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Dav jalandhar-dr. r.k. khandal - sri

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Dav jalandhar-dr. r.k. khandal - sri

  1. 1. SHRIRAM INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 19, UNIVERSITY ROAD, DELHI-110 007 Dr. R. K. KHANDAL DIRECTOR NANOSCIENCE TO NANOTECHNOLOGY: SCOPE, OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES
  2. 2.  Scope of nanotechnology  Definition  Domain  Process  Dimensions  Features  Opportunities of nanotechnology  Industries  Health Care  Colorants  Organic & Inorganic materials  Biomaterials  Challenges of nanotechnology  Process technology  Manufacture  Disposal  Path Forward OUTLINE
  3. 3.  Nanomaterials: Materials consisting of particles of the size of nanometer Volume = Surface area x thickness  For a given volume:  Surface area Thickness  More atoms at surface than in the interior  Extraordinary activity SCOPE: DEFINITION
  4. 4. SCOPE : DOMAIN Keywords Domain Particle size Distribution in the continuous phase Modification of surfaces Interfacial tension Surfaces Interfaces Rising volume fraction Homogeneity of phases of dispersing phase  Domain of Nanotechnology: Multi-phase systems  Liquid : Liquid  Solid : Liquid  Surfaces and interfaces involving different phases  Gas : Liquid  Gas : Solid
  5. 5. Systems Process Emulsion Macro Micro Dispersion Coarse Fine Solution Colloid SCOPE: PROCESS  A process to create a continuous dispersed phase as fine as possible for homogeneity with the dispersing phase (Liquid / Liquid; Gas/Liquid) (Solid / Liquid) (Solid / Liquid; Liquid/Liquid) Solubilization
  6. 6. SCOPE : DIMENSIONS What Happens Dimensions  Particle size More from less  Surface area Enhanced coverage  Activity Novel products  Efficiency Improved performance per unit mass  Maximum possible benefits from minimum possible inputs  Effecting changes through and at atomic scale
  7. 7. SCOPE: FEATURES SIZE- DEPENDENT PROPERTIES As the scale goes down, the activity rises mainly due to the lowering distances at which the inter-particle interactions occur leading to evolution of energy Extremely High Emulsion High surface energy, Non-homogeneous unstable Thermodynamically Irreversible System Scale Activity Remarks Mixtures >micrometer Low Suspension Dispersion micrometer Medium Kinetically stable unstable Microemulsion Solubilised nanometer Moderately High stability probable Thermodynamic Macromolecular angstrom High Molecular Atomic Very High Nuclear Spontaneous atomic sub-atomic Thermodynamically stable Basis for new materials Source of energy
  8. 8. NANOSCIENCE TO NANOTECHNOLOGY “MACRO TO NANO” MATERIALS Copper Macro PROPERTIES Nano Opaque Transparent Platinum Catalyst Aluminium Stable Combustible Inert Gold Inert Catalyst Unique properties at the nanoscale motivates the exploitation of nanomaterials
  9. 9. OPPORTUNITIES: NANOTECHNOLOGY N A N O S C I E N C E Carbon Nanotube Nanowire N A N O T E C H N O L O G Y Carbon nanotube on plastics Array of Carbon nanotube-devices TiO2 Sunscreens Coatings Nano-TiO2
  10. 10. OPPORTUNITIES: NANOMATERIALS FOR INDUSTRIES NANOPARTICLE Electronics Multiuse Chemical Industries Defence OpticsCosmetics Medical/Biology Solar CellsSensors Electrocatalysis Photocatalysis  For any application, nanotechnology is a blend of the science of physics, chemistry and biology.  Field of optics has seen a lot success with nanotechnology; coatings and drug delivery systems are an upcoming field now.
  11. 11. OPPORTUNITIES: NANOMATERIALS FOR HEALTH CARE Drug Delivery Nanobots Nanoimplants
  12. 12. OPPORTUNITIES: NANOCOLORANTS ORGANIC DYE INORGANIC PARTICLES Paints & Coatings Nanocomposites GlassTextiles Nanopigments
  13. 13. 13 OPPORTUNITIES: ORGANIC NANOMATERIALS Problem • Carotenoides form coarse crystals that are – insoluble in water – sensitive to light and air Solution • Formation of nanoscaled micronizates • Stabilization by properly selected protective colloid ββ-Carotene-Carotene Protective colloidProtective colloid Nanoparticles, water dispersibleNanoparticles, water dispersible 250 nm250 nm250 nm250 nm
  14. 14. 14 OPPORTUNITIES: INORGANIC NANOMATERIALS
  15. 15. OPPORTUNITIES: NANOBIOMATERIALS Bones Cartilage Teeth Targeted drug delivery
  16. 16. DELIVERABLES & CHALLENGES Nanoencapsulation of drugs & their delivery Homogeneous blending Non-agglomerated dispersions AREAS Biosensors Health care Nanocolorants Automobiles Deliverables NANOTECHNOLOGY Challenges Uniform spreadability Targetted drug delivery & Controlled drug release Enhanced sensitivity Greater strength & durability Fabrication Cosmetics Better UV protection Stability & dispersion Electronics Enhanced performance Electromagnetic behaviour
  17. 17. Process of making Nanomaterials Process steps Inputs Macro Micro Nano CHALLENGES: PROCESS TECHNOLOGY Challenge: To have a process that can convert macro materials into nano materials spontaneously & with minimum efforts Energy Bulk Sugar cube Nano Dissolved sugar/salt Bulk Salt Output
  18. 18. Manufacturing Nanomaterials CHALLENGE: MANUFACTURE Input Process Output Suitable Raw materials Technology Material for desired application Challenges : • Identification and selection of suitable raw materials • Scale up of process of making nanomaterials
  19. 19. CHALLENGE:DISPOSAL OF NANOMATERIALS Nanomaterials are supposed to be hyperactive materials In contact with living systems, they are expected to react Cannot be disposed off like other materials Challenges :  Disposal ways  Understanding of Toxicity  Complete dossier of their degradability, etc. without any effect on the environment
  20. 20. POTENTIAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanoscience Nanotechnology
  21. 21. FUTURE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Structure sizes 2040 year1960 1980 2020 0.1 nm 0.1 µm 0.1 mm Nano Micro Macro Integrated use of biological principles, physical laws and chemical know-howComplex chemistry Electrical engin. Electronics Micro-electronics Material design Supramolecular chemistry Quantum effects Cell biology Molecular biology Functional molecule design Applications of nano- technology bottom upbottom up  top down top down  Chemistry Coatings, cleaning agents, composite materials, textiles, cosmetics, displays Physics Biology 2000
  22. 22. THANK YOU

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