1 What is Animation History Introduction of animation in INDIA INDIAN touch to animation Scope of animation in India Need for animators in INDIA2 Techniques Traditional animation Full animation Limited animation Rotoscoping Live-action/animation3 Stop motion Puppet animation Puppetoon Clay animation Cutout animation Silhouette animation Model animation Go motion Object animation Graphic animation Pixilation4 Computer animation 2D animation 3D animation5 12 basic principles of animation List of animated feature-length films6 Pixar Studios History Traditions Sequels and prequels7 Pixar: 25 Years of Animation
INTRODUCTION WHAT IS ANIMATION???Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork ormodel positions in order to create an illusion of movement. The effect is an opticalillusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can becreated and demonstrated in several ways. The most common method of presentinganimation is as a motion picture or video program, although there are othermethods.EtymologyFrom Latin animātiō, "the act of bringing to life"; from animō ("to animate" or"give life to") + -ātiō ("the act of").A simulation of movement created by displaying a series of pictures, or frames.Cartoons on television are one example of animation. Animation on computers isone of the chief ingredients of multimedia presentations. There are many softwareapplications that enable you to create animations that you can display on acomputer monitor.Note the difference between animation and video. Whereas video takes continuousmotion and breaks it up into discrete frames, animation starts with independentpictures and puts them together to form the illusion of continuous motion.
HISTORY OF ANIMATIONEarly examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion drawing can befound in Paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legsin superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion.A 5,000 year old earthen bowl found in Iran in Shahr-i Sokhta has five images of agoat painted along the sides. This has been claimed to be an example of earlyanimation. However, since no equipment existed to show the images in motion,such a series of images cannot be called animation in a true sense of the word.A Chinese zoetrope-type device had been invented in 180 AD. Thephenakistoscope, praxinoscope, and the common flip book were early popularanimation devices invented during the 19th century.These devices produced the appearance of movement from sequential drawingsusing technological means, but animation did not really develop much further untilthe advent of cinematography.
There is no single person who can be considered the "creator" of film animation, asthere were several people working on projects which could be consideredanimation at about the same time.Georges Méliès was a creator of special-effect films; he was generally one of thefirst people to use animation with his technique. He discovered a technique byaccident which was to stop the camera rolling to change something in the scene,and then continue rolling the film. This idea was later known as stop-motionanimation. Méliès discovered this technique accidentally when his camera brokedown while shooting a bus driving by. When he had fixed the camera, a hearsehappened to be passing by just as Méliès restarted rolling the film, his end resultwas that he had managed to make a bus transform into a hearse. This was just oneof the great contributors to animation in the early years.The earliest surviving stop-motion advertising film was an English short by ArthurMelbourne-Cooper called Matches: An Appeal (1899). Developed for the Bryantand May Matchsticks company, it involved stop-motion animation of wired-together matches writing a patriotic call to action on a blackboard.J. Stuart Blackton was possibly the first American film-maker to use the techniquesof stop-motion and hand-drawn animation. Introduced to film-making by Edison,he pioneered these concepts at the turn of the 20th century, with his firstcopyrighted work dated 1900. Several of his films, among them The EnchantedDrawing (1900) and Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) were film versionsof Blacktons "lightning artist" routine, and utilized modified versions of Mélièsearly stop-motion techniques to make a series of blackboard drawings appear tomove and reshape themselves. Humorous Phases of Funny Faces is regularly citedas the first true animated film, and Blackton is considered the first true animator.Another French artist, Émile Cohl, began drawing cartoon strips and created a filmin 1908 called Fantasmagorie. The film largely consisted of a stick figure movingabout and encountering all manner of morphing objects, such as a wine bottle that
transforms into a flower. There were also sections of live action where theanimator‘s hands would enter the scene. The film was created by drawing eachframe on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film, which gave thepicture a blackboard look. This makes Fantasmagorie the first animated filmcreated using what came to be known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation.Following the successes of Blackton and Cohl, many other artists beganexperimenting with animation. One such artist was Winsor McCay, a successfulnewspaper cartoonist, who created detailed animations that required a team ofartists and painstaking attention for detail. Each frame was drawn on paper; whichinvariably required backgrounds and characters to be redrawn and animated.Among McCays most noted films are little Nemo (1911), Gertie the Dinosaur(1914) and The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918).The production of animated short films, typically referred to as "cartoons", becamean industry of its own during the 1910s, and cartoon shorts were produced to beshown in movie theaters. The most successful early animation producer was JohnRandolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cell animationprocess which dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.
INTRODUCTION OF ANIMATION IN INDIA OverviewU.S. companies are doing wonders with 3D Computer Generated Imagery(3D CGI), India still clings to 2D techniques. Musical instruments aremodeled using commercial 3D animation software and then animated viaproprietary algorithmic animation software in the U.S., while Indiananimation companies are still struggling with existing 2D software.Arduously, 2D software takes the frames drawn by an artist and scans them,and for each character, the animator creates a model.But what is attracting Indian animation firms is the estimated $50-billionmarket. Top Indian companies like Pentamedia Graphics Ltd, UTV Toons,Crest Communications, Unilazer, Toonz Animation India Ltd, Tata Elxsiand Digital Canvas are busy clinching deals with companies in the U.S.These companies nurse smaller animation companies by sub-contracting apart of their international projects, including those from Disney and WarnerBrothers (WB).Indian animation has interesting history. In 1912, Dadasaheb Phalkeproduced the first Indian animation movie, which was followed by a hiatusthat lasted over 40 years. In 1956, the Films Division set up a cartoon filmunit, where Clair Weeks, the veteran Disney animator, was invited to trainstudents. And one of his first students, Ram Mohan, went on to found UTVToons.In 1997, Mohan, who had already spent two decades at the Films Division,teamed with United Studios, a division of the UTV group, to spin off ananimation company. The venture, initially called RM-USL Animation, wasrechristened UTV Toons in 2000. Today, it is one of the largest 2Danimation companies in India, and Mohan is considered the ―father of Indiananimation.‖
Cost Factor It costs a prohibitive $400,000 to 500,000 to produce one hour of animation footage in the U.S. Perhaps that explains why studios there are looking to outsource.Take the case of Chennai-based Pentamedia Graphics Ltd. The parentcompany, Pentafour Software and Exports Ltd, started with selling CD titlesand corporate presentations. A joint project with Griboullie, France, forExcalibur was a breakthrough for the company. The company went on tobag other international projects like The King and I from WB in 1999.V. Chandrasekaran of Pentamedia says, ―Initially it was difficult to pitch forthe foreign animation projects since India figured nowhere compared to theinternational levels of sophistication.‖ The Warner project served as aspringboard and it soon bagged Sinbad: Beyond the Veil of Mists fromImprovision Corp.Today, the company‘s turnover for the third quarter stands at $2,123 million.―The joint venture with 3dMaxMedia Inc, U.S., to create high-end digitalentertainment content using cutting-edge tools for Internet, cinema and TVmedia was really a fillip,‖ says Chandrasekaran. Last year, major Hollywoodand European studios outsourced services worth $300 million to Indiabecause of the obvious cost advantage. ―While a 20-minute special effectsanimation sequence costs about $75,000 in India, studios in the US charge$150,000,‖ says K. Chandra Shekar, head, (Animation Business), Tata Elxsi(P) Ltd.Overseas studios, including American and Canadian ones, which normallyoutsource their back-end animation work from Australia, Philippines,Taiwan and Korea, are now increasingly veering toward India.
MaturityAlthough yet to mature, animation companies are throwing their rings on the―classic outsourcing model,‖ to which goes the credit of building the ―Indiansoftware industry,‖ until of course, the slowdown happened. ―If a companycan keep the quality of its output at a desirable level with low costs, it canexpect to produce movies for Hollywood,‖ says Chandrasekaran. Whilemost companies were reeling under the slowdown of last year, it turned outto be one of the best for the Indian animation industry. Compudyne,Winfosystems, Maya Entertainment, UTV Toons, Toonz Animation,Western Outdoor and Color Chips India all bagged lucrative foreigncontracts. RoadblocksOne major weakness for all Indian animation houses has been the lack oftrained animators—animation is not even offered at Indian art schools.―Many companies try to master only the technology in animation, but payscant attention to aesthetics like timing and movements. This is the reasonwhy many projects get rejected,‖ says Tata Elxsi‘s Shekar.Nasscom estimates that India could use 300,000 professionals in contentdevelopment and animation by 2008, though at the end of 2001 it pegged at27,000. ―Animators must have creative and artistic abilities. A good sense ofhumor and an observant eye to detect the incongruous are the assets. Alongwith these qualities, a qualification in fine art and visual communicationdesign is a must,‖ says Sudhish, managing director of Hyderabad-basedColorChips Ltd.
Acquiring to expandCompanies like Pentamedia Graphics and Crest Communication are nowchanting the M&A mantra. Pentamedia, touted in the early part of 2001 asthe No. 1 animation company in India, acquired Improvision, a U.S.-basedfilm production and distribution company, for $19.5 million, and aSingapore-based 2D animation company, Animasia International, for SG$0.5 million. ―The acquisition has helped the company implement offshoredevelopment work, but ideally it could be used to tap the potential in thecommercial animation market,‖ says Chandrasekaran. Crest Communicationacquired Rich Animation, a U.S.-based animation production studio for $5million. Its objective was to use Rich‘s pre- and post-production skills. Evencompanies like Sriveni Multi-Tech and Compudyne Winfosystems haveacquired U.S.-based Station X Studios Entertainment and VisionArt Studiofor $1 million and $4 million respectively. Beyond QualityWhen it comes to animation, quality has not been easy to achieve. An entry-level professional would take 10 hours for a single second of animation. Infact, even for an experienced animator, it would mean half-a-day‘s job.Arena, an Aptech subsidary, churns out thousands of students skilled inanimation, Maya, USAnimation, Animo, audio-video editing and specialeffects. But only a few get to work in the studios. While computer 3Danimation is gaining popularity, UTV Toons‘ Nandini points out that fortraditional 2D animators, drawing skills are still very critical. ―What worksis a happy marriage of 2D and 3D, such as in the Lion King, where thecharacters were 2D, but the background 3D.‖ While 2D animation requirespainstaking sketching of characters and movements, 3D animations are oftencreated from wireframes of sketches or models and then manipulated.
INDIAN TOUCH TO ANIMATIONIndias animation sector is witnessing a major boom. Overseas entertainmentgiants like Walt Disney,Imax and Sony are increasingly outsourcing cartooncharacters and special effects to India . Other companies are outsourcinganimation from India for commercials and computer games.So what makes India a hub for animation? Why is the sector experiencingexponential growth? In this special series, we take a look at what makesIndia shine in the world of animation.A full-fledged feature film called Tommy and Oscar is in the final stages ofproduction at the Toonz Animation Studio, Techno park, Kerala . A team ofartists and technicians is working frenetically to complete the film for theItalian producer Rainbow Productions.Applied Gravity, a New Zealand-based company, has outsourced nearly 90per cent of it animation work to Nipuna Services, the business processoutsourcing subsidiary of Satyam Computer Services. An animatronics dogfor Animal Planet (Discovery channel) for a popular episode called K9 to11and animatronics models for New Zealand theme parks were some of thebest-known creations of Applied Gravity in India.
The Walt Disney Company has outsourced some of its major animationprojects to various studios across India. Cartoon Network is buyinganimation films made in India. MTV has added India to its outsourcing hubalong with the Philippines and South Korea.A new outsourcing fever has gripped India.Global entertainment majors like Walt Disney, IMAX, Warner Brothers andSony are signing up huge contracts with Indian animation companies.And cities in India like Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad andTrivandrum have emerged as the countrys major animation hubs.A slew of companies across these cities have dedicated themselves to theoutsourced world of animation and special effects. These include ToonzAnimation, Crest Communications, Maya Entertainment, Silvertoon Studio,UTV Toons, Zee Institute of Creative Arts, 2NZ Studios, PentamediaGraphics, Prasad Studios, Acropetal, JadooWorks, Color Chips and HeartAnimation.These animation firms have set up large production studios that are equippedwith state-of -the-art equipment and hardware and software like SGI,3DMax and Softimage, SFX and processing motion capture facilities."Work is pouring in from places like the United States, Europe and Asia inthe form of outsourced projects and co-production deals," points out PJayakumar, Chief Executive Officer of Toonz Animation, arguably Indiasbiggest animation player.Toonz Animation is a complete state-of-the-art facility, staffed withinternationally trained creative professionals from around the world. Itsprimary studio, Studio A, is located at Techno park in Trivandrum whereover 400 artists and technicians create animated 2D and 3D films.
Jayakumar says Toonz formats include episodic television animation, adfilms, direct-to-video and feature length.Animation veterans like Jayakumar says that India has become anoutsourcing hub for animation films because: India has a vast base of English speaking workforce: Animation, which requires familiarity with the English language, benefits when the work is outsourced to India. A number of animation companies in the country are also creating skilled manpower for the animation market through various training programs. Presence of good studios: India has the second largest entertainment industry in the world, after Hollywood. Animation studios in the country provide a large supply of low-cost, high-quality software engineers. A number of Indian animation companies have set up hi-tech studios (equipped with state-of-the-art hardware and software) to execute overseas projects. Low cost of animation services: The main reason why foreign entertainment firms are flocking to India is the cost advantage the country offers. For instance, in the US, animators can cost about $125 an hour; in India, they cost $25 an hour. Toonz Animation offers animation at 25 per cent to 40 per cent lower rates than other Asian studios and much lower than those of American studios. The total cost for making a full-length animated film in America is estimated to be $100 million to $175 million. In India, it can be made for $15 million to $25 million. C K Prahlad, an animation consultant based in Bangalore, says the biggest advantage is the cost factor. "Indian animation companies are charging extremely low rates compared to other countries. That is attracting the Hollywood companies to outsource their animation film series to the country," he said.
Major US animation studios and producers are realizing this huge costadvantage that India offers."Due to changing viewing habits, channels or networks are being forced tobring down license fees. As a result, the volume of work has beendropping.In this situation, Indias advantage of low production costs could be a boonto the domestic animation industry," said Margaret Dean, Sony Pictureshead of family entertainment group and a consultant to various animationstudios in the US, during a recent India visit.According to the National Association of Software and ServicesCompanies (Nasscom), the total revenues of the animation productionservices sector in India were estimated by between $200 million and $300million in 2004.Nasscom estimates the animation sector grew at a rate of over 20 per centlast year. "Demand for animation production services from India isgrowing with the emergence of an organized animation production sector,with state-of -the-art of work required for international TV programproduction, at substantially lower costs," a Nasscom report said.
SOCPE OF ANIMATION IN INDIAAnimated cell phone displays, commercials, cartoons and movies are a bigpart of life in todays modern world, but India so far has played a verysmall part in the global animation industry. There are about 10 animationstudios across the country, and only around 3000 animators work for them."The industry is bottlenecked when it comes to procuring skilledprofessionals for jobs. There are many people who are familiar with thesoftware, but they are not qualified animators," says Binu Raj, marketinghead, Toonz Animation.Entertainment, though, is not the be-all and end-all of the industry. It hasapplications in various fields. Defence personnel use animation to designarmaments, forensic scientists use it to recreate crime sequences and it isalso used in the fields of space research and medicineAnimation is a fast-emerging high-paying career option. To become ananimator, you need intensive training in 2D or 3D animation. Professionaldiploma programs in animation and multimedia are available for higherstudy. You can specialize in creating animation characters, creating two-and/or three-dimensional shapes, special visual effects, video gameprogramming, game art and so on. The basic requirement is that you musthave excellent creative and artistic abilities such as flair for drawing,sketching or caricaturingIn the present scenario animation has a huge demand in national as well asin international market. This career is booming in the present market and infuture the scope is much better. There are several career institutes offeringAnimation and Cartoon Courses in India.These career courses entail intensive career training for the jobrequirements in the field of animation and cartoon. Depending on onesaspiration and confidence, from diploma to degree there are variousoptions for a candidate to choose. As art is at the core of the animationsector, one can also pursue Bachelor of Fine Arts or Master of Fine Arts
courses to have an edge in animation education. Moreover students mayalso do some specializations in both 2D and 3D pre-production, soundengineering, editing, modeling, performance animation, technicalanimation and other branches of animation. The National Institute ofDesign, JJ School of Arts, Industrial Design Center, IIT Mumbai are someof the best institutes in India that offer courses in the animation sector.As the demand of animation industries is increasing at a faster rate and theper capita growth has also helped in the economic growth of India. Thishas change the entire face of animation industries. India has become afavored destination for various pre production works of the animationindustry during the last decade mainly due to the availability of talentedanimation artists at relatively low costs. Apart from outsourcing, theexpansion of the domestic market has also opened up opportunities for theanimation artists.
NEED FOR ANIMATORS IN INDIA Explained by a INDIAN animation expert Ram MohanI have a feeling that some people are looking at animation only as a careeras a job. They want the monthly income just like a telephone operator. Forthose we should have like Polytechnics where they are taught in-betweening, clean-ups and basics of animation. For them animation is notan art form, it is a dhanda as they call it a business. It‘s their livelihood.And those people are really needed without them classical animationcannot be done. So there should be two types of Institutes: Polytechnicswhich teach these basics of classical animation production at an affordablefees and short term courses for them. And they are in demand; at leastthey were in demand. Initially there was a tremendous demand becausethey didn‘t need designers or storyboard artist or character designersbecause all that was coming from abroad. What they want were peoplewho could take those storyboards and design and animate them. Now Iknow we dont have enough people and I know how much we had to dowhen We were in UTV Toons to train these people. To train these peoplein the beginning and then take them on to productions where they wouldcontinue to learn further when they were on jobs.
And then there is the other kind of school where animation is taught alongwith film making. It‘s not just animation but animation as just filmmaking medium. So they should also knowabout music and sound and I also feel it is very important for animationstudents to have a knowledge of World classics literature, in dance, inperformance in choreography, in lighting etc with all this then he becomesa complete film-maker with a very broad view in all arts. In fact animationis one art in which so many other arts flow in. So it has to be that kind ofeducation for animators, sorry not animators but animation film maker.There should be a 5 year program, at least 4 years minimum educationprogram in animation with 2 years graduation and 2 years post graduationi.e. specialization. Even in art schools animation should be taught. Likethe other specialization subjects like Topography and Photography, evenAnimation should be introduced soon after students enter that is afterfoundation level. So that students can have the choice to take animation asa primary subject so that by the end of 5 years you learn the skills ofanimation and when you enter into the post-graduate school like IDC orNID one can hone his skills further as film makers.I wish if the government would subsidize training in animation.Unfortunately they don‘t realize that there are very special skills that arerequired for animation. Computer literacy is comparatively higher but noteveryone knows to do good graphic. One might know the software but thecreative aspect of it requires special training in Institutes. Sadly even Artschools do not impart any training in animation. We have been trying topersuade J.J. School of Arts but there are no funds. Nor even in the Films- FTI Pune. So we are neither here nor there. Not in the Art schools noreven in the Film schools. The only Institute that has done some work fortraining in animation is NID. And now IDC is doing better, I am sure afterthat Shilpa has joined they are exploring much more whereas before theywere doing animation only with simple devices. New avenues have to beopened for 2D and 3D animation. In fact Animation should be lookedupon as an ‗Art-Form‘ which has a fourth dimension in Time. It is a very
beautiful concept- ―Art that is moving‘. So it has to be encouraged andpracticed because the talent is there in India and I am happy that peopleare looking towards it.There is no animation culture in India like the countries in the West.Institutes like NID, J.J. School of Arts, IDC, FTI Pune, Films Divisionand TASI should come together and form this. TASI is doing it but on avery small level. There is a lot of potential for the growth of animation inIndia. Basically there should be awareness and people should thinkdifferently. The ‗Cartoon‘ image of animation from their minds should betaken out. As the countries in the west, animation is done at differentlevels- for children and for adults. Likewise it should be in India. There islot of potential for original content but unfortunately the infrastructure ismissing. Whereas countries like China, Korea, Japan, Philippines,Vietnam and Indonesia have taken over India in this field. For contentdevelopment, ‗Amar Chitra kathaein‘ did some work but still that is notenough. They could have explored much more. Moreover children in thewest read lots of comic books which is not so much practiced in India,that has to be encouraged. Thus this Animation Culture has to be practicedand developed in India.―One reason why animation is useful in India is that when you haveanimated characters they become sort of Generalized. Otherwise you takea live character he belongs to a particular region. He is either a Keralite ora Bengali or a Punjabi so they become associated with one particularregion in lifestyle. In Animation the character becomes sort ofgeneralized. Therefore he becomes an Indian farmer or an Indianfisherman so animation can cover the entire country.‖
TECHNIQUES TRADITIONAL ANIMATIONTraditional animation (also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation) was theprocess used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames ofa traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, which are first drawn onpaper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from theone before it. The animators drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparentacetate sheets called cells, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors ortones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cells‘ arephotographed one-by-one onto motion picture film against a painted backgroundby a rostrum camera.The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21stcentury. Today, animators drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into
or drawn directly into a computer system. Various software programs are used tocolor the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. The final animatedpiece is output to one of several delivery media, including traditional 35 mm filmand newer media such as digital video. The "look" of traditional cel animation isstill preserved, and the character animators work has remained essentially thesame over the past 70 years. Some animation producers have used the term"tradigital" to describe cel animation which makes extensive use of computertechnology.Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio (United States,1940), Animal Farm (United Kingdom, 1954), and Akira (Japan, 1988).Traditional animated films which were produced with the aid of computertechnology include The Lion King (US, 1994) Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi(Spirited Away) (Japan, 2001), and Les Triplettes de Belleville (France, 2003). Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films, which regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement. Fully animated films can be done in a variety of styles, from more realistically animated works such as those produced by the Walt Disney studio (Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, Lion King) to the more cartoony styles of those produced by the Warner Bros. animation studio. Many of the Disney animated
features are examples of full animation, as are non-Disney works such asThe Secret of NIMH (US, 1982), The Iron Giant (US, 1999), andNocturna (Spain, 2007).Limited animationLimited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does notredraw entire frames but variably reuses common parts between frames.One of its major trademarks is the stylized design in all forms and shapes,which in the early days was referred to as modern design. The short-subject cartoons and feature-length cartoons of Walt Disney from the1930s and 1940s are widely acclaimed for depicting animatedsimulations of reality, with exquisite detail in every frame. This style ofanimation is time-consuming and expensive. "Limited" animation createsan image with abstract art, symbolism, and fewer drawings to create thesame effect, at a much lower cost. This style of animation depends uponanimators skill in emulating change without additional drawings;improper use of limited animation is easily recognized as unnatural. Italso encourages the animators to indulge in artistic styles that are notbound to real world limits. The result is an artistic style that could nothave developed if animation was solely devoted to producing simulationsof reality. Without limited animation, such ground-breaking films asYellow Submarine, Chuck Jones The Dot and the Line, and many otherscould never have been produced.The process of limited animation aims at reducing the overall number ofdrawings. Film is projected at 24 frames per second. For movements innormal speed, most animation in general is done "on twos," meaning 12drawings per second are recorded meaning that each drawing uses twoframes of film. Faster movements may demand animation "on ones,"while characters that do not move may be done with a single drawing (a"hold") for a certain amount of time. It is said that the Disney averagewas about 18 drawings per second, pretending that all characters of ascene share the same sheet of paper. Limited animation mainly reducesthe number of in-betweens, the drawings between the key frames whichdefine a movement, and can cause stuttering if in-betweens are poorly
setup.Overall, the use of limited animation does not necessarily imply lowerquality as it allows the use of many timesaving techniques that canimprove the quality and flow of the key frames and overall presentationof an animation.RotoscopingRotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace overlive-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films.Originally, recorded live-action film images were projected onto a frostedglass panel and re-drawn by an animator. This projection equipment iscalled a rotoscope, although this device has been replaced by computersin recent years. In the visual effects industry, the term Rotoscoping refersto the technique of manually creating a matte for an element on a live-action plate so it may be composited over another background.
Another Rotoscope was invented by LeRoy Wottring for orthoptictraining. See patent 2316139. The device was manufactured by theWottring Instrument Company of Columbus, Ohio. In 1950, AmericanOptical purchased the assets of Wottring Instruments and continued tobuild and market the product. Orthoptic training was used for a variety ofeye conditions including amblyopia.
Live-action/animationA live-action/animated film is a motion picture that features acombination of real actors or elements: live-action and animatedelements, typically interacting.In The Three Caballeros (1945), Donald Duck cavorts with several Latin-American dancers, plus Aurora Miranda (sister of Carmen Miranda), whogives him a kiss.
Stop motionStop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physicallymanipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at atime to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the type of media used to create theanimation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation. Puppet animation Typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting with each other in a constructed environment, in contrast to the real-world interaction in model animation. The puppets generally have an armature inside of them to keep them still and steady as well as constraining them to move at particular joints. Examples include The Tale of the Fox (France, 1937), The Nightmare before Christmas (US, 1993), Corpse Bride (US, 2005), Coraline (US, 2009), the films of Jiří Trnka and the TV series Robot Chicken (US, 2005–present). Puppetoon Puppetoon animation is a type of replacement animation, which is itself a type of stop-motion animation. In traditional stop-motion, the puppets are made with movable parts which are repositioned between frames to create the illusion of motion when the frames are played in rapid sequence. In puppetoon animation the puppets are rigid and static pieces; each is typically used in a single frame and then switched with a separate, near-duplicate puppet for the next frame. Thus puppetoon animation requires many separate figures. It is thus more analogous in a certain sense to cel animation than is traditional stop-motion: the characters are created from scratch for each frame (though in cel animation the creation process is simpler since the characters are drawn and painted, not sculpted). Clay animation Clay animation or claymation is one of many forms of stop motion animation. Each animated piece, either character or background, is "deformable"—made of a malleable substance, usually Plasticine clay.
All traditional animation is produced in a similar fashion, whether donethrough cel animation or stop motion. Each frame, or still picture, isrecorded on film or digital media and then played back in rapidsuccession. When played back at a frame rate greater than 10–12 framesper second, a fairly convincing illusion of continuous motion is achieved.While the playback feature creating an illusion is true of all movingimages (from zoetrope to films to videogames), the techniques involvedin creating CGI are generally removed from a frame-by-frame process.In clay animation, each object is sculpted in clay or a similarly pliablematerial such as Plasticine, usually around a wire skeleton called anarmature. As in other forms of object animation, the object is arranged onthe set (background), a film frame is exposed, and the object or characteris then moved slightly by hand. Another frame is taken, and the object ismoved slightly again. This cycle is repeated until the animator hasachieved the desired amount of film. The human mind processes theseries of slightly changing; rapidly playing images as motion, hencemaking it appear that the object is moving by itself. To achieve the bestresults, a consistent shooting environment is needed to maintain theillusion of continuity. This means paying special attention to maintainingconsistent lighting and object placement and working in a calmenvironment.
Cutout animationCutout animation is a technique for producing animations using flatcharacters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card,stiff fabric or even photographs. The worlds earliest known animatedfeature films were cutout animations (made in Argentina by QuirinoCristiani); as is the worlds earliest surviving animated feature.Today, cutout-style animation is frequently produced using computers,with scanned images or vector graphics taking the place of physically cutmaterials. South Park is a notable example of this transition since its firstepisode was made with paper cutouts before switching to computeranimation.Other notable examples include Angela Anaconda, and - more recently -Charlie and Lola. One of the most famous animators still using traditionalcutout animation today is Yuriy Norshteyn
Silhouette animationSilhouette animation is animation in which the characters are only visibleas black silhouettes. This is usually accomplished by backlightingarticulated cardboard cut-outs, though other methods exist. It is partiallyinspired by, but for a number of reasons technically distinct from,shadow play.Traditional silhouette animation as invented by Reiniger is subdivision ofcutout animation (itself one of the many forms of stop motion). It utilisesfigures cut out of paperboard, sometimes reinforced with thin metalsheets, and tied together at their joints with thread or wire (usuallysubstituted by plastic or metal paper fasteners in contemporaryproductions) which are then moved frame-by-frame on an animationstand and filmed top-down with a rostrum camera – such techniques wereused, albeit with stylistic changes, by such practitioners as Noburō Ōfujiin the 1940s and Bruno J. Böttge in the 1970s.Michel Ocelots televisionseries Ciné si (Cinema If, 1989) was a little different, combining cutoutsand cells and also, more occasionally, live-action and clay animation (thisseries is better known as Princes et princesses, the feature film versionmentioned below).This was also the first silhouette animation tosuccessfully make characters appear to speak for themselves(traditionally, either intertitles or voice-over narration had been used) asthe mixed medium made accurate lip syncing possible. Traditionalanimation can also be used to imitate silhouette animation, as seenregularly in Be-PaPas Shōjo Kakumei Utena (Revolutionary Girl Utena,1997).Most recently, several CGI silhouette films have been made, whichdemonstrate different approaches to the technique – Jossie Malis usealready 2D, vector animation, Michel Ocelots "Earth Intruders"(2007) and a scene in Azur et Asmar (Azur & Asmar, 2006) use 3Dfigures rendered as silhouettes, while Anthony Lucas Academy Award-nominated The Mysterious Geographic Explorations of Jasper Morello(2005) mixes 2D characters and 3D backgrounds, both of which arecombination of live action and CGI. Computer animation has also beenused to make more explicit reference to shadow theatre – particularly ofthe Southeast Asian wayang kulit style – by adding visible rods to the
characters which appear to be operating them (ironically, in CGI, it is theother way round). This was used in Jan Koesters Our Man in Nirvana(2006) and the opening of the Disney feature The Jungle Book 2 (2003).Michel Ocelots television series Bergères et dragons (Shepherdesses andDragons), which, as of March 2008, is still in development, uses amixture of 2D and 3D computer animation to simulate the look of hisearlier, analogue silhouette animation.Model animationModel animation is a form of stop motion animation designed to mergewith live action footage to create the illusion of a real-world fantasysequence.Model animation was pioneered by Willis OBrien, and it was first usedin The Lost World (1925). His work also includesKing Kong (1933)The Son of Kong (1933)Mighty Joe Young (1949)The Black Scorpion (1957)The Giant Behemoth (1958)Picking up the model animation baton from OBrien, and refining theprocess further, introducing color and smoother animation, was hisprotégé, Ray Harryhausen. Assisting OBrien in Mighty Joe Young in1949, Harry went on to do model animation (and other special visualeffects) on a series of feature length films, such as: The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms (1953) It Came from Beneath the Sea (1955) Earth vs. the Flying Saucers (1956)
The Animal World (Opening Dinosaur sequence, with OBrien, 1956) 20 Million Miles To Earth (1957) The 7th Voyage of Sinbad (1958) The Three Worlds of Gulliver (1960) Mysterious Island (1961) Jason and the Argonauts (1963) First Men in the Moon (1964) One Million Years B.C. (1967) The Valley of Gwangi (1969) The Golden Voyage of Sinbad (1974) Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger (1977) Clash of the Titans (with Jim Danforth, 1981)Go motion Go motion is a variation of stop motion animation, and was co- developed by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett Stop motion animation can create a disorienting, and distinctive, staccato effect, because the animated object is perfectly sharp in every frame, since each frame of the animation was actually shot when the object was perfectly still. Real moving objects in similar scenes of the same movie will have motion blur, because they moved while the shutter of the camera was open. Go motion was designed to prevent this, by moving the animated model slightly during the exposure of each film frame, producing a realistic
motion blur. The main difference is that while the frames in stop motion are made up by images of stills taken between the small movements of the object, the frames in go motion are images of the object taken while it is moving. This frame-by-frame, split-second motion is almost always created with the help of a computer, often through rods connected to a puppet or model which the computer manipulates to reproduce movements programmed in by puppeteers. Go motion was originally planned to be used extensively for the dinosaurs in Jurassic Park, until Steven Spielberg decided to try out the swiftly developing techniques of computer-generated imagery instead. Today, the mechanical method of achieving motion blur using go motion is rarely used, as it is more complicated, slow, and labor intensive than computer generated effects. However, the motion blurring technique still has potential in real stop motion movies where the puppets motions are supposed to be somewhat realistic. Motion blurring can now be digitally done as a post production process using special effects software such as After Effects, Boris FX, Combustion, and other similar special effects commercial software.Object animationObject animation is a form of stop motion animation that involves theanimated movements of any non-drawn objects such as toys, blocks,dolls, etc. which are not fully malleable, such as clay or wax, and notdesigned to look like a recognizable human or animal character.Object animation is considered a different form of animation distinctfrom model animation and puppet animation, as these two forms of stop-motion animation usually use recognizable characters as their subjects,rather than just objects like static toy soldiers, or construction toys suchas Tinker Toys, LEGO brand bricks (Brickfilm), Lincoln Logs, ErectorSets, Playmobil, etc.Object animation is often combined with other forms of animation,usually for a more realistic effect (e.g., Model Animation or Puppet
Animation to add more complex movement or depth to the characters).For example; a toy car can be animated, but is more often animated witha character easily seen driving the car.The use of animated objects in film has been present since the early daysof cinema.An example of modern object animation can be seen on Robot Chicken,part of the regular Adult Swim block on Cartoon Network, whichcombines object animation with a variation of puppet animation, in thiscase the puppets are made to resemble plastic action figures from variousTV shows, movies, and pop culture.Graphic animationGraphic animation is a variation of stop motion (and possibly moreconceptually associated with traditional flat cel animation and paperdrawing animation, but still technically qualifying as stop motion)consisting of the animation of photographs (in whole or in parts) andother non-drawn flat visual graphic material, such as newspaper andmagazine clippings.In its simplest form, Graphic "animation" can take the form of theanimation camera merely panning up and down and/or across individualphotographs, one at a time, (filmed frame-by-frame, and hence,"animated") without changing the photographs from frame to frame, ason Ken Burns various historical documentary films for PBS. But once thephotos (or "graphics") are also moved from frame to frame, moreexciting montages of movement can be produced, such as on LosAngeles animator Mike Jittlovs 1977 short film, Animato, also seen hisfeature film, The Wizard of Speed and Time, released to theaters in 1987and to video in 1989. Graphic animation can be (and often is) combinedwith other forms of animation including direct manipulation animationand traditional cel animation.Examples are Frank Mouris 1973 Oscar-winning short film Frank Film,and Charles Bravermans Condensed Cream of the Beatles (1973),
originally produced for Geraldo Riveras late night TV show of the time,Goodbye America. Graphic animation was also used as a History ofPlayboy Magazine piece used on Saturday Night Live when themagazines founder, Hugh Hefner, appeared on that show during the late70s or early 80s.PixilationPixilation (from pixilated) is a stop motion technique where live actorsare used as a frame-by-frame subject in an animated film, by repeatedlyposing while one or more frame is taken and changing pose slightlybefore the next frame or frames. The actor becomes a kind of living stopmotion puppet. This technique is often used as a way to blend live actorswith animated ones in a film, such as in The Secret Adventures of TomThumb by the Bolex Brothers, which used the technique to compellingand eerie effect.Early examples of this technique are El hotel eléctrico from 1908 andÉmile Cohls 1911 film Jobard ne peut pas voir les femmes‘ travailler(Jobard cannot see the women working).The term is widely credited to Grant Munro. He made an experimentalfilm named "Pixillation", available in his DVD collection "Cut Up - TheFilms of Grant Munro".
COMPUTER ANIMATIONComputer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifyingfactor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer. 2D animation2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digitalimages—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometricmodels, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them. Theword may stand for the branch of computer science that comprises suchtechniques, or for the models themselves.2D computer graphics are mainly used in applications that wereoriginally developed upon traditional printing and drawing technologies,such as typography, cartography, technical drawing, advertising, etc. Inthose applications, the two-dimensional image is not just a representationof a real-world object, but an independent artifact with added semanticvalue; two-dimensional models are therefore preferred, because they givemore direct control of the image than 3D computer graphics (whoseapproach is more akin to photography than to typography).In many domains, such as desktop publishing, engineering, and business,a description of a document based on 2D computer graphics techniquescan be much smaller than the corresponding digital image—often by afactor of 1/1000 or more. This representation is also more flexible since itcan be rendered at different resolutions to suit different output devices.For these reasons, documents and illustrations are often stored ortransmitted as 2D graphic files.2D computer graphics started in the 1950s, based on vector graphicsdevices. These were largely supplanted by raster-based devices in thefollowing decades. The PostScript language and the X Window Systemprotocol were landmark developments in the field.o 2D graphics techniques 2D graphics models may combine geometric models (also called vector graphics), digital images (also called raster graphics), text to be typeset (defined by content, font style and size, color, position,
and orientation), mathematical functions and equations, and more. These components can be modified and manipulated by two- dimensional geometric transformations such as translation, rotation, scaling. In object-oriented graphics, the image is described indirectly by an object endowed with a self-rendering method—a procedure which assigns colors to the image pixels by an arbitrary algorithm. Complex models can be built by combining simpler objects, in the paradigms of object-oriented programming.o Direct painting A convenient way to create a complex image is to start with a blank "canvas" raster map (an array of pixels, also known as a bitmap) filled with some uniform background color and then "draw", "paint" or "paste" simple patches of color onto it, in an appropriate order. In particular, the canvas may be the frame buffer for a computer display. Some programs will set the pixel colors directly, but most will rely on some 2D graphics library and/or the machines graphics card, which usually implement the following operations: paste a given image at a specified offset onto the canvas; write a string of characters with a specified font, at a given position and angle; paint a simple geometric shape, such as a triangle defined by three corners, or a circle with given center and radius; draw a line segment, arc, or simple curve with a virtual pen of given widtho Extended color models Text, shapes and lines are rendered with a client-specified color. Many libraries and cards provide color gradients, which are handy for the generation of smoothly-varying backgrounds, shadow effects, etc. (See
also Gouraud shading). The pixel colors can also be taken from a texture, e.g. a digital image (thus emulating rub-on screentones and the fabled "checker paint" which used to be available only in cartoons). Painting a pixel with a given color usually replaces its previous color. However, many systems support painting with transparent and translucent colors, which only modify the previous pixel values. The two colors may also be combined in fancier ways, e.g. by computing their bitwise exclusive or. This technique is known as inverting color or color inversion, and is often used in graphical user interfaces for highlighting, rubber-band drawing, and other volatile painting—since re-painting the same shapes with the same color will restore the original pixel values.o Layers The models used in 2D computer graphics usually do not provide for three-dimensional shapes, or three-dimensional optical phenomena such as lighting, shadows, reflection, refraction, etc. However, they usually can model multiple layers (conceptually of ink, paper, or film; opaque, translucent, or transparent—stacked in a specific order. The ordering is usually defined by a single number (the layers depth, or distance from the viewer). Layered models are sometimes called 2½-D computer graphics. They make it possible to mimic traditional drafting and printing techniques based on film and paper, such as cutting and pasting; and allow the user to edit any layer without affecting the others. For these reasons, they are used in most graphics editors. Layered models also allow better anti-aliasing of complex drawings and provide a sound model for certain techniques such as mitered joints and the even-odd rule. Layered models are also used to allow the user to suppress unwanted information when viewing or printing a document, e.g. roads and/or railways from a map, certain process layers from an integrated circuit diagram, or hand annotations from a business letter. In a layer-based model, the target image is produced by "painting" or "pasting" each layer, in order of decreasing depth, on the virtual
canvas. Conceptually, each layer is first rendered on its own, yielding adigital image with the desired resolution which is then painted over thecanvas, pixel by pixel. Fully transparent parts of a layer need not berendered, of course. The rendering and painting may be done inparallel, i.e. each layer pixel may be painted on the canvas as soon as itis produced by the rendering procedure.Layers that consist of complex geometric objects (such as text orpolylines) may be broken down into simpler elements (characters orline segments, respectively), which are then painted as separate layers,in some order. However, this solution may create undesirable aliasingartifacts wherever two elements overlap the same pixel.
3D ANIMATIONComputer animation is the process used for generating animatedimages by using computer graphics. The more general term computergenerated imagery encompasses both static scenes and dynamicimages, while computer animation only refers to moving images.Modern computer animation usually uses 3D computer graphics,although 2D computer graphics are still used for stylistic, lowbandwidth, and faster real-time renderings. Sometimes the target of theanimation is the computer itself, but sometimes the target is anothermedium, such as film.Computer animation is essentially a digital successor to the stopmotion techniques used in traditional animation with 3D models andframe-by-frame animation of 2D illustrations. Computer generatedanimations are more controllable than other more physically basedprocesses, such as constructing miniatures for effects shots or hiringextras for crowd scenes, and because it allows the creation of images
that would not be feasible using any other technology. It can also allowa single graphic artist to produce such content without the use ofactors, expensive set pieces, or props.To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on thecomputer screen and repeatedly replaced by a new image that is similarto it, but advanced slightly in the time domain (usually at a rate of 24or 30 frames/second). This technique is identical to how the illusion ofmovement is achieved with television and motion pictures.For 3D animations, objects (models) are built on the computer monitor(modeled) and 3D figures are rigged with a virtual skeleton. For 2Dfigure animations, separate objects (illustrations) and separatetransparent layers are used, with or without a virtual skeleton. Then thelimbs, eyes, mouth, clothes, etc. of the figure are moved by theanimator on key frames. The differences in appearance between keyframes are automatically calculated by the computer in a processknown as tweening or morphing. Finally, the animation is rendered.For 3D animations, all frames must be rendered after modeling iscomplete. For 2D vector animations, the rendering process is the keyframe illustration process, while tweened frames are rendered asneeded. For pre-recorded presentations, the rendered frames aretransferred to a different format or medium such as film or digitalvideo. The frames may also be rendered in real time as they arepresented to the end-user audience. Low bandwidth animationstransmitted via the internet (e.g. 2D Flash, X3D) often use software onthe end-users computer to render in real time as an alternative tostreaming or pre-loaded high bandwidth animations.
Methods of animating virtual characters In most 3D computer animation systems, an animator creates a simplified representation of a characters anatomy, analogous to a skeleton or stick figure. The position of each segment of the skeletal model is defined by animation variables, or Avars. In human and animal characters, many parts of the skeletal model correspond to actual bones, but skeletal animation is also used to animate other things, such as facial features (though other methods for facial animation exist). The character "Woody" in Toy Story, for example, uses 700 Avars, including 100 Avars in the face. The computer does not usually render the skeletal model directly (it is invisible), but uses the skeletal model to compute the exact position and orientation of the character, which is eventually rendered into an image. Thus by changing the values of Avars over time, the animator creates motion by making the character move from frame to frame. There are several methods for generating the Avar values to obtain realistic motion. Traditionally, animators manipulate the Avars directly. Rather than set Avars for every frame, they usually set Avars at strategic points (frames) in time and let the computer interpolate or tween between them, a process called key framing. Key framing puts control in the hands of the animator, and has roots in hand-drawn traditional animation. In contrast, a newer method called motion capture makes use of live action. When computer animation is driven by motion capture, a real performer acts out the scene as if they were the character to be animated. His or her motion is recorded to a computer using video cameras and markers, and that performance is then applied to the animated character. Each method has its advantages, and as of 2007, games and films are using either or both of these methods in productions. Key frame animation can produce motions that would be difficult or impossible to act out, while motion capture can reproduce the subtleties of a particular actor. For example, in the 2006 film Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Mans Chest, actor Bill Nighy provided the performance for the character Davy Jones. Even though Nighy himself doesnt appear in the film, the movie benefited from his performance
by recording the nuances of his body language, posture, facial expressions, etc. Thus motion capture is appropriate in situations where believable, realistic behavior and action is required, but the types of characters required exceed what can be done through conventional costuming.Creating characters and objects on a computer 3D computer animation combines 3D models of objects and programmed or hand "key framed" movement. Models are constructed out of geometrical vertices, faces, and edges in a 3D coordinate system. Objects are sculpted much like real clay or plaster, working from general forms to specific details with various sculpting tools. A bone/joint animation system is set up to deform the CGI model (e.g., to make a humanoid model walk). In a process called rigging, the virtual marionette is given various controllers and handles for controlling movement. Animation data can be created using motion capture, or key framing by a human animator, or a combination of the two. 3D models rigged for animation may contain thousands of control points - for example, the character "Woody" in Pixars movie Toy Story, uses 700 specialized animation controllers. Rhythm and Hues Studios labored for two years to create Aslan in the movie The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe which had about 1851 controllers, 742 in just the face alone. In the 2004 film The Day After Tomorrow, designers had to design forces of extreme weather with the help of video references and accurate meteorological facts. For the 2005 remake of King Kong, actor Andy Serkis was used to help designers pinpoint the gorillas prime location in the shots and used his expressions to model "human" characteristics onto the creature. Serkis had earlier provided the voice and performance for Gollum in J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings trilogy.
Modeling human facesThe modeling of human facial features is both one of the most challengingand sought after elements in computer-generated imagery. Computer facialanimation is a highly complex field where models typically include a verylarge number of animation variables. Historically speaking, the firstSIGGRAPH tutorials on State of the art in Facial Animation in 1989 and 1990proved to be a turning point in the field by bringing together and consolidatingmultiple research elements, and sparked interest among a number ofresearchers.The Facial Action Coding System (with 46 action units such as "lip bite" or"squint") which had been developed in 1976 became a popular basis for manysystems. As early as 2001 MPEG-4 included 68 facial animation parametersfor lips, jaws, etc., and the field has made significant progress since then andthe use of facial micro expression has increased.In some cases, an affective space such as the PAD emotional state model canbe used to assign specific emotions to the faces of avatars. In this approach thePAD model is used as a high level emotional space, and the lower level spaceis the MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAP). A mid-level PartialExpression Parameters (PEP) space is then used to in a two level structure: thePAD-PEP mapping and the PEP-FAP translation model.
12 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANIMATION Squash and stretch The most important principle is "squash and stretch‖, the purpose of which is to give a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects. It can be applied to simple objects, like a bouncing ball, or more complex constructions, like the musculature of a human face. Taken to an extreme point, a figure stretched or squashed to an exaggerated degree can have a comical effect. In realistic animation, however, the most important aspect of this principle is the fact that an objects volume does not change when squashed or stretched. If the length of a ball is stretched vertically, its width (in three dimensions, also its depth) needs to contract correspondingly horizontally. AnticipationAnticipation is used to prepare the audience for an action, and to make theaction appear more realistic.A dancer jumping off the floor has to bend hisknees first; a golfer making a swing has to swing the club back first. Thetechnique can also be used for less physical actions, such as a characterlooking off-screen to anticipate someones arrival, or attention focusing onan object that a character is about to pick up
For special effect, anticipation can also be omitted in cases where it isexpected. The resulting sense of anticlimax will produce a feeling of surprisein the viewer, and can often add comedy to a scene. This is often referred toas a surprise gag. StagingThis principle is akin to staging as it is known in theatre and film. Itspurpose is to direct the audiences attention, and make it clear what is ofgreatest importance in a scene; what is happening, and what is about tohappen. Johnston and Thomas defined it as "the presentation of any idea sothat it is completely and unmistakably clear", whether that idea is an action,a personality, an expression or a mood. This can be done by various means,such as the placement of a character in the frame, the use of light andshadow, and the angle and position of the camera. The essence of thisprinciple is keeping focus on what is relevant, and avoiding unnecessarydetail Straight ahead action and pose to poseThese are two different approaches to the actual drawing process. "Straightahead action" means drawing out a scene frame by frame from beginning toend, while "pose to pose" involves starting with drawing a few key frames,and then filling in the intervals later."Straight ahead action" creates a morefluid, dynamic illusion of movement, and is better for producing realisticaction sequences. On the other hand, it is hard to maintain proportions, andto create exact, convincing poses along the way. "Pose to pose" works better
for dramatic or emotional scenes, where composition and relation to thesurroundings are of greater importance. A combination of the two techniquesis often used.Computer animation removes the problems of proportion related to "straightahead action" drawing; however, "pose to pose" is still used for computeranimation, because of the advantages it brings in composition. The use ofcomputers facilitates this method, as computers can fill in the missingsequences in between poses automatically. It is, however, still important tooversee this process, and apply the other principles discussed. Follow through and overlapping actionThese closely related techniques help render movement more realistic, andgive the impression that characters follow the laws of physics. "Followthrough" means that separate parts of a body will continue moving after thecharacter has stopped. "Overlapping action" is the tendency for parts of thebody to move at different rates (an arm will move on different timing of thehead and so on). A third technique is "drag", where a character starts tomove and parts of him take a few frames to catch up. These parts can beinanimate objects like clothing or the antenna on a car, or parts of the body,such as arms or hair. On the human body, the torso is the core, with arms,legs, head and hair appendices that normally follow the torsos movement.Body parts with much tissue, such as large stomachs and breasts, or theloose skin on a dog, are more prone to independent movement than bonierbody parts. Again, exaggerated use of the technique can produce a comicaleffect, while more realistic animation must time the actions exactly, toproduce a convincing result.Thomas and Johnston also developed the principle of the "moving hold". Acharacter not in movement can be rendered absolutely still; this is oftendone, particularly to draw attention to the main action. According to Thomasand Johnston, however, this gave a dull and lifeless result, and should beavoided. Even characters sitting still can display some sort of movement,such as the torso moving in and out with breathing.
ArcsMost natural action tends to follow an arched trajectory, and animationshould adhere to this principle by following implied "arcs" for greaterrealism. This can apply to a limb moving by rotating a joint, or a thrownobject moving along a parabolic trajectory. The exception is mechanicalmovement, which typically moves in straight lines.As an objects speed and momentum increases, arcs tend to flatten out inmoving ahead and broaden in turns. In baseball, a fastball would tend tomove in a straighter line than other pitches; while a figure skater moving attop speed would be unable to turn as sharply as a slower skater, and wouldneed to cover more ground to complete the turn.An object in motion that moves out of its natural arc for no apparent reasonwill appear erratic rather than fluid. Therefore when animating (for example)a pointing finger, the animator should be certain that in all drawings inbetween the two extreme poses, the fingertip follows a logical arc from oneextreme to the next. Traditional animators tend to draw the arc in lightly onthe paper for reference, to be erased later. Secondary action Adding secondary actions to the main action gives a scene more life, andcan help to support the main action. A person walking can simultaneouslyswing his arms or keep them in his pockets, he can speak or whistle or hecan express emotions through facial expressions. The important thing aboutsecondary actions is that they emphasize, rather than take attention awayfrom the main action. If the latter is the case, those actions are better left out.In the case of facial expressions; during a dramatic movement these willoften go unnoticed. In these cases it is better to include them at thebeginning and the end of the movement, rather than during.
TimingTiming refers to the number of drawings or frames for a given action, whichtranslates to the speed of the action on film. On a purely physical level,correct timing makes objects appear to abide to the laws of physics; forinstance, an objects weight decides how it reacts to an impetus, like a push.Timing is critical for establishing a characters mood, emotion, and reaction.It can also be a device to communicate aspects of a characters personality. ExaggerationExaggeration is an effect especially useful for animation, as perfect imitationof reality can look static and dull in cartoons.The level of exaggerationdepends on whether one seeks realism or a particular style, like a caricatureor the style of an artist. The classical definition of exaggeration, employedby Disney, was to remain true to reality, just presenting it in a wilder, moreextreme form. Other forms of exaggeration can involve the supernatural orsurreal, alterations in the physical features of a character, or elements in thestoryline itself. It is important to employ a certain level of restraint whenusing exaggeration; if a scene contains several elements, there should be abalance in how those elements are exaggerated in relation to each other, toavoid confusing or overawing the viewer. Solid drawingThe principle of solid drawing means taking into account forms in three-dimensional space, giving them volume and weight. The animator needs tobe a skilled draughtsman and has to understand the basics of three-dimensional shapes, anatomy, weight, balance, light and shadow, etc. Forthe classical animator, this involved taking art classes and doing sketchesfrom life. One thing in particular that Johnston and Thomas warned againstwas creating "twins": characters whose left and right sides mirrored eachother, and looked lifeless. Modern-day computer animators draw lessbecause of the facilities computers give them, yet their work benefits greatlyfrom a basic understanding of animation principles, and their additions tobasic computer animation.
AppealAppeal in a cartoon character corresponds to what would be called charismain an actor. A character that is appealing is not necessarily sympathetic —villains or monsters can also be appealing — the important thing is that theviewer feels the character is real and interesting. There are several tricks formaking a character connect better with the audience; for likable characters asymmetrical or particularly baby-like face tends to be effective. Acomplicated or hard to read face will lack appeal, it may more accurately bedescribed as captivation in the composition of the pose, or the characterdesign.
LIST OF ANIMATED MOVIE First in Techniques 1917: Cel animation, El Apóstol 1926: Silhouette animation (Stop-motion), The Adventures of Prince Achmed 1931: Synchronized sound, Peludópolis 1935: Puppet animation (Stop-motion), The New Gulliver 1937: Technicolor, hand drawn, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1955: Widescreen, Lady and the Tramp 1961: Xerography (replaced hand inking), One Hundred and One Dalmatians 1976: Hand-drawn animation done solely by one person, Zbojník Jurko 1981: 3-times stereophonic sound, The Fox and the Hound 1983: Computer-generated imagery, Rock and Rule 1985: Fully clay-animated, The Adventures of Mark Twain 1985: 3D, Starchaser: The Legend of Orin 1990: Produced without camera, The Rescuers Down Under 1995: Fully computer-animated film, Toy Story 2004: Cel-shaded animation, Appleseed and Steamboy. First Motion Capture animation, The Polar Express 2005: Shot with a digital still camera, Corpse Bride 2007: Computer-animated solely by one person, Flatland
2008: Designed, created and released exclusively in 3D, Fly Me to theMoon2009: Character animated using rapid prototyping, Coraline
PIXAR STUDIOS AN OVERVIEWCORPORATE OVEVIEW Introduction Pixar Animation Studios is an Academy Award ®-winning computer animation studio with the technical, creative and production capabilities to create a new generation of animated feature films, merchandise and other related products. Pixars objective is to combine proprietary technology and world-class creative talent to develop computer-animated feature films with memorable characters and heartwarming stories that appeal to audiences of all ages. Feature Films On November 22, 1995, Pixar Animation Studios forever impacted the future of filmmaking, storytelling and the medium of animation with the release of its first feature film, Disney Pixar‘s Toy Story. Released nine years after the founding of Pixar, Toy Story exhibited years of creative and technical achievements from a small group of passionate computer scientists and animators, led by present day President Ed Catmull and
Chief Creative Officer John Lasseter. The film, marking the birth of the new medium of computer animation, went on to become the highest grossing film of 1995 with $362 million in worldwide box office receipts. Lasseter, director of Toy Story, was honored with a Special Achievement Academy Award® for his "inspired leadership of the Pixar Toy Story team resulting in the first feature-length computer animated film." Since Toy Storys release in 1995, Pixar Animation Studios, in partnership with Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, has also created and produced A Bugs Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Monsters, Inc. (2001), Finding Nemo (2003), The Incredible(2004), Cars (2006), Ratatouille (2007), WALL-E (2008), Up (2009) and most recently Toy Story 3 (2010). The 11 feature films have resulted in an unprecedented streak of both critical and box office successes, and combined to gross more than $6 billion at the worldwide box office. The first 10 feature films, through Up, have garnered 35 Academy Award® nominations, nine Oscars®, six Golden Globes® and numerous other accolades. From toys, bugs, monsters, fish and superheroes to cars, rats, robots and septuagenarians, Pixarys talented creative and technical teams have given audiences of all ages some of the most beloved characters in film. Pairing these unique, relatable characters with compelling stories and immersive, believable worlds, Pixar continually delivers on its promise to truly entertain audiences all over the world. Short Films Pixar Animation Studios has long believed in making short films. In 1986, Pixars first-ever short, Luxo Jr., launched a new direction in animated filmmaking, using three-dimensional computer animation to tell a story. Since then, nearly every feature film that Pixar has released has included a short beforehand, bringing back a tradition that was once an expected pleasure for filmgoers.
Pixars shorts have helped foster and develop technologies and talent at the studio, but they are mostly made for one simple reason: love of the art form. From Tin Toys (1989) toy-tormenting baby to Partly Cloudys (2009) adorable storks, Pixars shorts have delighted audiences and earned critical praise, garnering nine Academy Award® nominations and three Best Animated Short Film Academy Awards®. Day & Night, the studios most recent short, debuted in theaters with Toy Story 3. Technology Since its incorporation, Pixar has been responsible for many important breakthroughs in the application of computer graphics (CG) for filmmaking. Consequently, the company has attracted some of the worlds finest talent in this area. Pixars technical and creative teams have collaborated since 1986 to develop a wealth of production software used in-house to create its movies and further the state of the art in CG movie making. This proprietary technology allows the production of animated images of a quality, richness and vibrancy that are unique in the industry, and above all, allows the director to precisely control the end results in a way that is exactly right for the story. Pixar continues to invest heavily in its software systems and believes that further advancements will lead to additional productivity and quality improvements in the making of its computer animated films. Pixar also has a long standing tradition of sharing its advances within the broader CG community, through technical papers, technology partnerships, and most notably through its publicly available RenderMan product for the highest-quality, photo-realistic images currently available. RenderMan remains the standard in CG film visual effects and feature animation and has been honored with an Academy Award for technical achievement. In 2001, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences Board of Governors® honored Ed Catmull, president of Pixar and Disney Animation Studios, Loren Carpenter, senior scientist, and Rob Cook, vice president of software engineering, with an Academy Award of
Merit (Oscar®) "for significant advancements to the field of motion picture rendering as exemplified in Pixars RenderMan." In 2002, the Producers Guild of America honored Pixar with the Guilds inaugural Vanguard Award, which recognizes outstanding achievement in new media and technology. Creative Team Pixars creative department is led by Chief Creative Officer John Lasseter, an Academy Award®-winning director and animator. Under the guidance of Lasseter, Pixar has built a creative team that includes a department of highly skilled animators, a story department and an art department. This team is responsible for creating, writing and animating all of Pixars films. Pixar strives to hire animators who have superior acting ability - those able to bring characters and inanimate objects to life, as though they have their own thought processes. In order to attract and retain quality animators, the company founded Pixar University, which conducts three-month long courses for new and existing animators. Pixar also has a complete production team that gives the company the capability to control all elements of production of its films. Pixar has successfully expanded the production team so projects may be worked on simultaneously. Disney Relationship Since the release of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs by Disney in 1937, animated films have become one of the most universally enjoyed forms of entertainment. Disney has a long history of developing, producing, and distributing films such as Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin and The Lion King. The stories and characters of these popular animated feature films have become part of our modern mythology, enjoyed generation after generation. Traditionally, these popular animated feature films have been created using the time-consuming and labor- intensive process of two-dimensional, hand-drawn cel animation. In May 1991, Pixar entered into an agreement with Walt Disney Pictures for the development and production of up to three computer animated feature films to be marketed and distributed by Disney. It was pursuant
to this agreement that Toy Story was developed, produced, anddistributed. In February 1997, Pixar entered into a new Co-ProductionAgreement with Disney pursuant to which Pixar, on an exclusive basis,agreed to produce five original computer-animated feature-lengththeatrical motion pictures for distribution by Disney. The five originalPictures under the Co-Production Agreement were A Bugs Life,Monsters, Inc., Finding Nemo, The Incredible, and Cars. Toy Story 2,the theatrical sequel to Toy Story, was released in November 1999, andis also included in the Co-Production Agreement. Ratatouille wassubsequently added to the terms of the Co-Production Agreement inJanuary 2006.On January 24, 2006, Pixar entered into an agreement with The WaltDisney Company to merge the two companies. The deal was approvedby shareholders of both companies and the merger became effective onMay 5, 2006. Pixar is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of The WaltDisney Company.
TraditionsWhile some of Pixars first animators were former cel animators,including John Lasseter, they also came from stop motion animation orcomputer animation or were fresh college graduates.A large number ofanimators that make up the animation department at Pixar were hiredaround the time Pixar released A Bugs Life and Toy Story 2. AlthoughToy Story was a successful film, it was Pixars only feature film at thetime. The majority of the animation industry was, and is still located inLos Angeles, California, while Pixar is located 350 miles (560 km) northin the San Francisco Bay Area. Also, traditional 2-D animation was stillthe dominant medium for feature animated films.With the dearth of Los Angeles-based animators willing to move theirfamilies so far north, give up traditional animation, and try computeranimation, Pixars new-hires at this time either came directly fromcollege, or had worked outside feature animation. For those who hadtraditional animation skills, the Pixar animation software (Marionette) isdesigned so that traditional animators would require a minimum amountof training before becoming productive.In an interview with PBS talk show host Tavis Smiley,Lasseter said thatPixar films follow the same theme of self improvement as the companyitself has: with the help of friends or family, a character ventures out intothe real world and learns to appreciate his friends and family. At thecore, Lasseter said, "its gotta be about the growth of the main character,and how he changes."Pixar has been criticized for its lack of female protagonists.Brave,Pixars 13th cinema release, will be the studios first with a female lead(voiced by Kelly Macdonald).
Sequels and prequelsToy Story 2 was commissioned by Disney as a direct-to-video, 60-minute film. Feeling the material wasnt very good, John Lasseterconvinced the Pixar team to start from scratch and make that their thirdfull-length feature film. Toy Story 3 was the second big-screen sequelwhen it was released on June 18, 2010. Cars 2, the studios thirdtheatrical sequel, was released on June 24, 2011. On June 27, 2011 TomHanks implied that a fourth Toy Story movie was in the works, but thishas not been confirmed by the studio.Pixar states that they believe that sequels should only be made if theycan come up with a story as good as the original. Following the releaseof Toy Story 2, Pixar and Disney had a gentlemens agreement thatDisney would not make any sequels without Pixars involvement, despitetheir right to do so. In 2004, after Pixar announced they were unable toagree on a new deal, Disney announced that they would go ahead withsequels to Pixars films with or without Pixar. Toy Story 3 was put intopre-production at the new CGI division of Walt Disney FeatureAnimation, Circle 7 Animation.When Lasseter was placed in charge of all Disney and Pixar animationfollowing the merger, he immediately put all sequels on hold; Disneystated that Toy Story 3 had been cancelled. However, in May 2006, itwas announced that Toy Story 3 was back in pre-production, underPixars control when a new plot had been conceived.Lasseter further fueled speculation on future sequels when he stated, "Ifwe have a great story, well do a sequel". Cars 2, Pixars first sequel notbased on Toy Story, was officially announced on April 8, 2008.Monsters University, the prequel to Monsters Inc. and Pixars firstprequel, was announced on April 22, 2010, for release on November 2,2012.
Pixar: 25 Years of Animation Pixar celebrated 25 years of animation in 2011 with the release of its twelfth feature film, Cars 2. Pixar had celebrated its 20th anniversary with the first Cars. The Pixar: 25 Years of Animation exhibition washeld at the Oakland Museum of California from July 2010 until January 2011.The exhibition tour debuts in Hong Kong, and was held at the Hong Kong Heritage Museum in Sha Tin, between March 27 and July 11, 2011.Pixar: 25 Years of Animation includes all of the artwork from Pixar: 20 Years of Animation, plus art from Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up, and Toy Story 3.