will garbage collect • Objects start “loose”, but can be “packed” • “Packs” represent objects as deltas • “Packs” are also created for repo transfer Monday, February 6, 12 10
  • 11. Commits rule the repo • One or more commits form the head of object chains • Typically one head called “master” • Others can be made at will (“branches”) • Usually one commit in the repo that has no parent commit (“root” commit) Monday, February 6, 12 11
  • 12. Reaching out • From a commit, reaching the components: • Chase down the tree object to get to directories and files as they existed at this commit time • Chase down the parent objects to get to earlier commits and their respective trees • Do this recursively, and you have all of history • And the SHA1 depends on all of that! Monday, February 6, 12 12
  • 13. The git repo • A “working tree” has a “.git” dir at the top level • Unlike CVS, SVN: no pollution of deeper directories • This makes it friendly to recursive greps Monday, February 6, 12 13
  • 14. The .git dir contains: • config – Configuration file (.ini style) • objects/* – The object repository • refs/heads/* – branches (like “master”) • refs/tags/* - tags • logs/* - logs • refs/remotes/* - tracking others • index – the “index cache” (described shortly) • HEAD – points to one of the branches (the “current branch”, where commits go) Monday, February 6, 12 14
  • 15. The index (or “cache”) • A directory of blob objects • Represents the “next commit” • “Add files” to put current contents in • “Commit” takes the current index and makes it a real commit object • Diff between HEAD and index: • changed things not yet committed • Diff between index and working dir: • changed things not yet added • untracked things Monday, February 6, 12 15
  • 16. What’s in a name? • Git doesn’t record explicit renaming • Nor expect you to declare it • Exact renaming determined by SHA1 • Copy-paste-edits detected by similarity • Computer better than you at that • Explicit tracking will be wrong sometimes • Being wrong breaks merges Monday, February 6, 12 16
  • 17. Git speaks and listens • Many protocols to transfer between repos • rsync, http, https, git, ssh, local files • In the core, git also has: • import/export with CVS, SVN • I use CVS/SVN import to have entire history of a project at 30K feet • Third party solutions handle others • Git core also includes cvs-server • A git repository can act like a CVS repository for legacy clients or humans Monday, February 6, 12 17
  • 18. Getting git • Get the latest “git-*.tar.gz” from code.google.com/p/git-core • RPMs and Debian packages also exist • Track the git-developer archive: • git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git • Maintenance releases are very stable • I install mine “prefix=/opt/git” • add /opt/git/bin to PATH Monday, February 6, 12 18
  • 19. Git commands • All git commands start with “git” • “git MUMBLE-FOO bar” has also been written as “git-MUMBLE-FOO bar” • This allows a single entry “git” to be added to the /usr/local/bin path • This works for internal calls as well • Manpages are still under “git-MUMBLE-FOO” • Unless you use “git help MUMBLE-FOO” • Or “git MUMBLE-FOO --help” Monday, February 6, 12 19
  • 20. Porcelain and plumbing • Low-level git operations are called “plumbing” • Higher level actions are called “porcelain” • The git distro includes both • Use porcelain from command line • But don’t script with it • Future releases might change things • Use plumbing for scripts • Intended to be upward compatible Monday, February 6, 12 20
  • 21. Creating a repo • git init • Creates a .git in the current dir • Optional: edit .gitignore • “git add .” to add all files (except .git!) • Then “git commit” for the initial commit • Creates current branch named “master” • Could also do this on a tarball • tar xvfz some-tarball.tgz; cd some-tarball • git init • git add . Monday, February 6, 12 21
  • 22. Cloning • Creates a git repo from an existing repo • Generally creates a subdirectory • Your workfiles and .git are in there • Remote branches are “tracked” • Remote “HEAD” branch checked out as your initial “master” branch as well • Clone repo identified as “origin” • But the name is otherwise unspecial Monday, February 6, 12 22
  • 23. Committing • Your work product is more commits • These are always on a “branch” • A branch is just a named commit • When you commit, the former branch head becomes the parent • The branch head moves to be the new commit • Thus, you’re creating a directed acyclic graph • ... rooted in branch heads • A merge is just a commit with multiple parents Monday, February 6, 12 23
  • 24. Typical work flow • Edit edit edit • git add files/you/have changed/now • This adds the files to the index • “git add .” for adding all interesting files • git status • Tells you differences between HEAD, index, and working directory Monday, February 6, 12 24
  • 25. Making the commit • “git commit” • Popped into a text editor (or “-m msg”) • First text line used for “short logs” • Current branch is moved forward • And you’re back to more editing Monday, February 6, 12 25
  • 26. But which branch? • Git encourages branching • A branch is just 41 text bytes! • Typical work flow: • Think of something to do • git checkout -b topic-name master • work work work, commit to topic-name • When your thing is done: • git checkout master • git merge topic-name • git branch -d topic-name Monday, February 6, 12 26
  • 27. Working in parallel • You can have multiple topics active: • git checkout -b topic1 master • work work; commit; work work; commit • git checkout -b topic2 master • work work work; commit • git checkout topic1; work work; commit • Decide how to bring them together • Merge: parallel histories • Rebase: serial histories • Each has pros and cons Monday, February 6, 12 27
  • 28. The merge • git checkout master • git merge topic1; git branch -d topic1 • This should be trivial (“fast forward”) merge • git merge topic2 • Conflicts may arise: • overlapping changes in text edits • files renamed two different ways • You need to resolve, and continue: • git commit -a (describe the merge fix here) Monday, February 6, 12 28
  • 29. The rebase • Rewrites commits • Breaks SHA1s: commits are lost! • Don’t rebase if you’ve published commits! • git checkout topic2; git rebase master • topic2’s commits rewritten on top of master • May result in merge conflicts: • git rebase --continue or --abort or --skip • git rebase -i (interactive) is helpful • When rebased, merge is a fast forward: • git checkout master; git merge topic2 Monday, February 6, 12 29
  • 30. Read the history • git log • print the changes • git log -p • print the changes, including a diff between revisions • git log --stat • Summarize the changes with a diffstat • git log -- file1 file2 dir3 • Show changes only for listed files or subdirs Monday, February 6, 12 30
  • 31. What’s the difference? • git diff • Diff between index and working tree • These are things you should “git add” • “git commit -a” will also make this list empty • git diff HEAD • Difference between HEAD and working tree • “git commit -a” will make this empty • git diff --cached • between HEAD and index • “git commit” (without -a) makes this empty Monday, February 6, 12 31
  • 32. Other diffs • git diff OTHERBRANCH • Other branch and working tree • git diff BRANCH1 BRANCH2 • Difference between two branch heads • git diff BRANCH1...BRANCH2 • changes only on branch2 relative to common • git diff --stat (other options) • Nice summary of changes • git diff --dirstat (other options) • Summarize directory changes Monday, February 6, 12 32
  • 33. Barking up the tree • Most commands take “tree-ish” args • SHA1 picks something absolutely • Can be abbreviated if not ambiguous • HEAD, some-branch-name, some-tag-name, some-origin-name • Optionally followed by @{historical} • “historical” can be: • yesterday, 2011-11-22, etc (date ref) • 1, 2, 3, etc (prior version of this ref) • “upstream” (upstream version of local) Monday, February 6, 12 33
  • 34. Meet the parents • Any of those on the prior slide, followed by: • ^n - “the n-th parent of an item” (default 1) • ~n - n ^1’s (so ~3 is ^1^1^1) • :path - pick the object from the tree Monday, February 6, 12 34
  • 35. Tree Examples • git diff HEAD^ HEAD • most recent change on current branch • Also: git diff HEAD~ HEAD • git diff HEAD~3 HEAD • What damage did last three edits do? Monday, February 6, 12 35
  • 36. Seeing the changes • gitk mytopic origin • Tk widget display of history • Shows changes back to common ancestor • gitk --all • show everything • gitk from..to • Just the changes in “to” that aren’t in “from” • git show-branch from..to • Same thing for the Tk-challenged Monday, February 6, 12 36
  • 37. Playing well with others • git clone creates “tracking” branches • Typically named “origin/master” etc • To share your work, first get up to date: • git fetch origin • Now rebase your changes on upstream: • git rebase origin/master • Or fetch/rebase in one step • git pull --rebase • To push upstream: • git push Monday, February 6, 12 37
  • 38. Resetting • git reset --soft • Makes all files “updated but not checked in” • git reset --hard # DANGER • Forces working dir to look like last commit • git reset --hard HEAD~3 • Tosses most recent 3 commits • use “git revert” instead if you’ve published • git checkout HEAD some/lost/file • Recover the version of some/lost/file from the last commit Monday, February 6, 12 38
  • 39. Ignoring things • Every directory can contain a .gitignore • lines starting with “!” mean “not” • lines without “/” are checked against basename • otherwise, shell glob via fnmatch(3) • Leading / means “the current directory” • Checked into the repository and tracked • Every repository can contain a .git/info/exclude • Both of these work together • But .git/info/exclude won’t be cloned Monday, February 6, 12 39
  • 40. Configuration • Many commands have configurations • git config name value • set name to value • name can contain periods for sub-items • git config name • get current value • git config --global name [value] • Same, but with ~/.gitconfig • This applies to all git repos from a user Monday, February 6, 12 40
  • 41. The stash • Creates temporary commits to represent: • current index (git add ...) • current working directory (git add .) • Can rebase those onto new index later • Many uses, such as pull into dirty workdir: • git stash; git pull ...; git stash pop • Might result in conflicts, of course • Multiple stashes can be in play • “git stash list” to show them Monday, February 6, 12 41
  • 42. Other useful porcelain • git archive: export a tree as a tar/zip • git bisect: find the offensive commit • git cherry-pick: selective merging • git mv: rename a file/dir with the right index manipulations • git rm: ditto for delete • git push: write to an upstream • git revert: add a commit that undoes a previous commit • git blame: who wrote this? Monday, February 6, 12 42
  • 43. Commit Advice • Split changes into small logical steps • Ideally ones that pass the test suite again • This helps for “blame” and “bisect”. • Easier to squash commits later than to break up • “git rebase -i” can squash, omit, reorder Monday, February 6, 12 43
  • 44. Picking from branches • Two main tools: “merge” and “cherry-pick” • Merge brings in all commits • Scales well for large workflows • Cherry-pick brings in one or more • Great when a single patch is needed Monday, February 6, 12 44
  • 45. git.git’s workflow • Four branches: • maint: fixes to existing releases • master: next release • next: testing for next master • pu: experimental features • Each one is a descendent of the one above • Commit to the oldest branch needing patch • Then merge it upward: • maint to master to next to pu Monday, February 6, 12 45
  • 46. Topic branches • Most features require several iterations • Commit these to topic branches during design • Easier to rehack or abandon this way • Fork topic from the oldest main branch • Refresh-merge from that branch if needed • But don’t do that routinely • Rebase topic branch if forked from wrong branch • More details at “man 7 gitworkflows” Monday, February 6, 12 46
  • 47. Testing integration • Merge from base branch to topic branch • ... on a new throw-away branch • This branch is never merged back in • Just for testing • Can be published publicly, if you make that clear • Otherwise, typically used only locally • If integration fails, fix, and cherry-pick those back to the topic branch before final merge Monday, February 6, 12 47
  • 48. Time to “git” dirty • Make a git repository: • mkdir git-tutorial • cd git-tutorial • git init • git config user.name “Randal Schwartz” • git config user.email merlyn@stonehenge.com • Add some content: • echo "Hello World" >hello • echo "Silly example" >example Monday, February 6, 12 48
  • 49. What’s up? • git status • git add example hello • git status • git diff --cached Monday, February 6, 12 49
  • 50. “git add” timing • Change the content of “hello” • echo "It's a new day for git" >>hello • git status • git diff • Now commit the index (with old hello) • git commit -m initial • git status • git diff • git diff HEAD Monday, February 6, 12 50
  • 51. git commit -a • Note that we committed the version of “hello” at the time we added it! • Fix this by adding -a nearly always: • git commit -a -m update • git status Monday, February 6, 12 51
  • 52. What happened? • Ask for logs: • git log • git log -p • git log --stat --summary • Tag, you’re it: • git tag my-first-tag • Now we can always get back to that version later Monday, February 6, 12 52
  • 53. Sharing the work • Create the clone: • cd .. • git clone git-tutorial my-git • cd my-git • The git clone will often have some sort of transport path, like git: or rsync: or http: • See what we’ve got: • git log -p • Note that we have the entire history • And that the SHA1s are identical Monday, February 6, 12 53
  • 54. Branching out • Create branch “my-branch” • git checkout -b my-branch • git status • Make some changes: • echo "Work, work, work" >>hello • git commit -a -m 'Some work.' Monday, February 6, 12 54
  • 55. Conflicts • Switch back, and make other changes: • git checkout master • echo "Play, play, play" >>hello • echo "Lots of fun" >>example • git commit -a -m 'Some fun.' • We now have conflicting commits Monday, February 6, 12 55
  • 56. Seeing the damage • In an X11 display: • gitk --all • The --all means “all heads, branches, tags” • For the X11 challenged: • git show-branch --all • git log --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit --graph --decorate --all • Handy for a mail message Monday, February 6, 12 56
  • 57. Merging • We’re on “master”, and we want to merge in the changes from my-branch • Select the merge: • git merge my-branch • This fails, because we have a conflict in “hello” • See this with: • git status • Edit “hello”, and commit: • git commit -a -m “Merge work in my-branch” Monday, February 6, 12 57
  • 58. Did it work? • Verify the merge with: • gitk --all • git show-branch --all • See changes back to the common ancestor: • gitk master my-branch • git show-branch master my-branch • Note that master is only one edit from my- branch now (the merge patch-up) • “git show” handy with merges: • git show HEAD Monday, February 6, 12 58
  • 59. Merging the upstream • Master is now updated with my-branch changes • But my-branch is now lagging • We can merge back the other way: • git checkout my-branch • git merge master • This will succeed as a “fast forward” • This means that the merge-from branch already has all of our change history • So it’s just adding linear history to the end Monday, February 6, 12 59
  • 60. Upstream changes • Let’s change origin a bit • cd ../git-tutorial • echo "some upstream change" >>other • git add other • git commit -a -m "upstream change" • And now fetch it downstream • cd ../my-git • git fetch • gitk --all • git diff master..origin/master Monday, February 6, 12 60
  • 61. Merge it in • Explicit merging • git checkout master • git merge origin/master • Implicit fetch/merge • git pull • Eliminating the bushy tree • git pull --rebase • (Fails in our example.. sigh.) Monday, February 6, 12 61
  • 62. Splitting up a patch • Sometimes, your changes are logically separate • echo “this change” >>hello • echo “unrelated change” >>example • Now make two commits: • git add -p # interactively select hello change • git commit -m “fixed hello” # not -a! • git commit -a -m “fixed example” Monday, February 6, 12 62
  • 63. Fixing a commit • Oops, left out something on that last one • echo "another unrelated" >>example • Now “amend” the patch: • git commit -a --amend • This replaces the commit • Be careful that you haven’t pushed it! Monday, February 6, 12 63
  • 64. For further info • See “Git (software)” in Wikipedia • And the git homepage http://git-scm.com/ • Git wiki at https://git.wiki.kernel.org/ • Wonderful Pro Git book: http://progit.org/book/ • Get on the mailing list • Helpful people there • You can submit bugs, patches, ideas • And the #git IRC channel (on Freenode) • Now “git” to it! Monday, February 6, 12 64