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Natural & Artificial stones & its uses in designing

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Natural & Artificial stones & its uses in designing

  1. 1. STONES
  2. 2. What is rock ?  Rock is a natural occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids . For example, the common rock granite is a combination of quartz, feldspar & boitite minerals . The earth’s outer solid layer lithosphere, is made of rock.  Rocks have been used by mankind throughout history . From the stone age rocks have been used for tools . The minerals & metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization.  three major groups of rocks are defined as  Igneous rock .  Sedimentary rock &  Metamorphic rocks .  The scientific study of rocks is called as petrology , which is an essential component of geology.
  3. 3. WHAT IS NATURAL STONE ?  Natural stone is not manufactured, it is a product of nature. Blocks are removed from the quarry, slabs are cut from these blocks & the slabs are further fabricated into the final stone to be installed.
  4. 4. Types of natural stones are :  Granite, marble, limestone, travertine, slate, basalt, quartzite, sandstone. Granite Granite : Granite is a igneous rock.  This is one of the most versatile of all the natural stone because of its high level density & resistance to bacteria & stains.  It doesn’t react to acidic foods, thus its very suitable for kitchen countertops or any other exterior applications. Uses : construction – granite is used as dimension stone.  Interiors – polished granite is used in flooring tiles, stair treads, kitchen countertops & many other decorative features.  Exteriors – rough cut granite is used in buildings, bridges, paving, monuments & in other exterior projects.
  5. 5. Advantages : Disadvantages :  Granite flooring is hard, durable & long lasting.  Granite can be easily maintained.  It is available in wide range of colours & patterns.  It is hypoallergenic, allergen & bacterial resistant.  Extremely resistant to water n moisture.  Expensive than other material.  Needs professional installation.  It can feel hard & cold underfoot.  Needs regular cleaning.
  6. 6. Marble  Marble is a metamorphic rock.  Any crystalline carbonate rock that has an ability to accept a polish is called marble.  Marble is not a very hard natural stone. Uses : construction – marble is used as window sills, fireplace, bathroom floors, wall covering & many other decorative foyers for residential & commercial buildings.  Most marble is made into either crushed stone or dimension stone  Crushed stone is used as aggregate in highways, railroad beds, building foundations & in other types of construction.  Dimension stone is produced by sawing marble into
  7. 7. Advantages : Disadvantages :  Versatile.  Elegant.  Durable.  Combines well with ceramic n wood  Easy to clean & maintain.  Expensive.  Very heavy.  It stains easily.  Very cold during the winter.
  8. 8. Limestone  Limestone is a sedimentary rock.  It is one of the abundant stone mostly used in building construction. Since limestone is comparatively softer than other natural stone.  It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters. It can also be a chemical sedimentary rock formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or ocean water. Uses :  Crushed stone – most limestone is made into crushed stone & used as a construction material, It is used as a crushed stone for road base & railroad ballast & it is also used as an aggregate in concrete.
  9. 9. • Dimension stone – dimension stone is often cut into blocks & slabs of specific dimensions for use in construction & in architecture. It is used for facing stone, floor tiles, stair treads, window sills etc. • It is used in manufacturing cement, printing plates. • powered limestone is used as a filler in paper, paint, rubber, plastics, tiles, toothpaste & in other materials as both white pigment & a cheap filler.
  10. 10. Advantages Disadvantages • Strong & durable. • A natural & elegant look. • Low on maintenance. • Expensive. • Installation is complex. • Extremely slippery when wet. • Cold & hard both in appearance & touch
  11. 11. Travertine  This also falls under limestone category & is one of the most popular natural stone. Uses :  Travertine is mainly used in interior & exterior walls, including fireplaces, floors, mosaic tiles etc.  The largest building is mostly constructed of travertine.  It can be polished to a smooth, shinny finish.  It comes in a variety of colors from grey to coral-red.  Travertine is most commonly available in tile sizes for floor installations.  Travertine is one of the most frequently used stones in modern architecture.
  12. 12. Slate  Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism. Uses : • Slate is particularly used as a roofing material. • Slate tiles are used for interiors & exterior flooring, stairs, wall cladding & walkways. • Slate can be set into the walls to provide a damp proof membrane. • slate is extensively used for blackboards & writing slates.
  13. 13. Advantages: Disadvantages:  Slate is fire resistance & energy efficient.  Resists climate changes.  Slate is incredibly durable & can last several hundred years with little or no maintenance.  Wide ranges of colors.  Slate provides a long- lasting weather - tight roof with a life span around 80-100 years.  Slate may develop cracks.  Slate flooring can be slippery when used in external locations subjected to rain.
  14. 14. Quartz  Quartzite is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating & pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Uses :  Quartzite is used for flooring, roofing tiles, wall cladding, stair- steps & its use for countertops in kitchens is expanding rapidly.  Crushed quartzite is used for road construction.  Crushed quartzite is used as railway ballast.
  15. 15. Advantages: Disadvantages:  It is harder & more resistant to stains than granite.  Available in unique colors & patterns.  Easy to clean.  Non skid surface.  Heavier than granite.  Expensive.
  16. 16. Sandstone  Sandstone is a type of sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized grains of mineral, rock or organic material. It also contains a cementing material that binds the sand grains together & may contain a matrix of silt or clay-size particles that occupy the spaces between the sand grains.
  17. 17. Uses : • In the subsurface, sandstone often serves as an aquifer for groundwater or as a reservoir for oil & natural gas. • It is also been used for artistic purpose to create ornamental fountains & statues. • It is widely used around the world as a construction material or as a raw material used in manufacturing • Flooring – sandstone is used in paving, flooring, roofing. • walls – sandstone binds with the cement & also durable. It is hence used to build walls, pillar, landscaping products etc.
  18. 18. Advantages: Disadvantages:  It is relatively soft.  Non-slippery, low maintenance.  Some sandstones are resistant to weathering, yet are easy to work.  Available in many colors.  Allergen & bacteria resistant.  Stain & moisture resistant.  Needs sealing.
  19. 19. Basalt  Basalt is a dark-colored, fine grained, igneous rock . Basalt underlies more of earth’s surface than any other rock type. Most areas within earth’s ocean basins are underlain by basalt. Although basalt is much less common on continents, lava flows & flood basalts underlie several percent of earth’s land surface. Basalt is a very important rock. Uses : Basalt is used for a wide variety of purpose. It is most commonly crushed for use as an aggregate in construction projects.
  20. 20. • Crushed basalt is used for road base, concrete aggregate, asphalt pavement aggregate, railroad basalt, filter stone in drain fields & many other purposes. • Basalt is also cut into dimension stone. Thin slabs of basalt are cut & sometimes polished for use as floor tiles, building veneer, monuments & other stone objects.
  21. 21. Advantages: Disadvantages:  Strong & durable, i.e long life spam.  Minimal maintenance required easy maintenance activities.  Relatively slow construction process depending on the availability of stone breakers.
  22. 22. Artificial Stones or Man Made stones  Man made stones are derived of unnatural mixtures such as resin or cement with the additive of stone chips. 1. Terrazzo : Marble & granite chips embedded in a cement composition. 2. Agglomerate or Conglomerate : Marble chips embedded in a colored resin composition . 3. Cultured or faux marble : A mix of resins that are painted or mixed with a paint to look like marble.
  23. 23. Faux marble Cultured marble Terrazzo Terrazzo pots Conglomerate marble Agglomerate marble Terrazzo texture tiles
  24. 24. THANK YOU

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