Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pediatric sedation


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Pediatric sedation

  1. 1. Pediatric Procedural Sedation Ramin Nazari MD Pediatric Critical Care Fellow St. Christopher Hospital for Children July 2012
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  Preparation  “Tools for sedation of the Trade”  Sedation medications that you should know well and be familiar with  “The Right Tool for the Job”  Discuss the variable needs for procedural sedation  “Tricks of the Trade”  Some adjuncts and techniques that will make your job easier  Monitoring
  3. 3. You are preparing to sedate a 5-year-old girl for bone marrow aspiration. The child has suspected acute lymphoblastic leukemia. What information do you need to develop a safe plan for sedation of this child? Does this patient need sedation, analgesia, or both?  What agents can you use to achieve your goals safely? What monitoring does this child require before, during, and after the procedure?
  4. 4. Importance Studies have shown that children are less likely than adults to receive pain medications and sedation for similar painful procedures ◦ Children cannot fully understand the medical necessity for testing or therapeutics ◦ Children’s anxiety can heighten the discomfort ◦ Allows for control of behavior for the safe and successful completion of a procedure ◦ Parental, patient and physician satisfaction
  5. 5. Sedation vs. Analgesia  Sedation reduces the state of awareness. Many sedatives produce amnesia(Benzodiazepines, barbiturates)  Sedative agents have no analgesic effects  Analgesia reduces or eliminates the perception of pain and most have sedative effects.  Narcotics are primarily analgesics ◦ Morphine ◦ Fentanyl
  6. 6. Preparing for sedation Consent History Physical Exam
  7. 7. History AMPLE ◦ Allergies ◦ Medications ◦ Past history (focus on airway/cardiopulmonary reserve) ◦ Last meals ◦ Events (leading to the sedation)
  8. 8. Physical Exam  Airway  Risk of airway obstruction ◦ Large tongue ◦ Micrognathia (small lower jaw) ◦ Limited airway opening (Mallampati score) ◦ Severe obesity ◦ Excessive secretions ◦ Snoring ◦ Decreased airway protective reflexes
  9. 9. The Mallampati score The Mallampati score
  10. 10. Physical Exam  Breathing ◦ Evaluate breath sounds ◦ Work of breathing to ensure respiratory status is not compromised ◦ Baseline oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry.  Circulation ◦ Baseline heart rate ◦ Heart sounds ◦ Distal perfusion (skin temperature, color, and capillary refill.) Examine other organ systems if the patient’s history suggests potential problems
  11. 11. Fasting for sedation     Clear Liquids Breast Milk Formula/Light Solids Solid food 2 Hours 4 Hours 6 Hours 8 Hours
  12. 12. Sedation Spectrum  Minimal Sedation ◦ Patient responds appropriately to verbal commands ◦ Cognitive processing affected but no cardiopulmonary effects  Moderate Sedation ◦ Patient responds to verbal commands or with addition of mild stimulus ◦ Maintains airway and ventilation without required intervention  Deep Sedation ◦ Not easily aroused but responds purposefully with uncomfortable stimulus ◦ May require medical intervention to maintain an airway and ventilation  General Anesthesia ◦ Unable to be aroused with a verbal or painful stimulus ◦ Need help maintaining their airway
  13. 13. Indications for Pediatric Procedural Sedation  Diagnostic ◦ Urinary Catheterization ◦ Lumbar puncture ◦ Radiographic evaluation (CT or MRI) ◦ Joint aspiration ◦ Sexual assault examinations ◦ Eye examinations ◦ BM aspiration,biopsy ◦ Vascular access  Therapeutic ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ IV starts Laceration repair Abscess I+D Fracture Reductions Dislocations reduction Foreign body removal Burn dressings
  14. 14. The Search Continues…  The ideal sedation protocol: 1) Rapid induction and emergence 2) Provides anxiolysis, analgesia and amnesia 3) Sufficient control of movement to allow for ease of procedural completion 4) Maintain effective spontaneous ventilation and airway control 5) Complete Cardiopulmonary stability throughout 6) Minimal to no side effects
  15. 15. “Tools of the Trade”
  16. 16. Midazolam Short-acting agent with rapid onset of anxiolysis, sedative and amnestic properties ◦ Interacts with GABA receptors in the brain Dosage ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 0.2-0.6mg/kg intranasally 0.05-0.2mg/kg IV 0.1-0.2mg/kg IM 0.5-0.75mg/kg PO  Advantages ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Rapid onset Anxiolysis Profound retrograde amnesia No IV required  Disadvantages ◦ Does not provide analgesia ◦ Disturbance in respiratory function +/- hypoxemia ◦ Paradoxical reactions
  17. 17. Fentanyl Synthetic opiod which is narcotic of choice in PSA ◦ Rapid onset and short duration make it easy to titrate ◦ Does not cause histamine release so minimal CV effects Dosage ◦ 1-3mcg/kg IM or IV ◦ 10-20mcg/kg oral or transmucosal  Advantages ◦ Excellent analgesic ◦ Peak effect within 15-30mins ◦ Reversible with Naloxone  Disadvantages ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Nausea and vomiting Respiratory depression Hypotension No amnesia. Minimal sedation Fentanyl Rigid Chest
  18. 18. Fentanyl Rigid Chest Believed to be due to a central agonist effect of narcotics The pediatric population is more vulnerable to the syndrome ◦ Reported with doses from 2.5-6.5mcg/kg ◦ Fast injection should be avoided Treatment: Rapid neuromuscular blocking medication
  19. 19. Ketamine Dissociative agent ◦ Sedation, analgesia and amnesia are maintained ◦ Inhibits reuptake of catecholamines ◦ Stimulates salivary, tracheal and bronchial secretions Dosage ◦ 1-2mg/kg IV ◦ 2-5mg/kg IM ◦ 6-10mg/kg PO  Advantages ◦ Reliably produces potent analgesia, sedation and amnesia ◦ Hemodynamic stability ◦ Maintain airway reflexes  Disadvantages ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Emergence phenomenon Nausea and Vomiting Increased secretions Potentially serious respiratory complications
  20. 20. Propofol  Potent hypnotic agent with no analgesic properties ◦ Effects lipid membrane Na-channel function and Stimulates GABA ◦ Rapid onset, redistribution and elimination  Dosage ◦ 1-2mg/kg IV bolus then 50-200mcg/kg/ min  Advantages ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Rapid onset/offset Easily titratable Anti-emetic Bronchodilator  Disadvantages ◦ No analgesic properties ◦ Potent cardiopulmonary depressant ◦ Pain on injection ◦ Inadvertent oversedation
  21. 21. Propofol infusion syndrome
  22. 22. Propofol Infusion Syndrome Many case reports of fatalities ◦ High and escalating doses of propofol infusions ◦ Severe metabolic acidosis, lipidemia, rhabdo and refractory heart failure Associated with long-term infusions >48hrs in children <4yo Thought to be related to a mitochondrial defect Not an issue for brief ED sedation
  23. 23. Dexmedetomidine(Precedex)  α2-adrenergic agonist with  Advantages mild analgesic properties ◦ Minimal respiratory ◦ Similar to Clonidine but 8 X depression more selective for α2 ◦ Analgesic sparing ◦ Act on Locus Ceruleus in ◦ Induce less delirium the brain stem ◦ No need to stop for ◦ Decrease release of NE extubation from nerve terminals  Dosage  Disadvantages  ICU sedation ◦ No adequate & reliable ◦ Load: 1 mcg/kg IV over 10 amnesia minutes ◦ Hypotension (24-54%) ◦ Maintenance: 0.5-0.1 ◦ Bradycardia (5-14%) mcg/kg/hr IV ◦ Hyperglycemia ◦ ◦ Atrial Fibrilation
  24. 24. Pentobarbital  Short acting barbiturate  Sedative and hypnotic  Adjuvants, Anesthesia  Suppression of glutamatergic neurotransmission  Dose: ◦ IV: Initial 1 to 2 mg/kg ◦ Additional doses of 1 to 2 mg/kg every 3 to 5 minutes ◦ IV Maximum dose: 100 mg/dose  Advantages ◦ Short acting ◦ Sedative and hypnotic ◦ Decrease brain oxygen consumption and ICP  Disadvantages ◦ No anti-anxiety effect ◦ No analgesic properties ◦ Half life: 5-50Hours(dose dependent) ◦ Bradycardia and hypotension ◦ weak or shallow breathing
  25. 25. Etomidate Initially described for RSI in peds Rapid onset of sedation, brief half-life, short recovery period and minimal effects on cardiopulmonary systems Adverse effects ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Potential for adrenal suppression Pain at injection site Myoclonus Quickly and easily induce deep sedation and/or general anesthesia.
  26. 26. “The Right Tool for the Job”
  27. 27. The Right tool for the Job ♀ presents with 4day hx of fever, vomiting and flank pain PMHX – Healthy Temp 38.5, HR 121, RR 16, BP 84/56, Sat 98% RA Not toilet trained Wanting to do an in/out cath 28mth Nitrous Oxide  Midazolam  Fentanyl  Ketamine  Propofol  Sedation Spectrum: Minimal Sedation
  28. 28. The Right tool for the Job  Nitrous Oxide ♂ fell onto wooden post  Midazolam Extensive and complex facial  Fentanyl laceration requiring multilayer  Ketamine closure  Propofol PMHX – Asthma well Sedation controlled Spectrum: VSSA Deep sedtion 5yo
  29. 29. The Right tool for the Job ♂ playing soccer and collided with another player Immediate pain to R shoulder which is clinically consistent with anterior dislocation Very Anxious!!! PMHX – Healthy Normal Vital signs 15yo Nitrous Oxide  Midazolam  Fentanyl  Ketamine  Propofol  Sedation Spectrum: Moderate Sedation
  30. 30. The Right tool for the Job ♀ presents with patellar dislocation while playing softball Knee in “spasm” and patient extremely anxious with any attempts to examine or maneuver same PMHx – Healthy VSSA 7yo Nitrous Oxide  Midazolam  Fentanyl  Ketamine  Propofol  Sedation Spectrum: Minimal Sedation
  31. 31. The Right tool for the Job ♂ fell off the bed and refusing to walk Xray shows a displaced spiral tibial fracture PMHx – seizure disorder well controlled VSSA 3yo Nitrous Oxide  Midazolam  Fentanyl  Ketamine  Propofol  Sedation Spectrum: Deep Sedation
  32. 32. “Tricks of the Trade”
  33. 33. Ondansetron with Ketamine Sedation Vomiting in the ED and upon discharge after Ketamine sedation is common ◦ Reported frequency of vomiting ranges from 419% Increased vomiting associated with increasing patient age Vomiting ◦ Decreases patient and parental satisfaction ◦ Delays discharge and consumes ED resources
  34. 34. Pre-oxygenation with procedural sedation Published adverse event rates during pediatric ED procedural sedation vary between 2% and 18% Consistently the most common adverse event is transient hypoxia  Children’s basal oxygen use/kg is twice that of adults  Smaller FRC  Shorter “safe apnea” period before desaturation Transient hypoxia is predictably seen with propofol  Very common with Midazolam and Fentanyl  Less likely with Ketamine unless co-administration with other resp depressants
  35. 35. Adjunctive Atropine with Ketamine Sedation Ketamine stimulates oral secretions ◦ In rare circumstances this has been implicated in airway compromise1 Historically prophylactic anticholinergic agents have been given with ketamine to blunt hypersalivation  Glycopyrrolate 0.2mg  Atropine 0.02mg/kg
  36. 36. Adjunctive Atropine with Ketamine Sedation Omission of atropine is safe Routine prophylaxis is unnecessary There is minimal added risk presented with its administration Possible subsets of patients which may benefit  Very young children  Those undergoing oropharyngeal procedures
  37. 37. Monitoring & equipment Traditional monitoring ◦ Pulse oximetry = oxygenation ◦ RR and clinical observation = ventilation ◦ EKG monitoring ◦ BP  Capnography ◦ More precise and direct assessment of the patient’s ventilatory status ◦ Assessment of airway patency and respiratory pattern ◦ Early warning system for prehypoxic respiratory depression  Emergency code cart in immediate vicinity.  Oxygen delivery system including ventilation bag, appropriate sized masks, oxygen, wall suction equipment. 