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What is rock ?
Rock is a natural occurring solid aggregate of one or
more minerals or mineraloids . For example, the
common rock granite is a combination of quartz,
feldspar & boitite minerals . The earth’s outer solid
layer lithosphere, is made of rock.
Rocks have been used by mankind throughout history
. From the stone age rocks have been used for tools .
The minerals & metals found in rocks have been
essential to human civilization.
three major groups of rocks are defined as
Igneous rock .
Sedimentary rock &
Metamorphic rocks .
The scientific study of rocks is called as petrology ,
which is an essential component of geology.
WHAT IS NATURAL
Natural stone is not manufactured, it is a product of
nature. Blocks are removed from the quarry, slabs are
cut from these blocks & the slabs are further fabricated
into the final stone to be installed.
Types of natural stones are :
Granite, marble, limestone, travertine, slate, basalt, quartzite, sandstone.
Granite : Granite is a igneous rock.
This is one of the most versatile of all the natural stone because of its high
level density & resistance to bacteria & stains.
It doesn’t react to acidic foods, thus its very suitable for kitchen countertops
or any other exterior applications.
Uses : construction – granite is used as dimension stone.
Interiors – polished granite is used in flooring tiles, stair treads, kitchen
countertops & many other decorative features.
Exteriors – rough cut granite is used in buildings, bridges, paving,
monuments & in other exterior projects.
Advantages : Disadvantages :
Granite flooring is hard,
durable & long lasting.
Granite can be easily
It is available in wide
range of colours &
It is hypoallergenic,
allergen & bacterial
Extremely resistant to
water n moisture.
Expensive than other
It can feel hard & cold
Needs regular cleaning.
Marble is a metamorphic rock.
Any crystalline carbonate rock that has an ability to
accept a polish is called marble.
Marble is not a very hard natural stone.
Uses : construction – marble is used as window sills,
fireplace, bathroom floors, wall covering & many other
decorative foyers for residential & commercial
Most marble is made into either crushed stone or
Crushed stone is used as aggregate in highways,
railroad beds, building foundations & in other types of
Dimension stone is produced by sawing marble into
Advantages : Disadvantages :
Combines well with
ceramic n wood
Easy to clean &
It stains easily.
Very cold during the
Limestone is a sedimentary rock.
It is one of the abundant stone mostly used in building
construction. Since limestone is comparatively softer than
other natural stone.
It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine
waters. It can also be a chemical sedimentary rock formed
by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or
Crushed stone – most limestone is made into crushed
stone & used as a construction material, It is used as a
crushed stone for road base & railroad ballast & it is also
used as an aggregate in concrete.
• Dimension stone – dimension stone is often cut into
blocks & slabs of specific dimensions for use in
construction & in architecture. It is used for facing stone,
floor tiles, stair treads, window sills etc.
• It is used in manufacturing cement, printing plates.
• powered limestone is used as a filler in paper, paint,
rubber, plastics, tiles, toothpaste & in other materials as
both white pigment & a cheap filler.
• Strong & durable.
• A natural & elegant
• Low on maintenance.
• Installation is complex.
• Extremely slippery
• Cold & hard both in
appearance & touch
This also falls under limestone category
& is one of the most popular natural stone.
Travertine is mainly used in interior & exterior walls,
including fireplaces, floors, mosaic tiles etc.
The largest building is mostly constructed of travertine.
It can be polished to a smooth, shinny finish.
It comes in a variety of colors from grey to coral-red.
Travertine is most commonly available in tile sizes for floor
Travertine is one of the most frequently used stones in
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated,
homogeneous metamorphic rock
derived from an original shale-type
sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through
low-grade regional metamorphism.
• Slate is particularly used as a roofing material.
• Slate tiles are used for interiors & exterior flooring, stairs,
wall cladding & walkways.
• Slate can be set into the walls to provide a damp proof
• slate is extensively used for blackboards & writing slates.
Slate is fire resistance &
Slate is incredibly
durable & can last
several hundred years
with little or no
Wide ranges of colors.
Slate provides a long-
lasting weather - tight
roof with a life span
around 80-100 years.
Slate may develop
Slate flooring can be
slippery when used in
subjected to rain.
Quartzite is a hard, non-foliated
metamorphic rock which was
originally pure quartz sandstone. Sandstone is
converted into quartzite through heating & pressure
usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic
Quartzite is used for flooring, roofing tiles, wall cladding,
stair- steps & its use for countertops in kitchens is
Crushed quartzite is used for road construction.
Crushed quartzite is used as railway ballast.
It is harder & more
resistant to stains than
Available in unique
colors & patterns.
Easy to clean.
Non skid surface.
Heavier than granite.
Sandstone is a type of sedimentary rock
composed of sand-sized grains of mineral,
rock or organic material. It also contains a
cementing material that binds the sand grains
together & may contain a matrix of silt or
clay-size particles that occupy the spaces
between the sand grains.
• In the subsurface, sandstone often serves as an aquifer for
groundwater or as a reservoir for oil & natural gas.
• It is also been used for artistic purpose to create
ornamental fountains & statues.
• It is widely used around the world as a construction
material or as a raw material used in manufacturing
• Flooring – sandstone is used in paving, flooring, roofing.
• walls – sandstone binds with the cement & also durable. It
is hence used to build walls, pillar, landscaping products etc.
It is relatively soft.
Some sandstones are
resistant to weathering,
yet are easy to work.
Available in many
Allergen & bacteria
Stain & moisture
Basalt is a dark-colored, fine grained, igneous
rock . Basalt underlies more of earth’s surface
than any other rock type. Most areas within
earth’s ocean basins are underlain by basalt. Although
basalt is much less common on continents, lava flows
& flood basalts underlie several percent of earth’s
land surface. Basalt is a very important rock.
Uses : Basalt is used for a wide variety of
purpose. It is most commonly crushed for
use as an aggregate in construction
• Crushed basalt is used for road base, concrete
aggregate, asphalt pavement aggregate, railroad basalt,
filter stone in drain fields & many other purposes.
• Basalt is also cut into dimension stone. Thin slabs of
basalt are cut & sometimes polished for use as floor tiles,
building veneer, monuments & other stone objects.
Strong & durable, i.e
long life spam.
depending on the
availability of stone
Artificial Stones or
Man Made stones
Man made stones are derived of unnatural mixtures
such as resin or cement with the additive of stone
1. Terrazzo : Marble & granite chips embedded in a
2. Agglomerate or Conglomerate : Marble chips
embedded in a colored resin composition .
3. Cultured or faux marble : A mix of resins that are
painted or mixed with a paint to look like marble.