Methods and Techniques in Water Stations in the Philippines


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  • 80s Water purifier brands such as Homemaster, Sanyo, Imarflex, Aquagard, and Tupuro entered the market. Purification was done at home with the simple process of passing tap water through a filter element containing different layers like sand and activated carbon. There are models which use ultraviolet light to kill harmful bacteria.90s Raw water is passed through a series of six to eight processes of filtration, adsorptive refinement, reverse osmosis, ultra violet irradiation, and ozonation to get the final product
  • Based on the Family Income and Expenditures Survey in 2000, household spending for bottledwater reached P2.4 billion with the National Capital Region accounting for over 50% of the total expenditure with each family consuming roughly one 5-gallon bottle a month.Monthly expenditure for water can run from P1,900 up to P2,800 given an average household sizeof five members and average daily consumption of 100 liters per person.
  • The government has accepted private water shops as a necessary weapon in the fight against waterborne disease and regulates their quality control practices and final product as much as possible. However, given the large number of shops, it is difficult to adequately monitor the entire industry. For instance, with the proliferation of these private sources, this could have detrimental effects on groundwater reserves and subject them to contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize and monitor compliance of these water refilling stations.
  • (1) RAW WATER TANK – Raw water from the main source will be stored in this tank. The  tank is complete with level switches and automatic shut-off valve.(2) RAW WATER PUMP – pumps water to multimedia filters(3) MULTI-MEDIA  SEDIMENTS FILTER -  The water passes through a series of sediments media which removes suspended matter and  fine sediments down to 20-10 microns size(4) MULTI-MEDIA CARBON FILTER –Water passes through this filter to remove odor, taste, and chemicals such as chlorine, synthetic detergents, insecticides, and other harmful chemicals. (5) MULTI-MEDIA SOFTENER FILTER - This converts hard water into Soft Water and condition the water.  Water passes through a bed of resin beads which attract the hardness minerals such as Calcium and Magnesium.  It makes use of brine (salt) solution as regenerant.(6),(7),(8) PRE-RO FILTERS, 10, 5 & 1 MICRON PP FILTERS - Sediment filters          removes solid particles down  1 micron(9) RO MODULE – The heart of the system. Makes use of a semi- permeable membrane to separate and remove dissolved solids, organics, pyrogens, submicron colloidal matter, viruses and bacteria from water. The process requires pressure to force pure water to flow across a membrane, leaving the impurities behind. Reverse osmosis is capable of removing 95 – 99% of all bacteria, thus providing safe, pure water.(10) PURE WATER TANK – RO Water will be collected and stored in the 1000 Li capacity tank. This tank is complete with level switches, valves and float valve.(11) DISTRIBUTION PUMP – repressurized the water to push it across post filters and UV chamber  before dispensing(12) POLISHING CARBON FILTER – Enhances the taste and texture of the water(13),(14) POST PP FILTER – Removes sediments and fines from  tanks and  post      carbon filters(15) UV WATER STERILIZER -  UV light eliminates bacteria and viruses and ensure the quality of water. (16) FILLING FAUCET – Pure water is dispense here
  • From the main source, water is treated through a water purification facility. This facility differs in every refilling station. Depending on the extent of water treatment one may desire, the water may go through any one of the following processes maybe installed: reverse osmosis, ultraviolet light sterilization, deionization, ion exchange, filtration, softening, etc. These different processes are applied to the water in series. The water generated after the treatments is referred to as the product water which is then filled to the empty bottles collected from the consumers.
  • Advantages bottled An emergency source of water in the event your primary water source fails or becomes contaminated. A convenient source of usually safe water for drinking outside of the home. Bottled water, since it does not contain chlorine, and may contain a mix of minerals to enhance flavor, may taste better than untreated tap water. Most bottled water will contain fewer contaminants than untreated tap water.
  • Boiling: In an emergency, boiling is the best way to disinfect water that is unsafe because of the presence of protozoan parasites or bacteria.Distillation:To remove impurities from water by distillation, the water is usually boiled in a chamber causing water to vaporize, and the pure (or mostly pure) steam leaves the non volatile contaminants behind. The steam moves to a different part of the unit and is cooled until it condenses back into liquid water. The resulting distillate drips into a storage container. Salts, sediment, metals - anything that won't boil or evaporate - remain in the distiller and must be removed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a good example of a contaminant that will evaporate and condense with the water vapor. A vapor trap, carbon filter, or other device must be used along with a distiller to ensure the more complete removal of contaminants. Reverse osmosis - Water pressure is used to force water molecules through a membrane that has extremely tiny pores, leaving the larger contaminants behind. Purified water is collected from the "clean" side of the membrane, and water containing the concentrated contaminants is flushed down the drain from the "contaminated" side. The average RO system is a unit consisting of a sediment/chlorine pre filter, the reverse-osmosis membrane, a water storage tank, and an activated-carbon post filter. Floccuation:This is a process which clarifies the water. Clarification is done by causing a precipitate to form in the water which can be removed using simple physical methods. Initially the precipitate forms as very small particles but as the water is gently stirred, these particles stick together to form bigger particles. Disinfection:Disinfection is accomplished both by filtering out harmful microbes and also by adding disinfectant chemicals in the last step in purifying drinking water. Water is disinfected to kill any pathogens which pass through the filters. Possible pathogens include viruses, bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and Shigella, and protozoa, including Giardialambliaand other Cryptosporidia.
  • The Department of Health is mandated by the Sanitation Code of the Philippines to protect drinking water quality. Several implementing rules and regulations were issued by DOH, which prescribes sanitary standards for water supply systems, that include water refilling stations. The function of the different Centers for Health Development (DOH-CHD) is to provide necessary technical assistance to local government units and issue initial and operational permits for water refilling stations. LGUs or the Local Government Units, as mandated by Presidential Decree (PD 856), shall issue the sanitary permit, sanitary clearance, health certificates, certificate of potability, drinking water site clearance, and if necessary the closure order for water refilling station.
  • Environmental Impact - Producing bottles uses resources, and unless they are reused or recycled, they cause a waste disposal problem. Recycle or reuse the empty bottles, if at all possible. Transporting bottles of water from the bottler to stores or homes also uses resources.
  • Methods and Techniques in Water Stations in the Philippines

    1. 1.  Water has become more and more a commodity than just a basic necessity. Even in the highly urbanized area of Metro Manila, water supply is inadequate with only 60% of the population being served by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) with a daily output of 4,000 million liters water share by the population and industry.
    2. 2.  In the country, purification started with water treatment plants and public utilities like the National Waterworks and Sewerage Authority (NAWASA). This later became the MWSS for Metropolitan Manila and the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) for the provinces. The MWSS was later privatized into the Maynilad Water and Manila Water. However it was probably only in the last 20 years when intensive campaigns were started to clean wastewater and provide safer drinking water.
    3. 3.  1980s: The deteriorating condition of water distribution lines also contributed to the popularity of water purifiers. 1990s: Sophistication of water purification technology with the introduction of bottled water from different processes and sources including imports.
    4. 4.  Source: Leading Supermarkets
    5. 5.  The rise in bottled water use is not only a local development but is actually led by developed nations. The United States is the largest market for bottled water with annual consumption of 11.2 billion liters.
    6. 6. Agua de Camarin Alaskan Spring Aqua ZoneAqua King Aqua Safe LigtasnaCrystal Clear Highland Mist Too Water CarePure and Fresh Aqua Cool Snow Valley Crystals ArvsonsAgua MiaAqualeen Alex’s Wateria MicrowaterCrystal Geyser Aqua Supreme Water ClubPurifil Island Stream AquafilAgua Siempre Spring Fresh BavescoAqualite Mountain King Anchor Water DepotDanumQuench Aqua Sweet Aqua GrandeAgua Ultima Jennssell BugisAqua Mary Spring Mist Mr. H2OForest Spring Alps Water 4 URain Mist Aqua Health Aqua Tree Cordon SpringAgua VidaAqua Q Life Flo Nature’s FlowGrotto Spring Top Notch Water MartRoyal Star Aqua 2000Agua Wide Aqua TrustAqua Road Life LineHeaven PureSnow Drift Water bin Aquabest Source: CFA databank and
    7. 7.  The sophistication of the water purification process, its packaging, branding, and marketing costs all the more made water expensive. Evian, an imported brand from France, cost almost four times as much as most other brands in the market. Correspondingly, it has the richest source of minerals. Wilkins is the most expensive local brand probably because of its reputation as suited for infant formulation even without boiling.
    8. 8.  The main process in a water refilling station is dictated by raw water quality. The typical steps are filtration (several stages), softening, and disinfection.
    9. 9.  Multi-media sediment filter – removes sediments such as rust, sand and particles that are invisible to the naked eye; employs a total of 5 filters. Ion exchanger – replaces hard minerals with soft minerals. Activated carbon filter – removes all organic chemicals, herbicide, pesticide, offensive odor and bad taste. Reverse osmosis membrane – the heart of the system and the most expensive unit; removes inorganic minerals, bacteria and viruses while retaining its oxygen content. The filter size is very small at less than 0.05 micrometre. The filtration process rejects about 50 percent of raw water volume. Post-carbon filter – improves the taste of water. Ultraviolet lamp – ensures that the water is free from disease- causing micro-organisms. Ozone generator – inhibits the growth of bacteria in the product tank and prolongs the shelf life of water.
    10. 10.  Boiling Distillation Reverse Osmosis Flocculation Disinfection
    11. 11.  Department of Health Centers for Health Development (DOH- CHD) LGUs or the Local Government Units MWSS/Maynilad
    12. 12.  Water refilling stations can be a good source of safe drinking water in the Philippines. Purified water can meet the aesthetic standards easily detectable by the people in terms of taste, odor and color. The efficient water purification processes can make the quality of water superior to the traditional water systems. However, the risk of contamination is possible if the handling practices are not closely monitored.