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Mango crop protection

Mango Crop Protection

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Mango crop protection

  1. 1. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 1 of 10 Pest / Disease in Mango :Anthracnose Causal Organism : Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Symptoms:  Infection occurs – leaves, stems, young flowers and fruit  Sunken black spots appear on the surface of the fruit during ripening.  Infection – fruit is usually latent and manifests itself only as the mango begins to ripen  The disease is most severe – wet weather. Mode of spread and survival:  Inoculum remains on dried leaves, defoliated branches, mummified flowers and flower brackets.  Spread through air-borne conidia  The fungus can enter the pores of green fruits.  The latent infection of mature fruits may take place through lenticles.  The fungus apparently infects the fruits - green and develops in flesh during ripening. The latent infection is carried from the field to storage. Management : Pre-harvest control Spray with mancozeb (800 g/kg at 2 g/L) weekly during flowering and then monthly until harvest. Stop spraying 14 days before harvest. During dry weather, flower sprays may be reduced to fortnightly intervals. Should rain occur during flowering, apply prochloraz (462 g/kg) (Octave, registered trade mark), using 1 g product/L in a tank mix with mancozeb. Prochloraz only needs to be applied every 3-4 weeks. Copper oxychloride sprays (4 g/L) used for bacterial black spot control also control anthracnose, however copper oxychloride should not be used during flowering. Where bacterial black spot is serious, copper oxychloride can be substituted for mancozeb sprays after flowering. Notes on dipping  Vigorous agitation before and during dipping by means of a powerful recirculating pump is recommended to keep the fungicide suspended. This is preferable to stirring or paddling. Agitation also helps distribute heat from the heating element.  Bleed sap from fruit before dipping. Mango sap affects the stability of the fungicide suspension.  Replace the dip once it becomes contaminated by sap and dirt or after 3 days continuous use or after 4000 trays have been treated. Prewashing fruit helps to prolong dip life.  Dipping temperatures should not exceed 52° as this may result in skin damage. Allow fruit to cool before brushing. During wet weather, reduce the dipping temperature to 50° as susceptibility to skin damage increases. Disease control will be reduced at these lower temperatures. Postharvest control Hot carbendazim Hot carbendazim (registered trade mark Spin Flo, manufactured by Aventis ) is registered for postharvest treatment of mango in Queensland, Northern Territory, Western Australia and New South Wales. Spin Flo is a liquid formulation containing the active ingredient carbendazim. Dip fruit within 24 hours of harvest by totally submerging them for 5 minutes in hot water (52°C) to which has been added 100 mL product /100 L water. Lowering the temperature of the dip below 52°C will reduce the effectiveness of the treatment. Temperature must be carefully controlled to within 0.5° to prevent fruit damage. Use an accurate thermometer to monitor temperatures in various parts of the dip during use, especially near the heat source. Many growers use specially designed tanks heated by gas or electricity with manual or thermostatic temperature control. With an approximate ratio of 3 litres of dip to 1 kg of fruit, no appreciable temperature drop occurs when fruit is added to the tank. This dip also partially controls stem end rot. Epidemiology: The optimum temperature - 250°C and relative humidity from 95 to 97 per cent. Unheated prochloraz  Unheated prochloraz (Sportak, registered trade mark) spray to control anthracnose can be used as an alternative to dipping in hot carbendazim (Spin Flo).  Prochloraz is not effective against stem end rot.  Apply prochloraz 45% at 55 mL/100 L of water at ambient temperature. Prochloraz has been approved for use only as a non-recirculated spray over fruit. Complete coverage of the fruit is essential for effective control.  Fenthion may be mixed with prochloraz for fruit fly treatment for Victoria, provided fruit remain wet for one minute. Postharvest treatments will not provide complete disease control.
  2. 2. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 2 of 10 Disease/ Pest of Mango : Stem End Rot Causal Organism : Lasiodiplodia theobromae Symptoms  In fruits, the pericarp darkens near the base of the pedicel.  The affected area enlarges to form a circular, black patch which under humid atmosphere extends rapidly and turns the whole fruit completely black within two or three days. The pulp becomes brown and softer. Management Postharvest control  Avoid harvesting immature fruit. Postharvest treatment with hot water and carbendazim (Spin Flo) is partially effective against stem end rot.  For control of stem end rot during controlled atmosphere storage, a dual treatment of hot carbendazim (Spin Flo) followed by prochloraz is necessary.  Fruit from orchards with a history of stem end rot losses should be rejected for long term storage. The severity of stem end rot can be assessed as follows.  Harvest 100 mature fruit at random from throughout the orchard.  Leave them untreated and store at 25° until they are fully ripe. Ideally, less than one-tenth and certainly no more than one- third of the fruit should develop symptoms of stem end rot by the time they are fully ripe. Disease/ Pest of Mango : Diplodia stem – end rot Causal Organism : Diplodia natalensis Symptom:  Epicarp darkens around the base - pedicel.  Circular, black patch which under humid atmosphere.  Soft rot –aid of pectinolytic & cellulolytic enzymes.  More portions of fruit turns black and soften.  Lose ascorbic acid & non- reducing sugars rapidly Mode of spread and survival: The fungus persists in infected plant parts which serve as source of inoculum Epidemiology: RH – 80%, max.& min.temp. of 31.5 and 25.90C Black mould rot: Aspergillus niger Symptom:  Yellowing of base – development of irregular, hazy, greyish spots.  Mesocarp of the rotted area becomes depressed – soft.  The fruit surface – covered – blackish fungal growth.  Decrease in ascorbic acid. Notes 1. Sodium hypochlorite (liquid)  Most preparations contain from 5% to 12.5% available chlorine.  For a 5% commercial solution, add 4 mL/L.  For a 12.5% commercial solution add 1.6 mL/L. 2. Calcium hypochlorite (powder)  Contains approximately 30% active chlorine  First make a stock solution by adding 330 g of powder/L, then store in a cool, dark place.  Add 2 mL stock solution/L 3. Monitoring the chlorine level  Add 5 mL of wash solution to one litre of water, which should give a solution of 1 ppm available chlorine.  Use a swimming pool test kit to check the concentration.
  3. 3. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 3 of 10 Brown spot: Pestalotia mangiferae Symptoms:  The affected area of fruits becomes olivaceous-black and shrinks.  Black dots appear at the centre of the spots represent the acervuli.  On matured green fruits, small brown spots appear with greyish white centre which later turn to bigger lesions with large number of acervuli seen as black dots. Epidemiology:  Temp. between 20 and 250 C.  Mycelial growth with sporulation takes place at pH 5.5 to 6.0.  Wounding leads to more disease incidence. Black soft rot: Phomopsis mangiferae Symptom:  Discrete and discoloured areas all over.  Turn dark brown – black at maturity.  Black fruit in bodies appear on the spots. Spread  Soil-borne Conidia transmitted by wind & rain water Bacterial rot :Pseudomonas mangiferae- indicae Symptom:  Water-soaked lesions develop – turn dark brown to black.  The spots become black as the disease advances, which are usually haloes.  In severe cases these spots form in groups and become necrotic.  Cracks in the skin – badly affected ones drop prematurely. Mode of spread & survival:  Bacterium enters the leaf through stomata and lenticels in fruit.  When fruits are found in bunches disease spreads when they contact each other Management of other post-harvest diseases A few other fungi (Aspergillus niger, Mucor spp. etc) occasionally cause losses in fruit during storage. They cause rots on the sides or at the stem end of fruit. Rough harvesting and handling can encourage these diseases. Hot carbendazim (Spin Flo) used for anthracnose control, careful handling and observance of hygiene measures will help control these problems. Export requirements Choose fruit from orchards with low disease levels. Fruit from orchards with a history of stem end rot or other diseases should not be exported. Where carbendazim and prochloraz are not acceptable to the importing country, export is not recommended unless fruit are treated with a combination of hot water and vapour heat. Vapour heat treatment was developed for export markets which require quarantine security against fruit fly but do not accept chemical disinfestation treatments such as ethylene dibromide. Vapour heat treatment will control anthracnose during short term storage, but will not give adequate control of stem end rot. Dipping fruit in hot water at 48-52°C for 5 minutes, 24 hours prior to vapour heat treatment will improve stem end rot control. Sanitation of packing equipment Sanitisers should be used after equipment has been cleaned. Steam cleaners or high-pressure hot water applicators are very effective. Otherwise, use a hose and household detergent. If possible, use chlorinated town water. Spray packing equipment with a sanitising agent such as: (a) Chlorine solution : Use a solution containing 200 ppm (0.02%) available chlorine. (b) Quarternary ammonium compounds (e.g. applied 3.300*) : Use 2 mL/L water. This product has a residual effect. Apply only to clean surfaces. Avoid inhalation. (c) Formalin :Use 20 to 50 mLs of formalin/L water. This is a potent product which is unpleasant to use and should not be inhaled. In confined spaces, a full face mask with the correct canister is recommended. Wear protective clothing Warning : Chlorine may corrode steel and some rubber compounds if used continuously, but 2 or 3 sprays a week should not cause problems. Avoid inhalation.
  4. 4. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 4 of 10 Mango stem borer, (Batocera rufomaculata ) Identification of pest Grub - Linear, fleshy, apodous Adult - Grayish beetle with two pink dots and lateral spine Symptoms of damage  Grub tunnels in the sapwood on the trunk or branches  Grub bore into the sap wood and macking irregular tunnels.  Feeding the vascular tissues  interruption of nutrient and water transport on the tissue  Drying of terminal shoot in early stage  Frass comes out from several points and some times sap oozes out of the holes  Wilting of branches or entire tree Management  Remove and destroy dead and severely affected branches of the tree  Remove alternate host, silk cotton and other hosts  Grow tolerant mango varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin.  Swab Coal tar + Kerosene @ 1:2 or Carbaryl 50 WP 20 g / l (basal portion of the trunk - 3 feet height) after scraping the loose bark to prevent oviposition by adult beetles.  Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml in 2.5 cm /tree soaked in absorbent cotton.  If infestations are severe then apply the copper oxychloride paste on the trunk of the tree.  Hook out the grub from the bore hole - apply monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 to 20 ml/ hole  One celphos tablet (3 g aluminum phosphide) per hole  Apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud. Bark borer, Indarbela tetraonis Identification of pest  Larva - Stout and dirty brown in colour  Adult  Stout yellowish –brown moth with brown wavy markings on the forewings  Hind wings is white colour.  Males are smaller than the females Symptoms of damage  Young trees may succumb to the attack.  Caterpillars bore into the trunk or junction of branches  Caterpillars remain hidden in the tunnel during day time and come out at night, feed on the bark.  Presence of gallery made out of silk and frass Management  Remove and destroy dead and severely affected branches of the tree  Remove alternate host, silk cotton and other hosts  Grow tolerant mango varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin.  Swab Coal tar + Kerosene @ 1:2 or Carbaryl 50 WP 20 g / l (basal portion of the trunk - 3 feet height) after scraping the loose bark to prevent oviposition by adult beetles.  Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml in 2.5 cm /tree soaked in absorbent cotton.  If infestations are severe then apply the copper oxychloride paste on the trunk of the tree.  Hook out the grub from the bore hole - apply monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 to 20 ml/ hole  One celphos tablet (3 g aluminum phosphide) per hole Apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud. Shoot borer, Clumetia transversa Identification of pest:  Larva - Caterpillar is dark pink with dark brown prothroacic shield. Adult - Adult is greyish moth with grey wings having wavy lines. Symptoms of damage  Terminal shoots show tunnel from top to down wards. Stunting of seedlings with terminal bunchy appearance. Management  Field sanitation  Collect and destroy the infested plant parts  Summer ploughing to expose the pupae  Spray carbaryl 50WP 0.1%.
  5. 5. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 5 of 10 Mango hoppers, Idioscopus niveoparsus, Idioscopus clypealis, Amirtodus atkinsoni Identification of pest  Nymph - Nymphs pale yellow, very active and hide in lower shoots or in cracks in the barks.  The insect appears in February when mango trees come to flowering.  Adult  a. Idioscopus niveoparsus; Adults: dark with wavy lines on wings and three spots on scutellum.  b. I. clypealis; Adults: small, light brown with dark spots on the vertex and two spots on scutellum. c. Amirtodus atkinsoni; Adults: large, light brown with two spots on scutellum Symptoms of damage  Nymphs and adults suck the sap of inflorescence  Withering  Shedding of flower buds and flowers  Presence of honey dew secrecation on lower leaves and development of sooty mould.  Clicking sound - movement of jassids amidst leaves.  Hoppers provide shelter in the cracks and crevices of the barks on the tree MANAGEMENT  Avoid close planting, as the incidence very severe in overcrowded orchards.  Orchards must be kept clean by ploughing and removal of weeds.  Spray two rounds of acephate 75 SP@ 1g/lit or phosalone 35 EC@ 1.5 ml/li OR  Spray two rounds of imidacloprid 0.2ml/lit or phosphamidon 40SL 2 ml/lit of water.  First spray at the time of panicle emergence , second spray two weeks after first spray.  Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/lit may be sprayed after spraying carbaryl to avoid mite resurgence.  The mixture toxaphene with sulphur (1:1) have been reported to be effective against pest.  Neem oil 5 ml/lit of water can be mixed with any insecticides  Spray 3 per cent neem oil or neem seed kernel powder extract 5 per cent Inflorescence midge Identification of pest  Larva - A maggot light yellowish colour and moults three times.  Adult a. Dasineura amaramanjarae: Orange red b. Erosomyia indica: Yellowish fly c. Procystiphora mangiferae: Light orange fly Symptoms of damage  Maggots attack the inflorescence stalk, flowers and small developing fruits  Maggot bore into the bud and feeds on inner content  Buds fail to open and drop down Management  Remove and destroy affected flowers and tender shoots  Spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 0.06%, methyl demeton 25 EC @0.05% Aphid, Toxoptera odinae Symptoms of damage  Reddish brown aphids suck the sap from leaves, petiole and fruits  Shedding of flowers. Management  Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts along with nymphs and adults  Dimethoate 30 EC or methyldemeton 25 EC 1 ml/l  Release coccinelid predators Flower webber, Eublemma versicolor Identification of pest Larva - Greenish yellow with light brown head. Adult - Moth has purplish pink or light orange wings. Symptoms of damage Webbing of flowers and bore holes in inflorescence stalk. Management Spray phosalone 35 EC 2ml/lit for effective control Loopers, Thalassodes quadraria, Chloroclystis sp Identification of pest a. Thalassodes quadraria: Grey greenish looper, Adult: green with angular wings b. Chloroclystis sp: Brownish looper : Adult: Greyish moth with wavy lines Symptoms of damage : Webbed inflorescence and subsequent drying of inflorescence. Management  Collect and destroy the damaged leaves  Use light trap 1/ha to attract and kill the adults  Spray malathion 50 EC 2ml/lit
  6. 6. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 6 of 10 Bud mite, Aceria mangiferae Symptoms of damage  Malformed leaves  Buds giving bunchy top appearance  Leading to bud necrosis. Normally occurs during summer. Management  Dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5ml/lit or wettable sulphur 50WP 2 g /lit Fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) dorsalis Maggots of fruit fly dropping out of mango fruit Mango Fruit fly Maggots Identification of pest Larva - Yellowish apodous maggots. Adult - Light brown with transparent wing Symptoms of damage  Maggot bore into semi-ripen fruits with decayed spots and dropping of fruits.  Oozing of fluid  Brownish rotten patches on fruits. Management  Collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit  Provide summer ploughing to expose the pupa  Monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps.  Bait spray - combing any one of the insecticides and molasses or jaggery 10 g/l,  fenthion 100EC 1ml/l,  malathion 50EC 2 ml/l,  dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l,  carbaryl 50 WP 4 g/l. two rounds at 2 weeks interval before ripening of fruits.  Prepare bait with methyl eugenol 1% solution mixed with malathion 0.1%.  Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them in 25 different places in one hectare  Spray fenthion 100 EC 2 ml/ lit or malathion 50 EC 2ml/lit. Biological control Field release of natural enemies Opius compensates and Spalangia philippines Mango nut weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae Symtom Grub Grub on mango Adult on Mango Symptoms of damage  Grub makes zigzag tunnels in pulp  Eats unripe tissue and bore into cotyledons  Fruit dropping at marble stage  oviposition injuries on marble sized fruits.  Tunnelled cotyledons in mature fruit by grubs. Identification of pest  Grub - A full grown grub is legless, fleshly and yellow with dark head.  Dark weevils after emergence remain inactive, hidden in the cracks and crevices on the trunk  Adult - Adult is dark brown with a short snout. Management  Collect and destroy the fallen fruits  Spray application of fenthion 100EC 1ml/l; (first at marble stage of the fruit second at 15 days interval).  During non flowering season direct spray towards the base of the trunk
  7. 7. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 7 of 10 Shoot webber: Orthaga exvinacea Tip dry Inflorescence entangled Nest of dried leaves Identification of pest Larva - Pale greenish with brown head and prothroacic shield. Adult - Brown moth with wavy lines on fore wings. Symptoms of damage  Caterpillar webbing of terminal leaves and scrapes the chlorophyll content  Drying up plants. Management  Remove and destroy the webbed leaves along with larva and pupa  Spray carbaryl at 50 WP @ 0.1%  Encourage the activity of predators, carabid beetle Parena lacticincta, reduvid Oecama sp Leaf gall midges Amradiplosis amraemyia ; A. brunneigallicola ; A. viridigallicola, ; Alassomyia tennuspatha Identification of pest  Maggots – are yellowish  Adult - Tiny mosquito like. Symptoms of damage  Presence of galls on leaves. Management  Spray dimethoate 30 EC or methyldemeton 25 EC @ 2ml/lit. Leaf twisting weevil, Apoderus tranquebaricus Identification of pest  Grub: yellowish  Adult: Reddish brown weevil with long snout Symptoms of damage  Twisting, rolling and drying of terminal leaves. Management  Spray monocrotophos 36WSC 1.5 ml. Hairy caterpillars, Euproctis fraterna , Prothesia scintillans Identification of the pest Euproctis fraterna  Larva - yellowish with brown head, yellowish stripe with central red line  black hairs dorsally on first three segments  Adult - yellowish moth with black spots. Prothesia scintillans  Larva - Reddish with red head surrounded by whitish hairs  Adult - yellowish moth with transverse line on the fore wings. Symptoms of damage  Defoliation. Management  Collect and destroy egg masses and caterpillars  Use burning torch to kill the congregating larvae  Use light trap to attract and kill the adults  Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC or quinalphos 25 EC 2ml/lit Scales, a. Chionaspis vitis- White elongate hard scale b. Chloropulvinaria psidii- Females with white ovisac Symptoms of damage  Both nymphs and adults desap the leaves cause yellowing. Identification of pest  Adult - White, elongate, hard scale Management  Pruning of infested branches and burning Dimethoate or phosphomidon are effective Red ant, Oecophylla smaradina Symptoms of damage  Webbed of leaves with ants forming nests. Identification of pest Reddish ant, queen – olive green in colour Management  Nests should be removed and destroyed mechanically or by spraying any of the contact insecticides Monocrotophos 2ml/lit or DDPV 100EC 1ml/lit
  8. 8. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 8 of 10 Gaint mealybug, Drosicha mangiferae Infestation on fruit Identification of pest Pinkish nymph Symptoms of damage  Drying of leaves and inflorescence  Presence of pinkish nymphs and adult mealy bugs on fruit and fruit stalk. Management  Remove weeds like Clerodendrum inflortunatum and grasses by ploughing during June-July.  Band the trees with 20 cm wide alkalthene of polythene (400 gauge) in the middle of December (50 cm above the ground level and just below the junction of branching).  Stem with jute thread and apply a little mud of fruit tree grease on the lower edge of the band.  If necessary apply methyl parathion1ml/lit, chlopyriphos 20EC 2.5 ml/l  Release of Australian ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10/tree Deficiency Symptoms – Nitrogen Symptom : Yellow undersized leaves, severe retardation of growth, twigs become yellow in color. Fruits smaller and mature early. Leaves small with general yellowing Correction Measures : Application of recommended nitrogenous fertilizers (80 kg N/ha) or foliar application of Urea 2-4% at fortnightly intervals. Deficiency Symptoms – Phosphorous Deficiency Symptoms Retarded growth premature dropping of older leaves partial die- back from the tip small green younger leaves are borne at the tips of the branches. Some branches show die back. Leaf tip necrosis and premature abscission of leaves. Correction Measure Soil application of single super phosphate or foliar application of ortho phosphoric acid 0.5 %thrice. Potassium : Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency Symptoms Darkening of leaves, reduced growth and vigour. Appearance of white, yellow or orange chlorotic spots in older leaves and distributed irregularly over both under and upper leaf surfaces. Necrotic areas develop along the leaf margins. Poor growth of roots. Die back with tip burn with small leaves. Correction Measure Foliar spray of KCl 2% at fortnightly intervals. Calcium : Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency Symptoms Abnormal growth of young leaves and growing points resembling boron deficiency severe deficiency leads to death of the bud. Correction Measure Application of gypsum at 50 kg/ha. Sulphur : Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency Symptoms Symptoms first appear on young leaves with fading of green colour. Growth is stunted. Leaf tip remains green and with severe deficiency the whole leaf turns yellow. Correction Measure Soil application of sulphur fertilizer
  9. 9. HTTP://SHIVAGROUP.ORG.IN Page 9 of 10 Boron : Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency is common in high rain fall areas, high temperature, soil acidity and calcareous soils. Fruits become brown in colour. Flesh may become soft and watery which cracks down to the centre. Correction Measure Application of 5-10 kg Borax / ha a foliar spray of 0.25% Borax at 10 days interval or solubor at 300 gm/ 100litres of water. Copper : Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency Symptoms Shoots produced on long drooping S-shaped branches of previous growth are weak lose foliage and die back. Correction Measure Foliar spray of Copper oxy chloride 0.2% at fortnightly intervals. Magnesium : Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency Symptoms Reduction in growth premature defoliation yellowish brown chlorosis featured by a green wedge down the central part of the leaf bronzing starting from the edge of the leaf rounded margin between each pair of lateral veins. Correction Measure Soil application of MgSO4 5-10 kg/ha a foliar spray of MgSO4 2% at fortnightly intervals. Iron : Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency Symptoms Symptoms are first seen in the youngest leaves. Initially the smallest veins remain green, which produces a reticulate pattern of green veins on yellow leaves. The leaves eventually turn completely chlorotic but there is no associated necrosis. Correction Measure Soil application of FeSO4 fertilizer Manganese : Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency Symptoms Deficiency appears on the middle of the plant. Interveinal chlorosis of leaves. Reduced growth leaf symptoms appear very late leaves show a yellowish green background with a fine network of green veins on the upper surface and disappearing after a few weeks mature leaves thicker and blunted. Specks of light grey to grayish brown colour appear under mid deficiency. Correction Measure Foliar application of MnSO4 0.2% at fortnightly intervals. Soluble polymers & surfaxtans 90% w/w, other ingredients: 10% w/w.
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