Kidney and other Urinary Stones
DEPARTMENT OF UROLOGY EDUCATION
Dr. Abraham Benjamin - Manager Medical Informatics
Mr. Naresh Kumar - Coordinator Medical Informatics
What are Kidney and other Urinary
A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus (from the Latin
renes, "kidneys" and calculus, "pebble") is a solid crystal
aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the
It forms in the kidney but can escape and lodge itself in various
parts of the Urinary Tract. Depending on its location in the
urinary tract it is called by various names Kidney Stone, Ureteric
Stone, Bladder Stone, Urethral Stone.
History Of Kidney and Urinary Stones
The existence of kidney stones was first recorded
thousands of years ago.
In 1901, a stone discovered in the Kidney of an
ancient Egyptian mummy and was dated back to
Where do these kidney and Urinary
About 80% of the kidney and Urinary stones occur in men.
Urinary stones commonly occur in the kidney , ureter and bladder.
The kidney stones have their origin in the kidneys and can move down from
their point of origin.
They can get lodged in the Ureter which are called Ureteral stones.
The bladder in itself can form stones independently due to obstruction of
urinary flow or without obstruction especially in children.
Why do kidney and Urinary stones
Kidney and Urinary stones form when minerals in the urine
crystallize, forming a "stone."
Some people form stones when their urine contains more
crystal-forming substances, such as calcium and uric acid.
This can happen when urine is highly acid or highly alkaline.
What are the different type of Kidney
and Urinary Stones?
Kidney Stone type Occurrence in Population When do they form
Calcium oxalate 80 % when urine is acidic (low pH)
Calcium phosphate 0 % when urine is alkaline (high pH)
Uric acid 5-10 % when urine is persistently acidic
Struvite 10-15 % infections in the kidney
Cystine 0 % rare genetic disorder
Calcium stones Uric Acid stones
Struvite Stones Cystine Stones
How do you know when a Stone is
The pain is most commonly felt in the flank area between
the ribs and hip,lower abdomen, and groin.
It can be associated with nausea, vomiting, fever, blood in
the urine, pus in the urine, and painful urination.
The pain typically comes in waves lasting for 20 to 60
minutes, beginning in the lower back and often radiating to
When do you require medical help for
If the stone remains small, it will pass through the urinary tract unnoticed.
But if it is large it can be very painful.
Urinary stones can range in size from a grain of sand to larger than a golf ball.
Most stones will pass on their own without any need for medical
But in some cases, such as if a stone blocks the flow of urine, damages kidney
tissues, or is simply too large to pass on its own, the Patient should consult a
How do we Diagnose Kidney and
Diagnosis of kidney and Urinary stones is made on the
basis of information obtained from.
• Physical examination.
• Imaging Studies.
What are the dietary changes that need to
be done to prevent stones?
Stones can be prevented by making changes in fluid intake and depending on the
type of stone, changes in consumption of sodium, animal protein, calcium, and
Drinking enough fluids each day is the best way to help prevent most types of
It is recommend that a person drink 2 to 3 litres of fluid a day so that the urine
passed is white in colour and clear. If the urine is yellow then the water intake is
increased. In stone formers it is essential that the person consumes plenty of
water at bedtime so that the person gets up at least once in the night to pass
urine. Stone formers are also advised that when they get up at night to pass urine
they drink more water so that they wake up with a full bladder.
Though water is best, other fluids may also help prevent stones, such as citrus
What are the dietary changes that need to
be done to prevent Kidney and Urinary stones?
Water or fluid intake is the best form of prevention. Reducing food rich
in calcium and oxalates can help but total avoidance is not necessary
Calcium Oxalate Stones
Reducing animal protein, such as meat, eggs, and fish.
Retting enough calcium from food.
Avoiding foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, nuts, and wheat bran.
Calcium Phosphate Stones
Reducing animal protein.
Uric Acid Stones
limiting animal protein.
If you or your relatives have experienced any of the
symptoms described .
Please contact one of our specialists at Ramayya Pramila
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