Course: Engineering Geology (CVEE-215) Instructor: Prof. Hanafy Hlail Department: Civil & Environmental Engineering Term: Fall 2011/2012 Third Semester Project prepared by: - Farah Taleb - Jihad Hajar - Ziad Hamdi - Mohammad Dadoun
It’s a natural rock formation that is shaped like a tall breaking ocean wave. Age: More than 2.7 billion years old. Composition: Granite. Origin: Shaped by chemical weathering.Formation Process: “weathering occurred below ground level before it was exposed” Surface chemical weathering, Removal of soft weathered granite by fluvial erosion, Result: undercut base, with a round overhang.
Location: Uzbekistan, Darvaz. Name: The Door to Hell (according to locals) Formation process: 1. Geologists were drilling for gas (1971), 2. Underground cavern was found, 3. Cavern was very deep and filled with gas, 4. To avoid poisonous gas discharge, the cavern was burnt off, 5. Gas still burns 40 years later. Nobody knows how many tons of excellent gas has been burned for all those years but it just seems to be infinite there.
It’s an unusual geological formation, there are 1,776 hillsspread over an area of more than 50 square kilometers.They are covered in green grass that turns brown duringthe dry season, hence the name.The Chocolate Hills are made up of perfectly cone-shapedhills that are more or less the same size.How these hills form is not quite sure, one theory is thatan ancient active volcano self-destructed.
Antelope Canyon was formed by erosion,due to: 1. Flash flooding, 2. Other sub-aerial processes.Formation Process: 1. Passageways are eroded away, 2. Corridors becomes deeper, 3. Hard edges are smoothed, 4. Characteristic flowing shapes are formed in the rock. Rainwater plays a huge role in the formation of the canyon (it picks up sand as it rushes into the narrow passageways).
Definition: it’s an underwater sinkhole, also named vertical cave. Formation: 1. Its formed during ice ages (sea level was lower than at present) 2. Formations were subjected to the same erosion (rain, chemical weathering). Content: freshwater + saltwater. Origin: karst limestone which is formed before the rising of sea level.The deep blue color is caused by the hightransparency of water and brightwhite carbonate sand. Karst topography is a geologic formation shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone.
The Wave is a sandstone rock formation.We notice the original cross bedded dunes shaped into dramatic landforms andexposed by erosion from eons of runoff.Its formed by movement and precipitation of oxidizing materials such as iron andmanganese by ground water.The soft sandstone of The Wave is fragile,one needs to walk carefully to not break thesmall ridges.
Pamukkale means “ Cotton Castle” in TurkishFormation process:1. Flowing water left hot springs and travertine terraces of carbonate minerals,2. Water emerged from the spring is transported to the head of travertine terraces, in order to deposit the calcium carbonate,3. Water becomes supersaturated with calcium carbonate so, Carbone dioxide degasses from it,4. Precipitation continues until the carbon dioxide in the thermal water reaches equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,5. Calcium carbonate is deposited by the water as a soft jelly,6. Eventually the travertine is hardened. This reaction is affected by the weather conditions, ambient temperature, and the flow duration.
Its not entirely natural, (accidentally created during the drilling of a well in 1916).The well functioned normally for several decades, but:1. Geothermal heated water found a weak spot in the wall and escaped to the surface,2. Dissolved minerals started rising and piling up,3. Mount where geyser sits is created, which is still growing to date.4. Today, water is constantly squirting out reaching 5 feet (1.5 m) in the air. The geyser is made up of a series of different minerals, which gives it its magnificent coloration.
The area owes its remarkablegeology to layers of volcanic rocksand ash deposited by a volcanicexplosion.Over, time weathering anderosion of these layers has createdcanyons and tent rocks
It’s a geological formations left by wind erosion.Erosion over the millennia unearths the fossils as well as other geologicalformations such as a host of almost spherical concretions. The wind, haspounded the local bedrock for an age. Revealed, the boulders that mudstonein its original wet form, helped to form look as if giants have been playingmarbles.
Definition: it means rosy cloudDescription: it’s a landform formed fromreddish sandstone and characterized by steepcliffsFormation causes:1. Endogenous forces (uplift),2. Exogenous forces (weathering, erosion).
Definition: Sailing stones refer to geological phenomenon where rocks move in long tracks along a smooth valley floor without human or animal interventionA balance of specific conditions are thought tobe needed for stones to move:1. A saturated yet non-flooded surface,2. A thin layer of clay,3. Very strong gusts as initiating force,4. Strong sustained wind to keep stones going The stones move only every two or three years. Stones with rough bottoms leave straight tracks. Stones sometimes turn over, exposing another edge to the ground and leaving a different track in the stones wake.
It is the largest dried salt lake (formed by multiple layers of saltand water)When it rains, Salar de Uyuni sinking and looks like a hugemirror.Origin: Sequential transformation between several vast lakes, It is covered with a solid salt crust having a variable thickness. The center of the Salar contains a few "islands", which are the remains of the tops of ancient volcanoes.
This structure is a deeply eroded. The carbonated rocks have been dated as having cooled between 94 to 104 million years ago. Because of its high circularity, it was interpreted as an asteroid impact structure, but its now believed that it’s a symmetrical and deeply eroded geological dome.More recent studies, concluded thatcarbonates within the silica-rich mega brecciaswere created by low-temperaturehydrothermal waters. The structure requires special protection and further investigation about its origin.