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Olfaction and pathway

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pathway of olfaction and its pathology

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Olfaction and pathway

  1. 1. Dr.R.Ram Shankar M.S.Post graduate Student UIORL,MMC&RGGGH,Chennai
  2. 2. OLFACTORY SYSTEM ADD QUALITY OF LIFE PERCEPTION OF ODOUR DEPEND ON  ANATOMICAL STATE OF NASAL EPITHELIUM  STATUS OF PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM  FOR OLFACTION CRANIAL NERVES 1,5,9,10 ARE INVOLVED
  3. 3. ODORANT SUBSTANCES REACH OLFACTORY CLEFT BY  DIFFUSION  ORTHONASAL FLOW  RETRONASAL FLOW
  4. 4. AMOUNT OF AIR FLOW  50% AIR FLOW THROUGH MIDDLE MEATUS  35% AIR FLOW THROUGH INFERIOR MEATUS  15% AIRFLOW THROUGH OLFACTORY CLEFT
  5. 5. MUCOSAL LAYER OF OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM  PRODUCED BY BOWMAN’S GLANDS DEEP IN LAMINA PROPRIA AND RESPIRATORY GOBLET CELLS  NECESSARY FOR CONCENTRATION OF ODORANT SUBSTANCES  FOR SUBSTANCE TO PRODUCE ODOUR IT MUST BE LIPID SOLUBLE AND VOLATILE
  6. 6. OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM  LOCATION-POSTEROSUPERIOR PART OF NOSE  AREA OF OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM-5 SQ.CM  PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  4 TYPES OF CELLS-CILIATED OLFACTORY RECEPTOR,MICROVILLI CELLS,SUSTENTACULAR CELLS,BASAL CELLS
  7. 7. BASAL CELLS  HORIZONTAL BASAL CELL  GLOBOSE BASAL CELL-STEM CELL
  8. 8. OLFACTORY PATHWAY CILIATED OLFACTORY RECEPTORAXONS CONDENSE TO FORM OLFACTORY NERVE10-15 FORAMINA IN CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID CONVERGE ON MITRAL CELLS OF GLOMERULI IN OLFACTORY BULBOLFACTORY TRACT PASS CROSSING OPTIC NERVEAND OPTIC CHIASMA END IN PYRIFORM CORTEX  .
  9. 9. OLFACTORY CORTEX  PRIMARY OLFACTORY CORTEX  SECONDARY OLFACTORY CORTEX  TERTIARY OLFACTORY CORTEX
  10. 10. VOMERONASAL ORGAN OF JACOBSON  GROOVE IN ANTEROINFERIOR PART OF NASAL SEPTUM  PHERMONES  DO NOT DISTURB UNLESS NECESSARY IN SEPTAL SURGERY
  11. 11. ODOUR TRANSDUCTION AND PROCESSING
  12. 12. RECOGNITION AND DISCRIMINATION OF ODOURS  ODOUR MAPS  HUMANS HAVE RECEPTOR GLOMERULUS RATIO OF 1:16
  13. 13. IDENTIFICATION TEST  PHENYL ETHYL ALCOHOL  PYRIDINE  1-BUTANOL
  14. 14. TESTS  4 ODORANTS AT GIVEN CONCENTRATION  2 ALTERNATIVE FORCED CHOICE PROCEDURE  SCREENING TEST USING ALCOHOL PAD
  15. 15. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS  ELECTROOLFACTOGRAM  BRAIN EVOKED POTENTIALS *EXCITATION OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE *EXCITATION OF OLFACTORY NERVE  CONTINGENT NEGATIVE VARIATION
  16. 16. UPSIT  UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SMELL IDENTIFICATION TEST  MOST WIDELY USED  40 POINT CARD TEST  6 CATEGORIES
  17. 17. CLINICAL CONDITIONS  ANOSMIA  HYPOSMIA  PAROSMIA  PHANTOSMIA  HYPEROSMIA  HETEROSMIA  PRESBYOSMIA  OSMOPHOBIA  OLFACTORY AGNOSIA
  18. 18. DISEASES AFFECTING OLFACTION
  19. 19. OBSTRUCTIVE NASAL AND SINUS DISEASE  MEDIAL AND ANTERIOR TO LOWER PART OF MIDDLE TURBINATE  1-2 WEEKS OF STEROIDS
  20. 20. AFTER URI  LAST FOR 1-3 DAYS  DECREASED NUMBER OF OLFACTORY RECEPTORS
  21. 21. HEAD TRAUMA  5-10%  ANOSMIA COMMON ONSET IMMEDIATE  MC IN FRONTAL BLOWS
  22. 22. AGE  INCREASED AGE CAUSE DECREASE IN MITRAL CELLS OF OLFACTORY BULB
  23. 23. CONGENITAL  RECOGNISE NEARING AGE OF 8  KALLMAN SYNDROME
  24. 24. TOXINS  FORMALINE  POLLUTANTS  CONDITION IS PROGRESSIVE
  25. 25. NEOPLASMS  INTRANASAL TUMOURS  INTRACRANIAL TUMOURS
  26. 26. MEDICATIONS  METRO  CLORFIBRATE  CPM  AMPHOTERICIN B  AMPI,TETRACYCLINE, STREPTOMYCIN  DOXORUBICIN,AZA  PTU,CARBIMAZOLE  ALLOPURINOL  CAPTOPRIL  GLIPIZIDE  COEDINE  MORPHINE  CARBAMAZEPINE, LITHIUM,PHENYTOIN
  27. 27.  HIV  EPILEPSY  PSYCHAITRIC DISTURBANCES
  28. 28. SURGERIES  NOW RARE DUE TO FESS  MORE COMMON IN CRANIAL AND SKULL BASE SX  LESS WITH ENDOSCOPIC PITUITARY SX
  29. 29. MANAGEMENT  TREAT THE CAUSE  MEDICATIONS TRIED-STEROIDS VITAMIN A
  30. 30. THANK YOU

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