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TOXICITY ANALYSIS
A Real-World, Real-Time Technique
 for the Wastewater Market.
INTRODUCTION
The SciTOX Vision and Process
- Payback - WWTP specific


SciTOX, the company
                                                                          ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


SciTOX, the company
                                                                          ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


SciTOX: Board of Directors
                                                                   ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Technology Patents
                                                                           ...
The Market
Wastewater Treatment
- Payback - WWTP specific
                                                                             - Rapid  - Cost to ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


VALUE Measurements: Where
                                                                    ...
The Technology
Electrochemistry and Biosensors:
  Theory and application
- Payback - WWTP specific


Electrochemistry, the basics
                                                                 ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Potentiostat basics
                                                                          ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Electrode, types
                                                                             ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Biosensors
                                                                                   ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Biosensors
                                                                                  -...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Whole Cell Biosensors: The benefits
                                                          ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Whole Cell Biosensors: The benefits
                                                          ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Reagents: Ferricyanide Benefits
                                                              ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Ferricyanide: A Chemical Equation
                                                            ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Electrode Stability
                                                                          ...
The Technology
Toxicity Measurement
- Payback - WWTP specific


Toxicant Measurement
                                                                         ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Toxicant Measurement
                                                                         ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


BPU and MIQ Examples
                                                                         ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Toxicant Measurement
                                                                         ...
The Solution
The SciTOX ALPHA Toxicity analyzer
- Payback - WWTP specific


SciTOX: The first idea
                                                             - Rapid  -...
- Payback - WWTP specific


The ALPHA Toxicity Analyzer
                                                                  ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


ALPHA strengths
                                                                              ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Initial Menu Screen
                                          - Rapid  - Cost to Own
         ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Transducer Check
                                        - Rapid  - Cost to Own
              ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Transducer Check
                                       - Rapid  - Cost to Own
               ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Functional Checks Screen
                                               - Rapid  - Cost to Own...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Biological Check Screen
                                              - Rapid  - Cost to Own
 ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Prepare inoculum
                                                                             ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Prepare inoculum
                                                                     - Rapid ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Prepare inoculum
                                                                      - Rapid...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Prepare Reagent, simple
                                                                      ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Sample Analysis, begin control test
                                                          ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Sample Analysis, incubation
                                                  - Rapid  - Cost ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Sample Analysis, take reading
                                                    - Rapid  - C...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Sample Analysis, results
                                               - Rapid  - Cost to Own...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Sample Analysis, results
                                               - Rapid  - Cost to Own...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Toxicity Analysis: Lead
                                                                      ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Toxicity Analysis: Copper
                                                                    ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


Toxicity Analysis: Zinc
                                                                      ...
0.4
                                                                                          - Payback - WWTP specific


...
- Payback - WWTP specific


SciTOX solutions, the benefits
                                                               ...
SciTOX
Our second product, the UniTOX
- Payback - WWTP specific


SciTOX products: UniTOX
                                                                      ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


UniTOX, the market
                                                                           ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


References: A suggested few
                                                                  ...
- Payback - WWTP specific


References: A suggested few
                                                                  ...
- Payback - WWTP specific
                                                             - Rapid  - Cost to Own
            ...
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Sci Tox Linked In Seminar

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Basic seminar for SciTOX, a toxicology analyzer for wastewater treatment

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Sci Tox Linked In Seminar

  1. 1. TOXICITY ANALYSIS A Real-World, Real-Time Technique for the Wastewater Market.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The SciTOX Vision and Process
  3. 3. - Payback - WWTP specific SciTOX, the company - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Created in December of 2008  Started as a result of a public investment offering. – The offering closed oversubscribed by 30%, at 1.3M NZD.  Company has exclusive license to a technology developed and patented by Lincoln Ventures Ltd. (www.lvl.co.nz) – A subsidiary of Lincoln University, New Zealand. – Technology is a biosensor developed under government FRST (Foundation for Research in Science and Technology) funding. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  4. 4. - Payback - WWTP specific SciTOX, the company - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Application development of the technology and product done at several sites – Lincoln Ventures, Dr. Neil Pasco, Manager of Biosensor Group – Griffith University, Australia. PhD thesis of Dr. Kylie Catterall – Gold Coast Water, Australia (www.goldcoastwater.com.au) • Dr. Kylie Catterall, Manager. Young Environmental Scientist of the Year, Australia, 2008 – Maarten van Eerten, Tomari Technology, Contract scientist for SciTOX. Developed significant calibrations for other analytical technologies in NZ and Australia. www.tomari.co.nz – Dr. Aaron Marshall, University of Canterbury. Chemical Engineering and Electrochemistry. (www.canterbury.ac.nz)  Company located in Christchurch, New Zealand – About 15 minutes drive from Lincoln Ventures. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  5. 5. - Payback - WWTP specific SciTOX: Board of Directors - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Dr. Merv Jones, Chairman. Chemical Engineer. Former (retired) Asia- Pacific Vice President for URS, a global Environmental Engineering company. (http://www.urscorp.com/)  Colin Harvey. Founder and Managing Director of Ancare, New Zealand. (www.ancare.co.nz) Veterinary products. Sold company in 2007 and now is Venture Capital provider.  Brent Ogilvie: Pacific Channel Ltd., investment advisor. New Zealand Venture Investment Fund. (www.pacificchannel.com)  Ralph Wattinger: CEO and Managing Director, SciTOX. Managing Director of Int2egy Limited and Int2egy (NZ) Ltd. (www.Integy-Ltd.com) Formerly with Emerson Company and Teledyne Technologies. Co- founder of SciTOX.  Peter Barrowclough: CEO of Lincoln Ventures Ltd. Director at Canterbury Development Corporation. Former R&D Manager for PGG Wrightson. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  6. 6. - Payback - WWTP specific Technology Patents - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Generated by Lincoln Ventures and licensed exclusively to SciTOX.  SciTOX Patent Portfolio – Method and apparatus for measuring use of a substrate in a microbially catalysed reaction; New Zealand; 336072; Granted – Method and apparatus for measuring use of a substrate in a microbially catalysed reaction; Australia; 717224; Granted – Method and apparatus for measuring use of a substrate in a microbially catalysed reaction; USA; 6,379,914; Granted – Method and apparatus for measuring use of a substrate in a microbially catalysed reaction; Japan; 3479085; Granted – Method and apparatus for measuring use of a substrate in a microbially catalysed reaction; Europe; 97946176.1; Allowed – Method and apparatus for measuring use of a substrate in a microbially catalysed reaction; Canada; 2307603; Granted  SciTOX plans to file further patents as warranted. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  7. 7. The Market Wastewater Treatment
  8. 8. - Payback - WWTP specific - Rapid - Cost to Own Wastewater Treatment: The Bottom Line Value Value Proposition  Virtually any secondary treatment will be biological in nature, and susceptible to toxicity.  Any secondary treatment requires considerable electric power, and is expensive.  If the WWTP is advanced and uses nitrification and/or denitrification, or biological phosphorous removal, it is more expensive to operate and more susceptible to toxins.  Any control measurement must be as close to real-time as possible, so possible problems can be dealt with before they affect the treatment process. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  9. 9. - Payback - WWTP specific VALUE Measurements: Where - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition Influent 3. Primary Treatment Secondary Treatment Secondary Clarification 2. 1. 2. 3. Primary Solids Methane Secondary Solids 2. Supernatant Dewatered Solids 1. Toxicity 2. BOD correlation Anaerobic Digestion 3. Food/Micro-Organism 1. 2. Contract Waste Hauler Raw Influent Final Effluent 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  10. 10. The Technology Electrochemistry and Biosensors: Theory and application
  11. 11. - Payback - WWTP specific Electrochemistry, the basics - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  It is a well-known analytical technique – Yet, most of us have probably not used or thought about it since university.  Sensitive and robust  Easy to maintain and operate – Minimal sample, or reagent needed.  Measures differences in the electric potential in samples before and after either oxidation or reduction. It is a Redox measurement.  Uses a Potentiostat to measure the current. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  12. 12. - Payback - WWTP specific Potentiostat basics - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Definition – A potentiostat is an electronic instrument that controls the voltage difference between a working electrode and a reference electrode. Both electrodes are contained in an electrochemical cell. The potentiostat implements this control by injecting current into the cell through an auxiliary, or counter, electrode. – In almost all applications, the potentiostat measures the current flow between the working and auxiliary electrodes. The controlled variable in a potentiostat is the cell potential and the measured variable is the cell current. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  13. 13. - Payback - WWTP specific Electrode, types - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Material can be fabricated from a variety of materials  Cathode usually larger. Reaction is not measured at this pole.  Anode is smaller. – Micro-electrodes (anodes) typically are limited to a maximum of 50 microns – Larger anodes increase the degree of interference from other reactions. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  14. 14. - Payback - WWTP specific Biosensors - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Biosensors are analytical devices that detect, transmit and record information about a physiological or biochemical change.  They are composed of two essential elements: – a bio-recognition component (bio-component, cells) and, – a transducer. ref: D'Souza SF (2001) Biosens. Bioelect. 16(6), 337-353. – Excellent review of whole cell biosensors, including functionality, immobilization, transduction and applications. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  15. 15. - Payback - WWTP specific Biosensors - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Whole cell, or microbial, biosensors may incorporate either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells as the bio-component.  Bio-sensing strategies based on cellular respiration have, historically, used a number of monitoring techniques including measuring: – Oxygen depletion (due to the breakdown of carbon structures and terminal electron accepting activity); – Generation of CO2 (through the Kreb’s cycle); – Accumulation/production of reduced co-factors (using redox mediators/dyes); and – Production of ATP (via luminescent proteins). 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  16. 16. - Payback - WWTP specific Whole Cell Biosensors: The benefits - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Cost: Microorganisms are cheaper, quicker and easier to produce and do not require extensive purification. Nor do they need the addition of expensive co-factors.  Stability: The cellular environment protects sub-cellular components from inactivation and preserves intracellular enzyme systems in their natural environments.  Broad spectrum range: Microorganisms are present ubiquitously and are able to metabolize a wide range of substrates. Whole cells also provide a multi-purpose catalyst, particularly useful when the biosensor requires the participation of a number of enzymes in sequence.  Shelf-life: Whole cells can be immobilized onto the sensor and stored for many months, requiring only a re-hydration step before use. By comparison, enzyme biosensors can only last for a few days. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  17. 17. - Payback - WWTP specific Whole Cell Biosensors: The benefits - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Adaptability: Microorganisms have a great capacity to adapt to adverse conditions and can develop the ability to degrade new compounds over time.  Modification: Microorganisms are amenable to genetic modifications through mutation or recombinant DNA technology.  Growth rate: Microorganisms have a large population size, are self replicating, have a rapid growth rate and are easy to maintain.  Generality: A major strength of whole cell bio-sensing is not the specificity of their response, but the generality. Unlike enzyme-based biosensors, whole cell biosensors often assay the effect of the target chemical(s) rather than identify the chemical itself. – However, catabolic biosensors based on the ability of some microorganisms to metabolize potentially toxic compounds (often called ‘bio-reporters’) are capable of specificity. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  18. 18. - Payback - WWTP specific Reagents: Ferricyanide Benefits - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  The most commonly used inorganic mediator in bio-sensing is hexacyanoferrate (III) and it has many of the characteristics of an ‘ideal’ mediator including: – A well-defined stoichiometry, – A known formal potential, – Fast heterogeneous and homogeneous electron transfer, – Is ready soluble in aqueous media at ph 7, – Is stable in both oxidised and reduced forms, and – Has no interaction with the biocomponents that alter its redox potential. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  19. 19. - Payback - WWTP specific Ferricyanide: A Chemical Equation - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition A representative stoichiometric equation for the aerobic oxidation of an organic substrate is: CH2O + O2 microorganisms H2O + CO2 organic substrate electron acceptor Like aerobic oxidation, the hexacyanoferrate (III)-mediated degradation of organic compounds by microorganisms involves the oxidation of organic substrates to CO2 (Eq. 1a). When the microorganisms oxidise organic compounds in a SciTOX incubation, the hexacyanoferrate (III) acts an electron acceptor and is reduced to hexacyanoferrate (II) (Eq. 1b), which in turn is re-oxidised to hexacyanoferrate (III) at a working electrode (anode). CH2O + H2O → CO2 + 4H+ + 4e‾ (1a) [Fe(CN6)]3‾ + e‾ → [Fe(CN)6]4‾ (1b) CH2O + H2O + 4[Fe(CN)6]3‾ → CO2 + 4H+ + 4[Fe(CN)6]4‾ (1c) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  20. 20. - Payback - WWTP specific Electrode Stability - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition Potential Equation R2 100mV y = 6.5986x + 0.3208 R2 = 0.9999 200mV y = 6.9707x + 0.3773 R2 = 1 300mV y = 7.0327x + 0.4037 R2 = 0.9999 400mV y = 7.0294x + 0.6497 R2 = 0.9999 22-04-08. Calibration of Scitox electrode (Pt 50µm/Au) in Scitox transducer v1.0. 80 70 60 50 i(nA) 40 100mV 30 200mV 300mV 20 400mV 10 0 0 5 10 15 KFCII conc. (m M) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  21. 21. The Technology Toxicity Measurement
  22. 22. - Payback - WWTP specific Toxicant Measurement - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  How is toxicity measured? – It is not a mg/l type of measurement – Can be compared to a pharmaceutical tablet; content given in IU, not mg. – It has no absolute standard, like testing lead, chloroform, etc. – Customers ask: Is this a LD50 test? • No. Simply stated, the LD50 test means what amount of a toxin will kill fifty percent of a given population. • The EC50 or IQ50 measurement determines how much of a toxin reduces the metabolism of a given population by fifty percent. • The toxicity assay is a sort of precursor to the LD50 test. • Often, if an organism has its metabolism reduced by fifty percent, it is going to be dead, but is not yet.  SciTOX utilizes two relative measurements – Biological Potential Units (BPU) – Metabolic Inhibition Quotient (MIQ) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  23. 23. - Payback - WWTP specific Toxicant Measurement - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Biological Potential Units: This represents the relative bacterial activity of a sample compared to a control sample. – Note: If the activity (and hence nA reading) of a sample is greater than the Control, then the calculated BPU will be greater than 100. This can often happen when the sample activity is similar to the control, and the difference is just due to experimental variation of the bacteria. Other times, it can be due to an increased biological activity.  Metabolic Inhibition Quotient – MIQ is a measure of Metabolic Inhibition in the test sample compared to the Control. It represents the percent drop in metabolic activity. – If a negative value is displayed, disregard the MIQ value, and pay attention to the BPU – it represents the relative activity compared to the control (water). 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  24. 24. - Payback - WWTP specific BPU and MIQ Examples - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition MIQ is a measure of Metabolic Inhibition in the test sample compared to the Control. It represents the percent drop in metabolic activity. MIQ is calculated from the relative activity of the test sample (BPU) in the following formulae: BPU = 100 * (nA of Sample) / (nA of Control) MIQ = 100 - BPU Example: Control: 53.6 nA Sample: 39.4 nA BPU = 100 * 39.4 / 53.6 = 73.5 MIQ = 100 - BPU = 26.5 In the above example, the sample had 73.5% metabolic activity (BPU) due to a 26.5% metabolic inhibition (MIQ). 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  25. 25. - Payback - WWTP specific Toxicant Measurement - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  This is a measurement of the effect of a toxicant on the metabolism of bacteria  The bacteria act on the mediator (Ferricyanide) reducing it to Ferrocyanide.  We measure the change in Redox potential from this action.  BIG THING: Because this test measures the effect on biological metabolism, it is also INDICATIVE of the results from the standard BOD assay. – Much, much faster, though. (Five days vs. fifteen minutes) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  26. 26. The Solution The SciTOX ALPHA Toxicity analyzer
  27. 27. - Payback - WWTP specific SciTOX: The first idea - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  This was our ‘Proof of Concept’ unit.  Six units were produced.  Basic hardware design remained the same on commercial production.  Biggest change is in the chassis, sample handling, and the software 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  28. 28. - Payback - WWTP specific The ALPHA Toxicity Analyzer - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition Wireless Antenna Touchscreen Cell Battery under cap Transducer Array body Firewire Sample Pod Crowns, Aluminium Indicator LED’s Sample Pods, for heating and mixing Aluminium Chassis, Powder-Coated This is the production unit. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  29. 29. - Payback - WWTP specific ALPHA strengths - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Customer/market focus: SciTOX specifically targets the wastewater treatment market.  Is there a payback? It comes from three possible sources – Potential to charge industrial contributors to the waste stream based on the toxicity (and biodegradability) of their waste. – Potential to monitor incoming waste and take corrective action if a toxic surge comes to the plant. – Potential to increase operational performance with real-time biodegradability data. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  30. 30. - Payback - WWTP specific Initial Menu Screen - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  31. 31. - Payback - WWTP specific Transducer Check - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition NOT WORKING The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  32. 32. - Payback - WWTP specific Transducer Check - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  33. 33. - Payback - WWTP specific Functional Checks Screen - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition Probe Check: Test probe electronically Biological Check: Check performance of inoculum Recondition probe: Electro- conditioning procedure to clean probe The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  34. 34. - Payback - WWTP specific Biological Check Screen - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition Expressed as: Metabolic Inhibition Quotient BPU; Biological Potential Nano Amps The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  35. 35. - Payback - WWTP specific Prepare inoculum - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Inoculum, what is it? It is the bacterial sample from the WWTP that is used to measure the toxic effect. – It makes this test specific to each individual WWTP. – Remember all the kinds of bacteria in wastewater treatment. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  36. 36. - Payback - WWTP specific Prepare inoculum - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Filter the sludge, or concentrate it by some other means. – Centrifugation possible; more difficult The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  37. 37. - Payback - WWTP specific Prepare inoculum - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Pipette and suspend the sludge in perhaps 10-20ml of buffer.  Prepare day before; store in refrigerator. The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  38. 38. - Payback - WWTP specific Prepare Reagent, simple - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Use Potassium Ferricyanide, reagent grade  Measure out the appropriate amount of Potassium Ferricyanide and dissolve in water.  Store in a dark glass or plastic bottle.  The buffer solution is a weak Potassium Chloride solution with trace Magnesium Sulphate added. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  39. 39. - Payback - WWTP specific Sample Analysis, begin control test - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  40. 40. - Payback - WWTP specific Sample Analysis, incubation - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  41. 41. - Payback - WWTP specific Sample Analysis, take reading - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  42. 42. - Payback - WWTP specific Sample Analysis, results - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  43. 43. - Payback - WWTP specific Sample Analysis, results - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  44. 44. - Payback - WWTP specific Toxicity Analysis: Lead - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition 1A. Pb2+ Standard Curve Conforms to published EC50 data for with [Pb ] 1C. Current variation Lead 1B. Rest potential variation with [Pb2+] 2+ 110 8 440 100 420 90 6 Rest Potential (mV 400 Current (nA) 80 % Activity 380 70 4 60 360 50 340 2 40 320 30 300 0 0 100 200 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 Pb2+ (mg L-1) Pb2+ (mg L-1) Pb2+ (mg L-1) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  45. 45. - Payback - WWTP specific Toxicity Analysis: Copper - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition 2A. Cu2+ Standard Curve 2B. Rest potential variation with [Cu2+] 2C. Current variation with [Cu2+] 120 460 Conforms to published EC50 data for Copper 8 440 7 100 420 6 80 Rest Potential Current (nA) 400 5 % Activity 60 380 4 360 3 40 340 2 20 320 1 0 300 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cu2+ (mg L-1) Cu2+ (mg L-1) Cu2+ (mg L-1) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  46. 46. - Payback - WWTP specific Toxicity Analysis: Zinc - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition 4A. Zn2+ Standard Curve 4B. Rest potential variation with [Zn2+] 4C. Current variation with [Zn2+] Conforms to published EC50 data for Zinc 120 460 8 100 440 7 420 6 Rest Potential (mV) 80 Current (nA) 400 5 % Activity 60 380 4 40 360 3 20 340 2 0 320 1 -20 300 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 Zn2+ (mg L-1) Zn2+ (mg L-1) Zn2+ (mg L-1) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  47. 47. 0.4 - Payback - WWTP specific Toxicity Results, Acetone - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value 0.2 Proposition 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 3,5-DCP (mg L-1) 6B. Activity vs Acetone (17 Jun 08) Measured supernatant in Eppendorf Tube 1.2 1.0 0.8 Activity 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Acetone (g L-1) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  48. 48. - Payback - WWTP specific SciTOX solutions, the benefits - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Simplicity and time needed: Non technical people can run the test, and total time is 15 minutes, including incubation. – Less than time required for standard and non-standard BOD tests or COD analysis  Application focus: This is an analyzer dedicated to the wastewater industry. – Designed specifically for the wastewater industry – Results correlation possible to BOD (non-regulatory) 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  49. 49. SciTOX Our second product, the UniTOX
  50. 50. - Payback - WWTP specific SciTOX products: UniTOX - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Announced in December 2009 – A ‘University’ product, the UniTOX. • Focused on teaching labs to give an easy-to-use analyzer for training and method development research • Software focused on method development and techniques • Supplied with three or four types of electrodes • Possible uses – Hazardous waste bioremediation. Test using bacteria developed for treatment. – Physical treatment of hazardous waste (irradiation). Is the treatment reducing toxicity? – Other cell cultures, like animal liver cells. Biotech/Physiology Research. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  51. 51. - Payback - WWTP specific UniTOX, the market - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Additional areas of interest – Antibiotic residue screening – Bacterial contamination in prepared foods. – Bacterial metabolism research, can be applied to fuel cell research. – Incorporation of antibodies in reagent mix, targeting specific chemical analysis (catabolic biosensor) – Biotechnology departments: Development of Analytical methods and biosensors. – Physiology Departments: Development of new test procedures and screening procedures using different cell types or mixes. • This is a unique aspect to the SciTOX products. They are not limited to a single type of bacteria. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  52. 52. - Payback - WWTP specific References: A suggested few - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  D'Souza SF (2001) Biosens. Bioelect. 16(6), 337-353. – Excellent review of whole cell biosensors, including functionality, immobilisation, transduction and applications.  Pasco NF, Hay JM, Webber J (2001) Biomarkers 6(1), 83-89. – Original publication describing application of a mediated bioassay for monitoring DTA.  Keane A, Phoenix P, Ghoshal S, Lau PCK (2002) J. of Microbiol. Methods 49, 103-119. – Review of whole cell biosensors application for monitoring the toxicity of organic pollutants.  Kissinger PT (2005) Biosensors & Bioelectronics 20, 2512-2516.  Hansen LH & Sorensen SJ (2001) Microbial Ecology 42, 483-94. – Good review of bio- reporter whole cell biosensors, including construction, applications and environmental monitoring.  Leveau JHJ & Lindow SE (2002) Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 5, 259-265.  Lei Y, Chen W, Mulchandani A (2005) Anal. Chim. Acta (In press). – Excellent review of whole cell biosensors, including applications, immobilization and transducers.  Rogers KR (2006) Anal. Chim. Acta 568, 222-231. – Overview of biosensors for environmental monitoring, including whole cell biosensors.  Tizzard, A (2006) Unpublished degree in Doctor of Philosophy, Lincoln University, New Zealand.  van der Meer JR, Tropel D, Jaspers M (2004) Environ. Microbiol. 6(10), 1005-1020. – Excellent review of bacterial bio-reporter biosensors, including functionality and detection. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  53. 53. - Payback - WWTP specific References: A suggested few - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition  Pasco N & Hay J (2005) Biochemical Oxygen Demand. In: J Lehr (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Water, Vol in press. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey. – Review of BOD monitoring including use of biosensors.  Karube I, Matsunaga T, Mitsuda S, Suzuki S (1977) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 19, 1535-1547 – Original rapid BOD biosensor publication.  Pasco NF, Baronian KH, Jeffries C, Hay J (2000) Appl. Microbiol.Biotechnol. 53(5), 613- 618. – Original publication describing application of a mediated bioassay for BOD monitoring.  Pasco N, Baronian K, Jeffries C, Webber J, Hay J (2004) Biosens. Bioelect. 20, 524-532.  Yoshida N, Yano K, Morita T, McNiven SJ, Nakamura H, Karube I (2000) Analyst 125, 2280-2284.  Catterall K, Morris K, Gladman C, Zhao HJ, Pasco N, John R (2001) Talanta 55(6), 1187-1194.  Catterall K, Zhao H, Pasco N, John R (2003) Anal. Chem. 75, 2584-90.  Morris K, Catterall K, Zhao H, Pasco N, John R (2001) Anal. Chim. Acta 442(1),129- 139. 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System
  54. 54. - Payback - WWTP specific - Rapid - Cost to Own Value Value Proposition THANK YOU! Questions? SciTOX Limited 1 Tussock Lane, Unit 2, Ferrymead Christchurch 8023 New Zealand P: 64 (3) 376-4996 F: 64 (3) 359-1018 E: Enquiries@SciTOX.com W: www.SciTOX.com 10/05/2010 The Rapid Toxicity Measurement System

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