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Introduction To Micro Hydro Power Plant


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Introduction To Micro Hydro Power Plant

  1. 1. Final Year Project Optimization and Design of Micro Hydro Power PlantIntroduction Recent concerns over global warming and an over reliance on fossilfuels have led to an increased political, academic and public interest inrenewable energy. Three viable areas of renewable energy have emerged-solar power, wind power and hydropower. Because of small energy extractionfrom wind and high cost of solar cells using as a renewable energy source,it’s the hydro-power energy which can be a most effective renewable sourcein coming future. Hydro-power production can be carried out using Turbines andwaterwheels. Turbines need extensive potential energy which means anappreciable head is needed to produce power while using turbines. On theother hand waterwheels don’t need any head requirement and it’s theflowing water kinetic energy used by waterwheels to produce power, low headand flow requirements, ease in fabrication and relatively low cost whichexcels them from turbines. These are especially advantageous relevant tosmall residential projects where the long payback period of turbines isprohibitive and that is the reason why hydropower production usingwaterwheel has become an important source of renewable energy these days. A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of free-flowingor falling water into useful forms of power. A water wheel consists of alarge wooden or metal wheel, with a number of blades or buckets arranged onthe outside rim forming the driving surface. Most commonly, the wheel ismounted vertically on a horizontal axle, but the tub or Norse wheel ismounted horizontally on a vertical shaft. Vertical wheels can transmitpower either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive beltsor gears; horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load. Waterwheel is a sort of Pelton wheel turbine equipped with blades andoperated by the flowing water. The wheel is to be seated on an open smallriver where there is no head difference and the flow velocity isapproximately 1ms-1. There are different types of water wheel which are being usedthroughout the world.Types of water wheel: Horizontal wheel Undershot wheel Breastshot wheel
  2. 2. Final Year Project Overshot wheel Backshot wheel Hydraulic wheelHistorical Perspective In the 1970 the ministry of water and power installed several MHP systems costranging from US$5000-6000/kW along conventional lines. The appropriate technologydevelopment organization (ATDO) has installed MHP systems in the villages in themountains areas of Swat, Dir, and Kaghan district in KhyberPakhtunKhawa, Gilgit and innorthern areas of Pakistan. The very first plants of power of 3kW and 12.5kW respectivelywere installed in 1975 inQadirnagar, Buner and LioniShangla. After that 58 MHP plant wereinstalled with technical and machinery support of PCAT to different communities. Allinstalled MHP plants were runoff river type that mean that in these plants the water is usedat a rate no greater than that which run downs the river. Till 1999 the project electrified11,550 household due to the installed 228 MHP plants of 3MW total power. In 1982 on thebase of Aga khan rural support program (AKRSP) for village organizations 28 micro-hydropower systems were installed, 6 micro-hydro power plant were designed and installed in thenorthern Pakistan i.e. Gilgit. During the last years Pakistan council of appropriate technology (PCAT) installedmore than 200 systems with a total power of around 3MW. The turbine were designed andmanufactured in Pakistan whereas the generators were imported from China.Following figures depict some of the previous Work on Micro-hydro Power plant:
  3. 3. Final Year ProjectNeed Analysis Energy is considered to be life line of any economy and most vital instrument ofsocioeconomic development of a country. Energy is pivotal in running machinery in factoriesand industrial units, for lighting our cities and powering our vehicles etc. There has been anenormous increase in the demand of energy as a result of industrial development andpopulation growth, in comparison to enhancement in energy production. Supply of energy is,therefore, far less than the actual demand, resultantly crisis has emerged. An energy crisis canbe defined as any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to aneconomy.Conclusion: Energy Crisis has, more or less, plagued all sectors of Pakistan’s machinery rangingfrom economy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hamperingnational progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can beoverwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactiveimplementation. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, toutilize the available energy astutely and wisely to play our due role for progress of thecountry.Project Objectives  To study the literature of micro-hydro power plant.  To study the literature of water wheels.  Analytical calculations of power generated from water flow.
  4. 4. Final Year Project  To design and optimize water wheel and catamaran.  To check the strength of structure using ANSYS.