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- 1. Implementation of Reed Solomon Codes Guided by: Mr. Madhusudan Singh Assistant Professor NIT Nagaland Submitted by: Mukesh Kumar Ram Singh Yadav
- 2. Contents Objective Introduction Error Detection Schemes Classification of Forward Error Correction Codes Comparison between some Forward Error Detection Techniques Reed Solomon Code RS Encoding and Decoding Conclusion Reference
- 3. Objective To Implement Reed Solomon error correcting codes by designing an efficient encoder and decoder for Reed Solomon Codes. This can be done by programming using MATLAB.
- 4. INTRODUCTION Data Data Source Communication Sink Channel Noisy Channel Transmitter Reciever
- 5. Complete Diagram of Communication System
- 6. Error Control Mechanism Forward Error Control Automatic Repeat Request (FEC) (ARQ) FEC : Channel Recovered Data __ . . . __ MessageEncoder Error Detection Error Correction Decoder
- 7. Types of FEC : - Block Codes - Convolutional Codes ARQ : Data . . . . . .>. . . . . Data . . . . < . . . . . . ACK Encoder Error detection Decoder
- 8. Linear Block Codes The parity bits of linear block codes are linear combination of the message. Linearity: where m is a k-bit information sequence c is an n-bit codeword. is a bit-by-bit mod-2 addition without carry Linear code: The sum of any two code words is a codeword. then andIf 2121 2211 ccmm cmcm
- 9. Error Detection Schemes Repetition scheme Parity scheme Checksum Scheme Cyclic Redundancy Check scheme Polarity scheme
- 10. Classification of Forward Error Correction Codes Linear Vs Non linear Cyclic Vs Non-Cyclic Systematic Vs Nonsystematic Block Vs convolutional Binary Vs Non binary
- 11. Comparison between some Forward Error Detection Techniques Hamming Code Constant weight code Low Density Parity check code Turbo Code Reed Solomon Code
- 12. Reed Solomon Codes Reed Solomon code is a linear cyclic systematic non-binary block code. RS codes operate on the information by dividing the message stream into blocks of data, adding redundancy per block depending only on the current inputs. It is capable to correct both burst errors and erasures.
- 13. RS codes are generally represented as an RS (n, k), with m-bit symbols, where Block Length: n No. of Original Message symbols: k Number of Parity Digits: n - k = 2t The relationship between the symbol size, m, and the size of the codeword n, is given by n=2^m-1 k 2t n Data Parity
- 14. Example:- A popular Reed-Solomon code is RS(255,223) with 8-bit symbols. Each codeword contains 255 code word bytes, of which 223 bytes are data and 32 bytes are parity. For this code: n = 255, k = 223, s = 8 2t = 32, t = 16 The decoder can correct any 16 symbol errors in the code word: i.e. errors in upto 16 bytes anywhere in the codeword can be automatically corrected.
- 15. Reed Solomon Encoding A generator polynomial is generated. Message signal is multiplied with generator polynomial.
- 16. Reed Solomon Decoding RS decoding is done in four levels. Syndrome calculation --It tells us whether an error has occurred during the transmission of data. The second step includes error location which tells us where the error is present. The third is to calculate magnitude of error. Forth one is the error evaluation which corrects the error.
- 17. Advantage of Reed Solomon Code Reed-Solomon codes are most widely used to correcting burst errors. coding gain is very high and less then LDPC and TURBO codes. coding gain is the measure in the difference between the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels between the uncoded system and coded system needed to achieve a given Bit Error Probability. the coding rate is very high for Reed Solomon code so it is suitable for many applications including storage and transmission. Coding Rate=k/n
- 18. Application of Reed Solomon Code Storage devices (including tape, Compact Disk, DVD etc) Wireless or mobile communications ( cellular telephones, microwave links, etc) Satellite communications Digital television
- 19. Conclusion
- 20. References International Journal of Future Computer and Communication, Vol. 3, No. 1, February 2014 by Aqib Al Azad. B.P. Lathi “Modern Digital and Analog Communication System” , third Edition. S. B. Wicker and V. K. Bhargava; “Reed Solomon Codes and Their Applications“, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1994. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~guyb/realworld/reedsolomon/reed_solom on_codes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reed%E2%80%93Solomon_error_correct ion

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