UNIFICATION OF GERMANYIn 1848, middle-class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the Germanconfederation into a nation state under an elected parliament.In Prussia, nation building acts were repressed by the combined forces of the monarchyand the military and were supported by the landowners (“Junkers”).Prussia took over the leadership of the movement for national unification.Prussia emerged victorious after fighting three wars over seven years against thecombined forces of Austria, Denmark and France and the process of unification ofGermany was completed.18th January 1871: The new German empire headed by the German Emperor KaiserWilliam I was declared in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.The unification of Germany established Prussian dominance in Europe.The New German Empire focused on modernizing the currency, banking, legal andjudicial systems.
OTTO VON BISMARCKThe chief aim of Bismarck of Germany was to make itorganized, safe and powerful. To achieve his aims he didnot resort to democratic means because he consideredthe democratic system useless. By his actions he provedthat he was an able statesman and a skilled diplomat ofhis time. He was a follower of Blood and Iron policy. Butbesides being militarist he was a clever diplomat. Beforemaking an attack on his enemy, he used to make himisolated and friendless and instead of becoming himselfan invader he used to provoke his enemy to make anattack on him. His diplomacy was full of bluff and power.
OTTO VON BISMARCKBismarck used to consider himself Prussian first and aGerman afterwards. He did not want to endanger theexistence of Prussia in the unification of Germany. Hewanted to incorporate the whole Germany into Prussia.He did not agree to those schemes for a union whichwould destroy the integrity of the Prussian kingdom.Bismarck was the most practical-minded politician.That is why he did not pay any attention towards theestablishment of the colonial empire. His politics was forGermany and Europe as well. He was never lost in distantvision like that of Talleyrand.
OTTO VON BISMARCKHis foreign policy can very well be defined in two wordsDivide and Rule. He could bring each of his enemies to hisknees by following this policy.He made France friendless and isolated in Europe, in orderto cripple her for ever so that she could never wage a waragainst Germany. But the militarist policy of Bismarckturned Germany into a militant nation which broughtdestructive consequences for her.
WILLIAM IWilliam I felt the necessity of the reorganization of Prussian army. Theorganization of the army was entirely based upon a law of 1814. Hewanted to increase the number of the soldiers and improve the qualityof army by providing them facility of training.Military service was made compulsory for every person of Prussia for aminimum period of three years. It was also decided that the number ofthe soldiers in the army of Prussia would be 4, 50,000.Sufficient funds were required to meet the expenses of the army andfor making it well equipped. But the Chamber of Deputies bitterlyopposed the military plan of the king. The liberals were in the majorityin the Chamber of Deputies.They wanted that the unification of Germany should be achievedthrough democratic and constitutional means, and not by blood andiron. On the other hand, William I had no faith in the constitutionalmeasures.
WILLIAM IThus, a bitter and prolonged controversy arose between the king andthe Chamber of Deputies. When the bill was presented before theChamber of Deputies, it was rejected. The king dissolved the Chamberand new elections were held. Unfortunately, the liberals again achievedthe majority.They again opposed the Army Reform Bill of the king. In this way, adeadlock followed between the Crown and the Chamber of Deputies.Now William I had three alternatives:(i) He should give up the idea of the reform of the army.(ii) He should dissolve the Parliament.(iii) He should resign from his post.Finally, he decided to abdicate the throne. It is said that he had writtenhis resignation and signed it, but at the very moment, he remembereda man, who could help the king in the times of trouble.
WILLIAM IWilliam I immediately called him and appointed him the Chancellor ofPrussia on September 23, 1862. He assured the king of carrying out thepolicies of his master against the consent of the Chamber of Deputies. Hedeclared:"I will rather perish with the king, than forsake your Majesty in the contestwith parliamentary government."
UNIFICATION OF ITALYA long history of political fragmentation was experienced in Italy.Italy during the middle of the nineteenth century•Was divided into seven states.•Only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.•The North was under Austrian Habsburgs. The centre was under Pope.•The South was under the Bourbon Kings of Spain. Italian language had varieties of dialects;therefore, it was not stable in its form.
UNIFICATION OF ITALYDuring the 1830sGiuseppe Mazzini formed a coherent program for uniting the Italian Republic.King Victor Emmanuel II from Sardinia-Piedmont to unify the Italian states.Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont, Count Cavour, led the movement for the unification ofItaly.1859: Sardinia-Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces. Largenumber of people under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the movement.1860: Sardinia-Piedmont‟s forces marched into south Italy and the Kingdom of the TwoScillies and drove out the Spanish rulers.1861: Victor Emanuel was declared as the king of united Italy and Rome was declared thecapital of Italy.
GIUSEPPE MAZZINI Giuseppe Mazzini was nicknamed The Beating Heart of Italy. He was an Italian politician, journalist and activist for the unification of Italy. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy.In place of the several separate states, many dominatedby foreign powers which existed until the 19th century.He also helped define the modern European movementfor popular democracy in a republican state. His faith indemocracy and his enthusiasm for a free Italy heinherited from his parents. At the age of twenty-two hejoined the secret society of the Carbonari, and was senton a mission to Tuscany, where he was entrapped andarrested. On his release, he set about the formation,among the Italian exiles in Marseilles, of the Society ofYoung Italy, which had for its aim the establishment of afree and united Italian republic.
GIUSEPPE MAZZINI His activities led to a decree for his banishment from France, but he succeeded in outwitting the spies of the Government and going on with his work. The conspiracy for a national rising planned by Young Italy was discovered, many of the leaders were executed, and Mazzini himself condemned to death.Almost at once, however, he resumed operations,working this time from Geneva; but another abortiveexpedition led to his expulsion from Switzerland. Hefound refuge, but at first hardly a livelihood, in London,where he continued his propaganda by means of his pen.He went back to Italy when the revolution of 1848 brokeout, and fought fiercely but in vain against the French,when they besieged Rome and ended the RomanRepublic in 1849.
GIUSEPPE MAZZINIDefeated and broken, he returned to England,where he remained till called to Italy by theinsurrection of 1857. He worked with Garibaldi forsome time; but the kingdom established underVictor Emmanuel by Cavour and Garibaldi was farfrom the ideal Italy for which Mazzini had striven.The last years of his life were spent mainly inLondon, but at the end he returned to Italy, wherehe died on March 10, 1872. Hardly has any ageseen a political martyr of a purer or nobler type.