Building Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes in Nepal

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Provides description of several water schemes and the measures which will make the scheme sustainable is discussed.

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Building Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes in Nepal

  1. 1. Communiitty Impllementted WASH Schemes HiighlliighttsCommun y Imp emen ed WASH Schemes H gh gh sWA Towards Long-tterm Susttaiinabiilliitty Towards Long- erm Sus a nab y Soutth Asiia Regiion WASH Conference Sou h As a Reg on WASH Conference Orrganiized by Worrlld Bank Nepall iin Parrttnerrshiip wiitth AUSAIID O gan zed by Wo d Bank Nepa n Pa ne sh p w h AUSA D Octtoberr 10--12,, 2012 Oc obe 10 12 2012 Documentttatttiion Documen a io n Documen a on Ramessh Kumarr Sharrma Ramesh Kumar Sharm a Rame h Kuma Sha ma Regiiionalll Managerr Reg o na Manager Reg ona Manage RWSSFDB RWSSFDB RWSSFDB rrameeshksshaarmaa@gmaaiill.ccom raamesshksh arrma@ gmail..co m m hk h m @g m om 9841278544 9841278544 9841278544
  2. 2. Preface:The three day South Asia Regional Conference on Rural Water Supply and Sanitation was organized by theWorld Bank in partnership with AusAid. Around 80 high level officials from Afghanistan, Bangladesh,Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka as well as experts and practitioners from Brazil, Vietnam,Netherlands and the United States of America are participating in the conference. They shared their viewsand insights on critical issues like the long term sustainability of rural water supply schemes, increasingaccess to sanitation, challenges of declining water quality and quantity, monitoring and evaluation andpublic-private partnership in rural water supply & sanitation.The delegates of the conference visited four schemes of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation FundDevelopment Board Nepal. RWSSFDB concluded the Second program on August 2012. Rural WaterSupply and Sanitation Fund Development Board altogether under first and second project helpedcommunity to develop 2365 functioning WASH schemes which provided 299547 house hold with 1840892population access to safe water, toilet facility and income generation program for self sustainability .Planning, implementation and operation was taken by community where NGO would facilitate them andthird party service agency provided impartial monitoring and evaluation inputs. The Board at back seat actedto capacitate the partners, stakeholders and provided fund for community demand driven schemes. Theschemes implemented by communities reflected sustainability rate as high as 85 to 92 percent in differentbatches as found in the reports of sustainability studies. Kishore Thapa, Secretary at the Ministry of Urban Development, Janak Raj Shah, Honourable Member of the National Planning Commission, Caroline Mills of AusAIDThis document includes schemes visited by conference participants and one scheme in Palpa Inauguratedby Minister Top Bahadur Raymajhi in different occasion. Along with my Portfolio Managers team of Centraland Western Region, I had the great opportunity to contract, supervise these programs for successfulimplementation. I hope researcher, planners, students and sector experts will find this report useful. We areopen to exchange knowledge which may help to achieve MDGs with fast track and sustainable approach.Thanks
  3. 3. Rural Water Supply and sanitation Fund Development Board Community Managed Water Sanitation and Hygiene Schemes Name of Scheme: Karkigaun Type of Scheme: Gravity Village: Karkigaun1. About the Village: The Karkigaun Village is situated in Mahendrajyoti VDC, WN 8 and 9, whichis 28 Km distance from capital city kathmandu.2. Population: Present population of the village 391. Household residing in this village 723. Previous Water Supply System: The House hold spent 3.63 hours daily to fetch water fromlocal polluted sources. The hill terrain made it extremely laborious and difficult to porter water evenfor a short distance. The water was scarce and unsafe.4. Community Demanded: The village people were in contact with local NGO Nepal Red CrossSociety Kavre. This NGO was now in partnership with RWSSFDB. The local people placeddemand to the NGO to affiliate and work to implement Water Sanitation and Hygiene scheme inpartnership with this Board. They had already discussed in their village and all agreed to collect2.5% fund for Non Local material purse. They were also agreed to start an operation fund accountwith initial 3% amount deposit and monthly contribution. Unskilled labour contribution part was alsoagreed by the villagers.5. Salient Features Development Phase started on 4/5/2004 and completed on 14/1/2005. TheDevelopment phase 9 month was NRs 209,252.00. Implementation phase tripartite contract wassigned on 4/5/2005 and work completed on 11/2/2006. Under this contract Karkitar communitycontributed NRs 9101.70 in cash and NRs 224740.30 in kind contribution. The RWSSFDBprovided a fund of NRs 635005.00 in the implementation phase 9 month contract. The DDC, VDC
  4. 4. provided all moral support and the Service Agency HEARD was there for third party monitoringevaluation. Secretariat Portfolio Manager and other divisional staffs provided related needed input.6. Institutional and Organizational Structure of the Schemes:The community comprise of 72 house hold with Brahmin, Chhetri, Dalit and Janajati ethenicgroups. Water and Sanitation User Committee comprise 5 female and 4 male members.WSUC/WSUG both were found aware regarding their project related activities and found fulfill ofeach criteria and requirement made by RWSSFDB. For example WSUC formation, training, WSUGregistration, participation on CAP formation processes, O&M fund collection in WSUG bank, JointA/C opened and cash collection agreed to collect required local materials and to procure non localmaterials and other different scheme related activities.Seven personnel from NGO which include Team leader, Engineer, Technical Supervisor,Accountant, Community Technician and Mobiliser provided staff input at intermittent and as wholetime ground staff.Community maintained staffs are Village maintenance Worker and Village Health promoter.The VMW actively involved in the scheme in regular basis. Salary of VMWs was 700/month. Allthe training was conducted as prescribed in manual of FB.There is one Women Technical Support Service, income generating group of 58 women members.They have NRs 18700 cash amount which includes NRs 10000 support from Board.7. Design FeatureThe simple gravity scheme serves the entire community with 12 numbers of Public tap stands. Anyhouse can fetch water now within ten minute time as designed in this project. The environmentalplanning helps community to maintain rainy season risk protection and water quality managementin the source.8. Technical ParameterThe scheme consists one well fenced intake in Thulo Kholsa , spring fed stream with 0.38 liter persecond discharge in dry season. There are two fenced Reservoir Tanks of 4 and 5 cubic meter tostore water for continuous supply. Wash outs are installed line to clear the pipe from any turbidityor fine particle intrusion especially in rainy season. Transmission line of 1163 and distributionline of 1612.76 meter Polythine pipeline completes the supply chain.9. Financial ParameterThe scheme is originally designed as continuous supply. The house holds in community pay justmonthly NRs….per household to receive year round water. The new house construction andpopulation migrant and increase in per capita lpcd demand changes the pattern of water use andwastage control.10. Social ParameterThe people now get relief from hardship of water portaging each day for 3.63 hour. Sanitationcondition in the village is improved in personal, household and environmental sphere. This hashelped in hygiene value gain.
  5. 5. 11. Operational and Maintenance Structure:Operation and maintenance is well organized in this scheme by the Water and Sanitation usergroup and committee. The initial fund in operation account was NRs 73181.56 in which theystrive to add yearly NRs 27225.66. One Village maintenance worker provides technicalsupport. He gets paid by the community NRs 700 per month. The twelve number of mother andchild tap stand group work together for sanitation and operational support. The Village healthpromoter is involved in sanitation and hygiene matter as goodwill worker. Community staffs, WSUCand users have received various training during program. Interaction in this community reveals thatthere has been tremendous benefit on income generation work from time save and improvement inhealth and sanitation status after implementation of this program. Everyone is very happy feelingownership and having a sustainable arrangement for this scheme.12. Challenges • To meet the growing water lpcd demand due to income related use of water • High maintenance of water quality in rainy season13. Result • Water for health and life • Empowerment of community • Improvement in life status • Improvements in income using time save and waste water.14. Few pictures
  6. 6. Rural Water Supply and sanitation Fund Development Board Community Managed Water Sanitation and Hygiene Schemes Name of Scheme: Dandagaun Type of Scheme: Gravity Village: Dandagaun1. About the Village: Dandagaun Water Supply & Sanitation Scheme is located at ward no.6 & 7of Balthali VDC in Kavre district. This scheme is at 40 Km distance from capital city Katmandu.2. Population: There are 85 house hold and 465 populations. The community is homogenousbackground with all Tamang people.3. Previous Water Supply System: The community was facing hardship for water and related tothis health sanitation status was very poor in their village. Previous water Supply: Local danglingpipe supplied water to limited points. No structures were there to organize supply system andmaintain water quality. Mostly the water was turbid and polluted. Each Household spent 4.5 hoursdaily to collect water for personal and household use. The average water consumption was found5.79 liter per person per day due to inadequacy.4. Community Demanded: Local NGO Primary Health Care Center (PPUK) was involved in thiscommunity with CARITAS program. Women groups were formed here and they placed demand toPPUK for water supply program from RWSSFDB. RWSSFDB accepted this project as it was foundfeasible in technical, social and economical criteria. The Scheme is completed on March 24, 2010.The Scheme has Insurance with NLG. Company.
  7. 7. View of village trail5. Salient Features The Development phase 9 month was NRs 209,252.00. Implementation phasework completed on 26 March 2010. Under this contract Dandagaun community contributed NRs18668.90in cash and NRs 273569.90 in kind contribution. The RWSSFDB provided a fund ofNRs 1210217.10 in the implementation phase 10 month contract. The DDC, VDC provided allmoral support and the Service Agency ERMC was there for third party monitoring evaluation. Allunits of RWSSFDB provided support to the Portfolio Manager and Regional Manager tosuccessfully complete this scheme. Implementation Orientation and Tripartite contract signing6. Institutional and Organizational Structure of the Schemes:Wellbeing Ranking: Household identified as very poor are 25 with 102 no of populationsWUC Members: Total: 11 members which include female: 4 male: 7. No of Mother Child Tap StandGroups are 11
  8. 8. Sanitation: Development Phase NRs 20400 + Imp. Phase NRs.11600 SRLF Funding wasprovided. Latrines built by Sanitation Revolving Fund (SRLF) 32 and by Self help 46 toilets build.In 85 HH 78 HH constructed sealed type toilets. The remaining HH do not have land adjacent tohouse and build toilets away in the farm land.Sanitary Units: in the village there are 31 Garbage pits.Community Cash Contribution Capital Cash NRs.18,668.90 and O&&M Fund Rs.58000.00Bank A/C: WSUC has saving account in Nepal investment Bank, Banepa.VHP Female Village Health Promoter 1, Ms Muna LamaMothers were taught to prepare Oral Dehydration solution and Super FlourVillage Maintenance Worker Mr. Lal Bahadur Lama, Kaji Man TamangWTSS No of Women Technical Support Service Groups (WTSS) : 1 Total Member: 52Group Collection: NRs 10062 Fund Board Grant NRs 10000.00Non formal education: Two NFE was conducted in Development phase. Total 50 females wereenrolled. Most of them can read and write their name. The ladies were less confident to go tohospital by themselves when children were ill, may go to faith healer if they don’t have companion,now they are confident and go to hospital by themselves. Many house have labour employs inforeign. When remittance money was send , they would need some literate companion to go tobank now they can deal this things independently.Contribution to Improve Electricity in the Village: The village had very low volt intermittent electricitysupply. The villagers needed one transformer which would cost about NRs 200000.00 and as theycould not get it from NEA, the only option was to buy the equipment by them. They rose moneyfrom themselves had little support from VDC but money was not sufficient. They had NRs51000.00 in the WSUG Operation and Maintenance bank account. They decided to use NRs7000.00 from this fund and were able to improve the electricity line in the village in 2068 Baisakhmonth.JAGARAN SAMITI: Under piloting of Social Accountability program, seven members JagaranCommittee was active at the time of scheme implementation. They played proactive role to timelycollect the 5.5 percent cash contribution from community which helped to timely contract theimplementation phase. In fact well being ranking identified 25 HHs very poor and they brought NRs50000.00 from VDC which helped in this cost matching and improving the O&M balance. In postimplementation phase they were active and brought resources from District Agricultural office andVDC and helped the villagers to improve local existing irrigation system.Jivika Program: The scheme was piloting area of also Jivika (Livelyhood) program. The old WTSS51 members had NRs 30000.00 fund which was utilized in IG activities. Later Jivika group wasformed here. The group received Accounting training from FB Jivika Service Agency CEPRED.Bank account was opened in Banijya Bank. The group however affiliated themselves with localBalathali Saving and Credit Sahakari sastha, Cooperative. Forty members received Nrs tenthousand amount as loan for six months and in next term 25 members received NRs Thirty
  9. 9. thousand each. They could go for higher level of IG activity like Buffallow keeping, Goat keeping,Poultry or in large scale tomato and potato farming. The water program was an entry point whichultimately with Jivika program was effective in poverty alleviation or sustainable livelihooddevelopment in this society. That’s how the community has perceived the Fund board Program.7. Trainings: Support Organization Staff trained community on:1. WSUC training on Leadership (4 days) for12 Male and 4 Female participants2. WSUC treasurer training (4 days) for 4 Male 1 Female participants3. WSUC training on EMAP (3 days) for 7 Male 4 Female participants4. Village health Promoter training (4 days) for 1 Female participant.5. Post implementation Phase O&M Training (4 days) for12 Male and 4 Female participants8. Design FeatureThe simple gravity scheme serves the entire community with 11 numbers of Public tap stands. Anyhouse can fetch water now within ten minute time as designed in this project. The environmentalplanning helps community to maintain rainy season risk protection and water quality managementin the source.9. Technical ParameterThe Scheme has Intake-2, Sedimentation Tank-1, Washout Valve Box-1. Ferro-cement ReservoirTank (RVT)-2(10m3, 1m3 capacity),Public Tap Stands-11,Transmission Pipe Line- 3611 m andDistribution Pipe Line-1674 m.10. Financial ParameterThe scheme is originally designed as continuous supply. The house holds in community pay justmonthly NRs 10 per household to receive year round water. The new house construction andpopulation migrant and increase in per capita lpcd demand changes the pattern of water use andwastage control.11. Social ParameterThe people now get relief from hardship of water portaging each day for 4.5 hour. Sanitationcondition in the village is improved in personal, household and environmental sphere. This hashelped in hygiene value gain.12. Operational and Maintenance Structure:Operation and maintenance is well organized in this scheme by the Water and Sanitation usergroup and committee. There is fund NRs 58000.00 in operation account in which they strive toadd some saving. Two Village maintenance workers Mr. Lal Bahadur Lama, Kaji Man Tamangprovide technical support. They gets paid by the community every month NR She 11 number ofmother and child tap stand group work together for sanitation and operational support. The Villagehealth promoter Ms Muna Lama is involved in sanitation and hygiene matter as goodwill worker.Community staffs, WSUC and users have received various training during program. Interaction inthis community reveals that there has been tremendous benefit on income generation work fromtime save and improvement in health and sanitation status after implementation of this program.Everyone is very happy feeling ownership and having a sustainable arrangement for this scheme.
  10. 10. 13. Challenges • To meet the growing water lpcd demand due to income related use of water • High maintenance of water quality in rainy season14. Result • 24 hour water supply • Water for health and life • Empowerment of community • Improvement in life status and livelihood • Improvements in income using time save and waste water. • Scheme insurance makes it sustainable • Jagaran program promoted social accountability • Jivika program supported in high scale income generation working.Location Map 10 Km Banepa Balthali 30 Km Katmandu
  11. 11. Rural Water Supply and sanitation Fund Development Board Community Managed Water Sanitation and Hygiene Schemes Name of Scheme: Sikharpur Type of Scheme: Gravity Village: Sikharpur Zero Minute Water Fetching Time Community1. About the Village: The SIkharpur Village is situated in Hokse VDC, WN 1 and 2, which is 73,Km distance from capital city Katmandu.2. Population: There are 134 Household and 782 population of the village.3. Previous Water Supply System: The House hold spent 4.3 hours daily to fetch water fromlocal polluted source. The water was so much little that in dry season even in mid night some ladywill be there collecting water from spoon to bowl and then to local bucket (Gagro). Most of theenmity in the village women was due to this fight to collect water.4. Community Demanded: The village people were in contact with local NGO ARSOW Nepal withoffice in Kavre. This NGO was partner of RWSSFDB. The local people placed demand to the NGO.They wanted to affiliate and work with RWSSFDB to implement Water Sanitation and Hygienescheme. They did not wanted again to share some public stand post but proposed for low costhouse hold Yard taps. They were agreed to pay 2.5% fund for Non Local material purse, 3% forOperation and maintenance. This community additionally paid the higher service charge for yardconnection. This was one of the first Yard Connection Piloting Scheme of the Central region andalso Fund Board or say Nepal.
  12. 12. 5. Salient Features Development Phase of 9 month was completed in the village. TheDevelopment Phase cost was NRs 315407.20. The tripartite implementation phase contract wassigned among the SO ARSOW-NEPAL, Shikharpur water and sanitation User’s Committee(WSUC) and the Board on Feb 27, 2009 and an amendment was carried on 15 June, 2010 due toprice rise of Non Local Materials. The scheme physically completed on Nov 28, 2010. The schemecomprises of mixed ethnicity with majority of Chhetri, Tamang, Newar and Dalit inhabitants. Totalpopulation served is 782 & design population is 1102. Design period of the scheme is 20 years.Community contributed NRs 649480.35 in cash including higher service charges and NRs538098.50in kind contribution. The RWSSFDB provided a fund of NRs 2843589.47 in theimplementation phase 9 month contract. The DDC, VDC provided all moral support and theService Agency ERMC was there for third party monitoring evaluation. The Scheme being YardConnection Piloting Scheme Prime input was drawn from Regional Manager. Secretariat PortfolioManager and other divisional staffs provided related needed input.Conference Delegates in interaction with villagers6. Institutional and Organizational Structure of the Schemes:WSUC information: The Water and Sanitation User’s Committee (WSUC) was formed with 13members including 4 female members. Selected WSUC Treasurer is Ms. Goma Adhikari. TheWSUG is registered legally. The WSUC is holding meetings regularly.Women Technical Support Service (WTSS) : One WTSS Group is formed in this scheme with total68 women members. WTSS fund of Rs 10000.00 is provided as grant to the group through WSUC.The group is meeting regularly once in a month and collecting Rs. 10 /member/month. Their groupsaving is Rs 38298. The fund is used in IG activities such as goat keeping, vegetable farming.Non Formal Education (NFE): Two NFE class was conducted in Development Phase. Total 50female were enrolled. Most of them can read and write their name.
  13. 13. Health and Sanitation Activities: The WSUC /Community have received Nrs.68000 from the boardas sanitation revolving loan fund (SRLF) for latrine construction promotion in two installments. TheWSUC is mobilizing this fund as loan for the construction of household latrines. All the householdsin the village have now permanent water sealed latrines. 92 HH constructed Latrines using SRLFfund and rest were constructed by self help. MCTGs imparted Hygiene and Sanitation Educationlesson to individual clusters. Village Health promoter (VHP) is Ms.Anjana Adhikari.SO Staff Mobilization: SO ARSOW, overall staff mobilization and involvement in the field duringimplementation & development phase were found to be satisfactory.EMAP: MCTGs clean tapstand post and uses waste water at their kitchen garden.7. Design FeatureShikharpur village is a Yard Connection Piloting Scheme. This is an innovative model to provideconnection to every house hold in the community. The challenge part of this model was to designand develop essentially low cost scheme and also impart knowledge to the community so that theycould be empowered socially, technically and institutionally to manage any such complex system.This is a successful outcome and new intervention in the rural water sector. This lift and gravityservices has provided each house, one Yard tap. Community spent their own cash to constructYard Taps in all 134 houses within the village clusters. Every one has one stand post women gathered just for rural photo session8. Technical ParameterThe scheme consists one well intake with 0.59 liter per second discharge in dry season. There isone sump well, two 16 & 14 cubic meter Reservoir Tanks, three section valves. This scheme has134 yard taps fitted with water meter. Transmission line of 1251 and distribution line of 9688 meterpart GI and mostly Polythine pipeline completes the supply chain of this scheme.There is one school with 25o number of student, one institutional Latrine with separate urinals forboys and girl is constructed from under this water program.
  14. 14. 9. Financial ParameterThe scheme is originally designed as continuous supply. There is electricity charge bill whichmakes the water little costly. The house holds in community pay just monthly minimum 7 unitcharge NRs 100 and above as the meter reading increase. All household have their own Yardstand post which provides year round water. This area is well known for vegetable production andsupply to Katmandu capital. The water fetching time saves and waste water is helped to improveon their income.10. Social ParameterThe people now get relief from hardship of water portaging each day for 4.3 hour. Sanitationcondition in the village is improved in personal, household and environmental sphere. This hashelped in hygiene value gain. The community has find relief from unimaginable hardship for water. My house, my toilet and my stand post11. Operational and Maintenance Structure:Operation Fund Status: The Community initially had NRs 78000.00 in operation maintenance fund.Now it is increased to NRs 320000.00. They pay monthly to the VMW and Village Health Promoterworks as volunteer. They monthly pay for the electricity as this is lift scheme. Due to this incrementin fund community have become very optimistic and now they plan to go into ‘Coo-operative’model.There are 134 yard connections in the community. The WSUC has selected one VillageMaintenance Workers (VMW) Mr. Dev Singh Tamang and Lekh Nath Gautam. The WSUGproposed the VMW Rs. 1500.00/month as remuneration. However one VMW is actively servicing
  15. 15. and they remunerate him NRs 5000 / month. They collect regular O and M fund based on meterreading. Minimum (7 units) pay NRs 100.00, and as per one unit increase cost increase by NRs 20/ additional unit.12. Challenges • Electricity is curtailed up to 12 hours in dry season this affects pump operation. • High requirement of maintenance due to civil, electrical and mechanical components. • In future the village will grow. Then it may need to purchase Generator and sometimes operating scheme in this way may cost high if electricity supply is not improved by the Government.13. Result • This community materialized first time in Nepal and South Asia low cost house hold connection as Yard Tap Model. • Being Vegetable supply source production could be increased in 3 more seasons within year utilizing waste water. • Community has come up in Cooperative Model with large fund in short duration. • Production of Business option and plan for income generation for the entire community. • The conventional terminology of water fetching time is changed first time in history for rural service as it comes to ZERO with Yard tap attached to house (Every house one connection with water at hands long distance).Few pictures Sikharpur Panchkhal WSSP Hokse 1, 2 43 KmWomen in Yard Stand post Banepa 30 Km KathmandWomen participation in cluster meeting
  16. 16. World Bank Country Director Ms. Tahseen Sayed visited this scheme with her team (in front with ladies), right The NGO Arsow-N chair myself and WSUC chairperson Villager’s felicitation for the Yard concept & Design
  17. 17. Rural Water Supply and sanitation Fund Development Board Community Managed Water Sanitation and Hygiene Schemes Name of Scheme: Gurupema Type of Scheme: Gravity Village: Gurupema We Had No Drinkable Water in Rainy Season1. About the Village: Gurupema Water Supply & Sanitation Scheme is located at ward no.6 ofKanpur Kalapani VDC in Kavrepalanchok district. The Scheme is 62 Km distance from capital citykathmandu.2. Population: There are 60 house hold and 349 indigenous populations.3. Previous Water Supply System:System; There was a piped irrigation Dasing Khola. People were compelled to use this water fordrinking and cooking purpose. However in rainy season this would get completely polluted and alsoupstream farmers used entire water. Hence there was no water or highly polluted water. EachHousehold spent 3.26 hours daily to fetch water for personal and household use. The averagewater consumption was found 6.33 liter per person per day due to inadequacy. There wastherefore diarrhea, decentry and other illness. Medical expenses were high for the villagers.4. Community Demanded: The community placed repeatedly demand for fund board program tothe local NGO Shanti Jana Aardarsha Sewa Kendra (SJAYC). However they have to wait for 4years. This may be due to NGO had only 3 scheme quota and there were other remote and muchhardship facing communities demand on line of prioritization. RWSSFDB accepted this project as itwas found feasible in technical, social and economical criteria.
  18. 18. All villagers were willing to collect 2.5% fund for Non Local material purchase. They were alsoagreed to start an operation fund account with initial 3% amount deposit and monthly contribution.Unskilled labour contribution part was also agreed by the villagers.5. Salient Features Development Phase started on 2066-4-1 and completed on 2066-11-29 TheDevelopment phase 9 month was NRs 368499.88. Implementation phase tripartite contract wassigned on 2067-4-14 and work completed on 2068-3-31 Under this contract Gurupema communitycontributed NRs 20,931.44 in cash and NRs 355,523.68 in kind contribution. The RWSSFDBprovided a fund of NRs 1301943.32 in the implementation phase 9 month contract. The DDC, VDCprovided well wishing support and the Service Agency ERMC was there for third party monitoringevaluation. Secretariat Portfolio Manager and other divisional staffs provided related needed input.6. Institutional and Organizational Structure of the Schemes:The community comprise of 60 house hold with Tamang Janajati ethnic group. Water andSanitation User Committee comprise 3 female and 6 male members. WSUC/WSUG both werefound aware regarding their project related activities and found fulfill of each criteria andrequirement made by RWSSFDB. For example WSUC formation, training, WSUG registration,participation on CAP formation processes, O&M fund collection in WSUG bank, Joint A/C openedand cash collection agreed to collect required local materials and to procure non local materialsand other different scheme related activities.Seven personnel from NGO which include Team leader, Engineer, Technical Supervisor,Accountant, Community Technician and Mobiliser provided staff input at intermittent and as wholetime ground staff.Community maintained staffs are Village maintenance Worker and Village Health promoter.The VMW actively involved in the scheme in regular basis. VMWs Mr. Dhan Dhoj Tamang andSingh Bahadur Tamang are paid from community on monthly basis to technically look after theoperation. All the training was conducted as prescribed in manual of FB. FIrst VMW looks after sixstand post sub scheme and other looks after the next sub scheme. NRs 50 is collected each monthfrom hhs. 64x50=NRs 3200 is monthly collection of which one VMW gets NRs 1000 and other NRs2200. VHP Pramila Lama is very active employed as volunteer.WTSS & Operation Maintenance Fund: There is one Women Technical Support Service, incomegenerating group of 52 women members. They have monthly group saving and NRs 10000 supportfrom Board to instigate IG activities. The community had 125000.00 amount in operation account inwhich they would get 7 % interest from the bank. They withdrew 120000.00 from bank and gaveWTSS group to utilize this amount in 15% interest. This enhancement in WTSS group fund broughtchange in the IG program modality. Now for Buffalo keeping, larger scale vegetable farming alsothe WTSS could provide loan to its members as much as NRs 20000.00. This helped to boostWTSS program and provide IG opportunities to village house holds. WTSS distributes this loancharging the same 15% interest.There is a social Accountability Committee. They use Score card to identify any weakness inprogram and achieve full Transparency. They also prepare for process audit to check timelyprogram delivery and adopt quality in service.
  19. 19. The scheme has WSUC Members: Total: 9, Female: 3 Male: 6 No of Mother Child Tap StandGroups 10.Support Organization Staff trained community on:1. WSUC training on Leadership (3 days) for 7 Male and 15 Female participants2. WSUC treasurer training (3 days) for 2 Male 3 Female 0 participants3. WSUC training on EMAP (3 days) for 7 Male 15 Female participants4. Village health Promoter training (3 days) for 2 Female participant.5. Teachers & Student HSE training (3 days) for 17 Female, 16 Male participant. VHP FemaleVillage Health Promoter 1, Ms Pramila Tamang. She gets a bag and training.Mothers were taught to prepare Oral Dehydration solution and Super Flour Village MaintenanceNon Formal Education: Development phase for No of participant: 23, Facilitator VHPMonthly regular meetings and annual meet is organized to streamline scheme operation.7. Design FeatureThe simple gravity scheme serves the entire community with 10 numbers of Public tap and 4number of private taps. These private stand post construction cost was completely bore by theowners. Any house can fetch water now within ten minute time as designed in this project. Theenvironmental planning helps community to maintain rainy season risk protection and water qualitymanagement in the source.8. Technical ParameterThe Scheme has Intake-2, Break Pressure Tank-0. Washout Valve Box – 2. Ferro-cementReservoir Tank (RVT)-2 (8 & 10 m3 capacity), Suspended Crossing-5, Anchor blocks-25, PublicTap Stands-10 public & 4 private, Transmission Pipe Line- 3366.70 m and Distribution Pipe Line-2021.80 m. Source Dharsing Khola spring Qs-2.45 lps & Dharsing 1 Qs-0.50 lps Spring9. Financial ParameterThe scheme is originally designed as continuous supply. The house holds in community pay justmonthly NRs 50 per hous ehold to receive year round water. Waste water proper utilization is anopportunity which the community is aware and tries to keep in practice. Water based incomegeneration opportunities enhanced after scheme implementation. Sanitation Revolving Loan fundprovided in Development Phase NRs 15000 and in Imp. Phase NRs.11000. Total latrine demandwas 50. All household has build toilet. Display board placed in open place informs all financial andscheme matters.10. Social ParameterThe people are now relieved from hardship of water portaging and save each day 3.26 hour time touse in productive works. Sanitation condition in the village is improved in personal, household andenvironmental sphere. This has helped in hygiene value gain.11. Operational and Maintenance Structure:Operation and maintenance is well organized in this scheme by the Water and Sanitation usergroup and committee. The initial fund in operation account was NRs 45300 which was laterincreased to NRS 125000.00. NRs 120000 is provided at 15% interest to WTSS groupinstead receiving 7% interest on this O&M fund from Bank. The ten number of mother and
  20. 20. child tap stand group work together for sanitation and operational support. The Village healthpromoter is involved in sanitation and hygiene matter as goodwill worker. Village MaintenanceWorker Mr. Dhan Dhoj Tamang and Singh Bahadur Tamang are trained, worked in constructionand are paid by the community on monthly basis. VMW gets tool box to repair maintain thescheme. Everyone is very happy feeling ownership and having a sustainable arrangement for thisscheme.12. Challenges • To meet the growing water lpcd demand due to income related use of water • High maintenance of water quality in rainy season • Strict control and monitoring to see if water is wasted • WSUC members monitor to continue sanitary activities at hh, cluster and stand post13. Result • 24 hour water supply • Access to Water for health and life • Empowerment of community • Improvement in life status • Improvements in income opportunities using time save and waste water. • 24 hour Water Supply • Keep your house clean, others have no choice but to follow motto is there in the community • Villagers under impression that Fund Board Program transformed their life.14. Few pictures 30 Km Gurupema WSSP Banepa 32 Km Katmandu
  21. 21. Rural Water Supply and sanitation Fund Development Board Community Managed Water Sanitation and Hygiene Schemes Name of Scheme: Manedanda Type of Scheme: Gravity Village: Manedanda Plan to Use Interest Amount of Community Developed Trust Fund for Water Scheme Sustainability1. About the Village: Manedanda Water Supply & Sanitation Scheme is located at ward no.4 & 5of Katunjebesi VDC in Kavre district. This scheme is at 65 Km distance from capital citykathmandu.2. Population: There are 102 house hold and 929 populations. The community is homogenousbackground with all Tamang 72 HH, Brahmin 18 Hhand Dalit 12 HH people.3. Previous Water Supply System: The village had a worn out nineteen years old pipe systemwhich had that time 10 water collecting stand posts and other 10 stand posts served next village.The system was worn out and then the source drastically dried. This was partly by nature andpartly piping of water by new houses clustered near by the source. They were in badly need ofimproved new water supply system4. Community Demanded: The community constructed school with help from District Educationoffice and self contribution. The CM of NGO SJAYC also helped NRs 25000.00 cash to furnish anddécor the new building office. At inaugural function the community placed heavy request for waterscheme to SJAYC from fund board. The school would also need institutional latrine and reliablewater supply, hence scheme came in process.5. Salient Features The Development phase 9 month contracted on 13/7/2011 with amount NRs316822.00. Implementation phase contracted on 13/6/2012 work is ongoing in this scheme. NRs
  22. 22. 35,068.77 in cash and NRs 983,595.02 in kind contribution received from the community. TheRWSSFDB provided a fund of NRs 1763766.65 in the implementation phase 10 month contract.The DDC, VDC provided all moral support and the Service Agency ERMC was there for third partymonitoring evaluation. All units of RWSSFDB provided support to the Portfolio Manager andRegional Manager to successfully complete this scheme. Worshiping Source before Intake Construction6. Institutional and Organizational Structure of the Schemes:Non formal education is from DEOSanitation: Households have slogan written [Fohor Malai- Garbage here] garbage dumping pits, 35% of households are having drying platforms to disinfect utensils. People are into habit of dailycleaning their house and monthly twice cleaning the trails and surroundings.Sanitation: Toilet building: RAMRO NGO was involved there in toilet building but many peoplepartly living for occupation in Kathmandu could not benefit from this program. This NGO wouldsupport to build Biogas toilets if the villagers were able to bring all required local material andcontribute some unskilled labor. 47 biogas toilets were constructed. However people opting for onlytoilet construction and absent hhs could take benefit of present Fund Board program. At presentonly 5 hhs remain to construct toilet after this the WSUG has prepared to declare the village a NoOpen Defecation Zone.Maya Lama works as Village Health Promotor in this village. Suku Maya Lama and GanaBahadur BK are involved in on site construction activities as future Village Maintenance Worker.Women Technical Support Service has 55 members and they have group saving of NRs 25000including ten thousand grant from Fund Board.Procurement Committee: This committee surveyed the entire local and Kathmandu market forquality material purchase. They successfully bargained and would receive in total about NRstwenty thousand discount on non local material purchase. This would be documented in minuteand reflected in social audit.
  23. 23. 7. Design FeatureThe scheme is designed for 20 years period. Design Feature: present source comes out from rockand in future no risk of tempering of this source. Single line distributes water through 19 stand postthat would make it intact system.8. Technical ParameterThe Scheme has Intake-1, Break Pressure Tank-4, SuspendedCrossing-2, Anchor block 12. Ferro-cement ReservoirTank (RVT)-1( 20m3, 1m3 capacity),Public Tap Stands-11,Transmission Pipe Line- 3936.4 m and Distribution Pipe Line-4813.9 m.9. Financial ParameterThe scheme is originally designed as continuous supply. Thehouse holds in community plan to make sufficient O&M amountwhich interest will be enough to pay the community staff.10. Social ParameterThe people are heavily involved in construction activities to complete the scheme. Intake andtransmission line works are complete. One school with 80 students is benefited with this program.11. Operational and Maintenance Structure:They are trying to develop a trust model for operation and maintenance. They were able to bringNRs 155000.00 from VDC they want to raise and add sufficient amount in this to make a goodoperation fund. They think even if they will make this sum NRs 200000.00, the interest of thisamount will be sufficient to pay to the VMW/VHP. This is very innovative thinking which comesfrom Manedanda Community to mechanize in automatic way a permanent sustainabilityarrangement for their water scheme.12. Challenges • There was some dispute while constructing intake in the source which was solved • Rainy season affected pace of construction13. Result • Planned to utilize waste water in kitchen gardening • One room in school being used as WSUC office [Teachers are on WSUC] • Pay VMW/VHP from interest amount of Operation fund • Declare the village NODZ after completion of toilet construction in 5 houses.
  24. 24. Few pictures Gurupema WSSP 30 Km Banepa 3 Km 32 Km Manedanda WSSP Kahmand
  25. 25. cfkm|]rf}/ %x/f vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ cfof]hgf kfNkfle/ tn kfgL %, v} s;f] u/L hfp+kfgL lagf lhGbuL nf} s;/L rnfp+ <kfNkf %x/f uf=lj=;= j*f g+= b"O{sf 101 #/w"/Lsf 547 hgtfn] u|fdL)fvfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ sf]if ljsf; ;ldltdf ;+:yf /]*f kfNkfnfO{ ;fy lnO{ PsHofb} las^ cfof]hgfsf] k|:tfj lnP/ cfPsf lyP . ;ldltn] ;fgf tyf ;lhn}lbuf] Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsg] cfof]hgfx?df ;xof]u ug]{ eP tfklg pQm e]usfhgtfsf] ;d:of x]b}{ ljz]if lg)F{osf ;fy cfof]hgf kfl/t u/]sf] lyof] . b}lgskfgLsf] nflu 4=5 #)^f ;do tyf >d nufgL ug]{ #/w"/Lx? xfn cfP/ lnkm^k|)ffnLåf/f s/La 392 dL= tn ulx/fO{df /x]sf] kfgL ufp+df psfnL la; #f^fdfkm{t ljt/)f u/L ;"ljwf lng ;Sg] ePsf %g . cfh;Dd k|lt JolQm 5 ln^/kfgLn] u"hf/f ug{ afWo hgtf ca 45 ln^/ k|lt JolQm kfgL pkef]u ug{kfpg] %g . of] kfgLn] lkpg, vfgf ksfpg / s/];faf/L /;fpg kfpg] x"+bf:jf:Yo tyf cfo cfh{g ug]{ yk cj;/ ldNg hfgfn] ufp+df xif{ / pd+usf]l;dfg} %}g .;ldltn] ?= 388,345.00 nufgL u/L gf} dlxgf;Dd kfNkfsf] /]*f ;+:yf dfkm{tklxnf ufp+df :jf:Yo ;/;kmfO{, Ifdtf clej[l$sf nflu y"k|} sfo{s|d tyftfnLdx? ;+rfng u/L ldlt ;]K^]j/ 15, 2012 df ljsf; r/)f ;DkGgu/fPsf] lyof] . o; s|ddf hDdf ?= 41,000.00 ;/;kmfO{ #"DtL C)f k|bfgul/Psf] lyof] / xfn 90 #/w"/Ldf rkL{ agL;s]sf] % . ufp+s} ;"idf kl/of/nfO{tfnLd lbO{ u|fdL)f :jf:Yo kl/rf/Lsfsf] eldsfdf /flvPsf] % . ufp+df jif{sf]b"O{k^s :jf:Yo #/ ;j]{If)f u/L ;d"bfon] cfkmgf] JolQmut, #/fo;L /jftfj/)fLo ;/;kmfO{ ;"wf/ ug{ lg/Gt/ kxn ub}{ /xG%g . lgdf{)F r/)Fdf;ldlt tkm{ af^ ? 2454327=76 pkef]Qfaf^ gub ? 26558.67 tyf ?580026=54 a/fa/sf] hg>dbfg Aoxf]l/Psf] xf] .o; vfg]kfgL cfof]hgfsf] k"/} /]vb]v pkef]Qmf tyf ;ldlt ldn]/ ub{%g . hDdf11 hgfsf] ;ldltdf 4 dlxnf klg %g . lj; cfdf wf/f ;dx % . ;d"bfon]dlxgfjf/L /sd ;+sng u/L afn g/l;+x /fodfemLnfO{ u|fdL)F dd{t ;+ef/sfo{stf{sf] ?kdf /fv]sf %g / ?= 2500.00 tna lbG%g . To:t} b"O{ txsf]lnkm^ k|)ffnL ;+rfng ug{ csf{ dd{t ;+ef/ sfo{stf{ eujtL yfdL klg sfo{/t%g / ?= 1500.00 kfl/>dLs x/]s dlxgf kfp+b%g . dlxnfx?sf] rf/cfodns ;dx % h;df hDdf 85 #/sf dlxnf cfj$ %g . ;dxsf] art?= 39,500 % eg] ;ldltn] ?= 10,000.00 cg"bfg pgLx?nfO{ lbPsf] % .
  26. 26. lzIffdf lk%*LPsf 25 dlxnfx?n] cgf}krf/Ls lzIffaf^ nfe lng] cj;/ klgoxL cfof]hgfsf] sfo{s|d dfkm{t kfPsf x"g .cfof]hgf b"O{ txsf] klDké k|)ffnLåf/f ;+rflnt % . o;df OG^]s 1, ;Dkj]n 1,km]/f] kfgL ;+sng ^of° - 16 / 14 So"=eL=_, wf/f ;fj{hlgs 20, d"xfgaf^kfOk 2=03 ls=dL= / ljt/)f kfOk 4=7 ls=dL= /x]sf] % .cfof]hgf lbuf] ?kdf ;+rfng ug{ k|To]s #/w"/Ln] dlxgfsf] ?= 160 p&fp+b%g .lxhf] kfgL eg{ hf+bf aRrf c+u]gfdf *(]sf], ;"Ts]l/ x? lrKn]/ ufu|f ;lxtn*bf , k]^sf] chGdf aRrf t"lxPsf] cflb cg]s b"v, lk*f %flt el/ af]s]/af+lr/x]sf dlxnf x?n], of] cfof]hgf nfO{ b]ptfsf] a/bfg, ceobfg ;Dem]sf %gcfkm} of]hgf agfO{, cfly{s vftf ;+rfng u/L, lgdf{)f ;DkGg ub}{ xfn :jo+d;+rfnssf] lhDd]jf/L ;Dd cfOk"u]sf ;Dk)f{ %x/f af;L hgtfnfO{ o;cfof]hgfsf] ;kmntfn] ux|f} xf};nf / cfTdzflQ k|bfg u/]sf] % .Preparation for welcoming Minister Top Bahadur Rayamajhi
  27. 27. Stand post ready for inauguration from Minister
  28. 28. Team Fund Board with minister Peace and Rehabilitation Mr Top Bahadur Raymajhi
  29. 29. Community Managed Lift Scheme (Electric Pumping)
  30. 30. Community at the inauguration day programCommunity at the ceremony dancing
  31. 31. Transformer for 3 Phase Electricity

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