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Kidney and urinary stone


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Kidney and urinary stone

  1. 1. Kidney and other Urinary Stones DEPARTMENT OF UROLOGY EDUCATION Production Team Dr. Abraham Benjamin - Manager Medical Informatics Mr. Naresh Kumar - Coordinator Medical Informatics
  2. 2. What are Kidney and other Urinary Stones ?  A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus (from the Latin renes, "kidneys" and calculus, "pebble") is a solid crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine.  It forms in the kidney but can escape and lodge itself in various parts of the Urinary Tract. Depending on its location in the urinary tract it is called by various names Kidney Stone, Ureteric Stone, Bladder Stone, Urethral Stone.
  3. 3. History Of Kidney and Urinary Stones  The existence of kidney stones was first recorded thousands of years ago.  In 1901, a stone discovered in the Kidney of an ancient Egyptian mummy and was dated back to 7,000BC.
  4. 4. Where do these kidney and Urinary stones occur?  About 80% of the kidney and Urinary stones occur in men.  Urinary stones commonly occur in the kidney , ureter and bladder.  The kidney stones have their origin in the kidneys and can move down from their point of origin.  They can get lodged in the Ureter which are called Ureteral stones.  The bladder in itself can form stones independently due to obstruction of urinary flow or without obstruction especially in children.
  5. 5. Why do kidney and Urinary stones form ?  Kidney and Urinary stones form when minerals in the urine crystallize, forming a "stone."  Some people form stones when their urine contains more crystal-forming substances, such as calcium and uric acid.  This can happen when urine is highly acid or highly alkaline.
  6. 6. What are the different type of Kidney and Urinary Stones? Kidney Stone type Occurrence in Population When do they form Calcium oxalate 80 % when urine is acidic (low pH) Calcium phosphate 0 % when urine is alkaline (high pH) Uric acid 5-10 % when urine is persistently acidic Struvite 10-15 % infections in the kidney Cystine 0 % rare genetic disorder Calcium stones Uric Acid stones Struvite Stones Cystine Stones
  7. 7. How do you know when a Stone is present?  The pain is most commonly felt in the flank area between the ribs and hip,lower abdomen, and groin.  It can be associated with nausea, vomiting, fever, blood in the urine, pus in the urine, and painful urination.  The pain typically comes in waves lasting for 20 to 60 minutes, beginning in the lower back and often radiating to the groin.
  8. 8. When do you require medical help for a stone?  If the stone remains small, it will pass through the urinary tract unnoticed.  But if it is large it can be very painful.  Urinary stones can range in size from a grain of sand to larger than a golf ball.  Most stones will pass on their own without any need for medical intervention.  But in some cases, such as if a stone blocks the flow of urine, damages kidney tissues, or is simply too large to pass on its own, the Patient should consult a Urologist.
  9. 9. How do we Diagnose Kidney and Urinary Stones?  Diagnosis of kidney and Urinary stones is made on the basis of information obtained from. • History. • Physical examination. • Urinalysis. • Imaging Studies.
  10. 10. What are the dietary changes that need to be done to prevent stones?  Stones can be prevented by making changes in fluid intake and depending on the type of stone, changes in consumption of sodium, animal protein, calcium, and oxalate.  Drinking enough fluids each day is the best way to help prevent most types of stones.  It is recommend that a person drink 2 to 3 litres of fluid a day so that the urine passed is white in colour and clear. If the urine is yellow then the water intake is increased. In stone formers it is essential that the person consumes plenty of water at bedtime so that the person gets up at least once in the night to pass urine. Stone formers are also advised that when they get up at night to pass urine they drink more water so that they wake up with a full bladder.  Though water is best, other fluids may also help prevent stones, such as citrus drinks.
  11. 11. What are the dietary changes that need to be done to prevent Kidney and Urinary stones?  Water or fluid intake is the best form of prevention. Reducing food rich in calcium and oxalates can help but total avoidance is not necessary Calcium Oxalate Stones  Reducing salt.  Reducing animal protein, such as meat, eggs, and fish.  Retting enough calcium from food.  Avoiding foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, nuts, and wheat bran. Calcium Phosphate Stones  Reducing salt.  Reducing animal protein.  Uric Acid Stones  limiting animal protein.
  12. 12. Important Information!!  If you or your relatives have experienced any of the symptoms described .  Please contact one of our specialists at Ramayya Pramila Urology Hospitals.  For more Information please click below
  13. 13. Superior and Compassionate Care