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Earthquake azra qaseem

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Earthquake Azra qaseem
M.sc Final (Environmental science)
KNIPSS Sultanpur up

Published in: Environment
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Earthquake azra qaseem

  1. 1. EARTHQUAKE Azra Qaseem Student of M.Sc.(final year) Department of Environmental Sciences Kamla Nehru Institute of Physical and Social Sciences, Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh.
  2. 2. Content • Earthquake • Terminology • Cause of Earthquake • Measuring of Earthquake • Classification of Earthquake • Effect of Earthquake • Prediction of Earthquake • Mitigation • Management of Earthquake • Conclusion
  3. 3. Earthquake • The vibration in Earth crust with sudden release of energy with displacement of mass due to strain at faults by virtue of gravity is known as earthquake. • An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes may manifest themselves by a shaking or displacement of the ground and sometimes tsunamis, which may lead to loss of life and destruction of property. • Earthquakes may occur naturally or as a result of human activities. In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event— whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans—that generates seismic waves.
  4. 4. Terminology • Focus: The plane or point of origin of an earth quake below the surface of the earth is terminal as its hypocenter or focus or point of origin. • Epicenter: The point or place on the surface vertically above the focus of a particular earthquake is termed as its epicenter. • Seismic wave: The energy release from the focus is travels in the form of elastic waves at different periodical intervals is known as seismic waves. It is of three different types: WAVES P-WAVES S- Waves L- Waves
  5. 5. P-Waves/ Primary waves • These are the high speed seismic wave, which move in straight line sound wave. The speed of these waves are maximum in solid. Vp = √ λ+2µ/ρ λ and µ= elastic constant ρ= density
  6. 6. P-Waves
  7. 7. S- Wave / Secondary waves / Transverse wave • The nature of these waves resemble with water and light waves. These waves passes at perpendicular from the direction of particles movement. Vs = √ µ/ρ µ= elastic constant ρ= density
  8. 8. S- Wave
  9. 9. L- Waves/Longitudinal waves/ surface waves • These waves more slowly near the surface layers of earth. In character, these waves are of two types.
  10. 10. Movement of Tectonic Plates Volcanic Activity Cosmic Activity Fracturing and Faulting (Mega-thrust)
  11. 11.  Injection & Extraction of fluids  Nuclear testing  Deep Mining  Large dam reservoirs
  12. 12. Boundaries and Movements
  13. 13. Global Distribution of Plate Tectonic
  14. 14. Measuring of Earthquake • There are two different ways to measure the intensity of earthquake: Mercalli intensity scale Richter Magnitude Scale
  15. 15. Richter Magnitude Scale
  16. 16. Richter Magnitude Scale
  17. 17. Earthquake classification Magnitude Range Number of Earthquake per Year Great ≥8 1 Major 7-7.9 18 Strong 6-6.9 120 Moderate 5-5.9 800 Light 4-4.9 6,200 Minor 3-3.9 49,000 Tremors 2-2.9 3,00,000
  18. 18. Magnitude What Controls the Level of Shaking? The more energy released, the greater potential for damage, regardless of all other factors (and greater areal extent). Distance Shaking decays with distance Local soils and bedrock geology Soil characteristics may amplify the shaking. (seasonal climatic variations can impact this) Complex geology tends to dampen waves FACTORS EFFECTING THE DESTRUCTIVENESS OF AN EARTHQUAKE Building codes and materials
  19. 19. Damage to human structures Damages to the towns and cities Loss of human lives and property Deformation of ground surface Fires Landslide Flash flood Tsunami
  20. 20. 18 September 2011, 6.9 magnitude, killing about 118 people  10 August 2009, 7.7 magnitude, 26 killed 26 December 2004, 9.3 magnitude, 283,106 killed 26 January 2001, 7.6 magnitude, 20,000 killed September 30, 1993, 6.4 magnitude, Over 20,000 people were killed,
  21. 21. BHUJ EARTHQUAKE OF 26 JANUARY 2001 IN GUJRAT Magnitude - 7.6 Death - 19,727 Injured - 166,000 Left Homeless - 600,000 Destroyed House – 348,000 Damaged - 844,000 The Indian state department estimates that the earthquake affected directly or indirectly 15.9 million people out of a total population of 37.8 millions. More than 20,000 cattle are reported killed.
  22. 22. 26 December 2004 9.1–9.3 magnitude 280,000 deaths Affected areas - Indonesia , Sri Lanka, India (mostly in Tamil Nadu), Thailand, Maldives, Somalia
  23. 23.  8 October 2005, 7.6 magnitude, 100,000 died,  138,000 injured,  3.5 million displaced  Areas affected - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan
  24. 24. 11 March 2011 , 9.0 magnitude, Duration-6 minutes 15,889 deaths, 6,152 injured, 2,609 people missing
  25. 25. NEPAL EARTH QUAKE 25 APRIL 2015 • Time= 11:56:26 Depth= 8.2 km Magnitude= 7.8 Affected Countries= India, China, Bangladesh Casualties =8,857 dead in Nepal and 9,018 total death 21,952 injured
  26. 26. Prediction of Earthquakes New technology introduced regarding predication of earthquake: 1 – Thermal Infra Red Satellite Data 2 – Analysis of ULF/ VLF Electromagnetic signal (ULF= Ultra Low Frequency / VLF= Very Low Frequency) 3 – Change in Magnetic properties of rocks 4 – Concentration of Radio Active gases in ground water (Radon) 5 – Change in electrical sensitivity of the earth 6 – Advance assessment of anomalous behavior of animals (Snakes, Cats, Dogs, Birds, Fishes, etc. )
  27. 27. Mitigation You can’t stop an earthquake. But you can lessen the effects of that earthquake: • Making pentagonal houses • If you are indoors, stay there. Get under a table or a desk. If you don’t have a table to hide under, drop to the floor in a sitting position and cover your head • Stay away from windows , the glass may shatter and cut you • Use steel rod in the place of iron rod in building material
  28. 28. MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKE • Risk assessment and analysis of earthquake hazards • Preparation of earthquake vulnerability and risk zones maps • Prediction of occurrence of earthquakes • Earthquake disaster preparedness exercises • Search and rescue operation exercises • Relief operation after the occurrence of earthquake disaster • Recovery of disaster- affected people from mental, economics and social problems • Rehabilitations of displaced peoples, etc.
  29. 29. The earthquake cause more damage and kill people include deformation of ground surface ,damage and destruction of human structure such as buildings rails, roads,bridges,dams,factories,destruction of town and cities,loss of human and animal lives and property,voilent fires,landslides,floods,disturbance in groundwater etc. Thus,we can say that earthquake disaster is very dangerous for all living beings. CONCLUSION
  30. 30. Uploaded By:- Ramesh pandey Email- rameshpandey208@gmail.com

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