SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 136
Companies Act 2013
Dawn of new era for
Corporate professionals
Role of Directors & Related party
transactions
(chapters XI & XII)
Disqualification & Vacation of office
• Sec 164 – Disqualifications of Directors
arises at the point of appointment.
• Sec 167 – Vacation of office of Directors
after his appointment.
Section applies to
All companies – private or public.
All types of directors
unless otherwise specified.
Disqualifications - Section 164(1)(a)

 he is of unsound mind
 and stands so declared
 by a competent court.
Disqualifications
Section 164(1)(b) and (c)

• he is an un-discharged insolvent.
• he has applied to be adjudged insolvent
and his application is pending.
Suppose a person made an
application to the court on 1.1.2010 and
the court adjudged him as insolvent on
31.12.2010,
• the un-discharged insolvency period is,
- 1.1.2011 to 31.12.2013 (3 years) – the time
taken to sell all his assets and pay off the
liabilities &
- 1.1.2014 to 31.12.2020 (7 years) – the time
specified by the court restraining him from
doing further business.
Thus, he cannot be a director from 1.1.2010 to
31.12.2020 (11 years)
- 1.1.2010 to 31.12.2010 (1 year) – the time
taken by the court to declare him as insolvent,
- 1.1.2011 to 31.12.2013 (3 years) – the time
taken to sell his assets & pay off the liabilities,
- 1.1.2014 to 31.12.2020 (7 years) – the period
specified by the court restraining him from
doing further business.
Disqualification - Section 164(1)(d)

 he has been convicted by a court
 for an offence whether involving moral
turpitude or otherwise and
 sentenced for imprisonment of not less
than 6 months
 a period of 5 years has not elapsed from
the date of expiry of the sentence.
Also, a person who has been convicted
for any offence & sentenced in respect there of
to imprisonment for 7 years or more,
he shall not be eligible to be appointed as a
director in any company.
Disqualification - Section 164(1)(e)

 an order disqualifying him has been
passed by a court or tribunal
 and the order is in force.
Disqualification - Section 164(1)(f)






he has not paid his calls
In respect of shares held by him
whether alone or jointly and
6 months has elapsed from the last date
fixed for the payment of calls.
Disqualification - Section 164(1)(g)
He has been convicted of the offence
dealing with related party transactions under
section 188
at any time during the last preceding 5 years.
Disqualification - Section 164(1)(h)
He has not obtained DIN under section 152 (3)
Disqualification – Sec 164(2)(a)
No person who is or has been a director of
a company which,
(a) has not filed financial statements or
annual returns for any continuous period
of 3 financial years.
Every company has to file with ROC
Financial statements (consisting of Balance
sheet, P&L account, Directors report and
Auditors report) within 30 days of AGM
and annual returns within 60 days of AGM.
Failure should be to file
financial statements or annual returns
for any continuous 3 financial years
Thus, if a company has filed
 either financial statements or annual
returns
 the director is not disqualified.
Suppose a company has filed any ONE of
the following SIX documents
- for the year 2010-11 F/S
A/R
- for the year 2011-12 F/S
A/R
- for the year 2012-13 F/S
A/R
Are the directors disqualified ?
NO
Intermittent failures within 3 years
• Failure to file them should be for a continuous
period of 3 years.
• Thus, any intermittent failures for 3 years will
not attract the disqualification.
Can the default be subsequently rectified?
 Even where the default is subsequently

cured
(by
belated
filing),
the
disqualifications shall remain.
Once defaulted, subsequent rectification
of default is of no consequence.
Disqualification – Sec 164(2)(b)
No person who is or has been a director of a
company
which has failed to repay
the deposits accepted by it or
pay interest thereon or
to redeem any debentures on the due date or
pay interest due thereon or
 pay any dividend declared and
 such failure to pay or redeem continues for one
year or more,
 shall be eligible to be re-appointed as a
director of that company or
 appointed in other company
 for a period of 5 years from the date on which
the said company fails to do so.
Disqualification - Sec 164(2)(b)
What is a ‘deposit’?
‗Deposit‘ should not be understood as
•‗Public deposit‘ or as
•‗deposit as defined under section 73‘
but all deposits of money including dealer
deposit, inter-corporate deposit, security deposit
from employees etc.
Failure to pay dividends?
‗failure to pay dividend declared‘ should be
read as
‗failure to pay dividend declared but not paid
within the time specified in section 123‘
Non-payment of dividend, due to
dividend not claimed or
failure to keep in separate bank account sec 124
not paid into Investors education &
protection fund - sec 125
shall not be deemed to be a ‗failure to pay
dividend declared‘.
Default to banks & financial institutions

 Failure to pay interest / repayment of
loans/ working capital taken from a Bank/
Public financial institution
 does not attract the disqualification.
Failure for one year or more
The disqualification of Sec 164(2)(b) takes
place only when such failure continues for
one year or more,
whereas in case of sec 164(2)(a), it takes
place immediately on default.
Consider the following situation
DIRECTORSHIP
STATUS

Date of
default

Effective date
of default

(1.1.2013) (31.12.2013)
situation – 1
yes
yes
situation – 2
yes
no
situation – 3
no
yes
situation – 4
yes
no
yes
Only in situation – 1 the director stands
disqualified
• Sec 164(1)(b) will be attracted only when
the default continues for one year and
he was a director as on the date of default and
continued as director till the effective date of
default.
Can be default be subsequently rectified?
• Even where the default under sec 164(1)(b) is
subsequently cured by the company after one
year (by belated repayment), the directors shall
continue to remain disqualified.
• Once defaulted subsequent rectification of
default is of no consequence.
Section 164(1) (a) & (b)
 Suppose a person is a director of ABC Ltd,
the defaulting company,
 he shall vacate his office of director not only in
the defaulting company but also the office of
director in all other companies and
 shall not be eligible to be reappointed as a
director of that company or appointed in any
other company
 for a period of 5 years.
Period of disqualification
• The disqualification is only for 5 years and
after which he can be appointed or
reappointed.
How do you calculate the period of 5 years?

• The disqualification
under sec 164(2)(a), shall be for 5 years
from the date of default, whereas,
under sec 164(2)(b), shall be for 5 years
from the date of default itself (or 4 yrs from
the effective date of default).
Section 164(2) monitoring mechanism
1. Declaration by the proposed director
that he is not so disqualified.
2. Statutory auditor shall report under sec
143, as to whether the directors are so
disqualified.
Who can relax the disqualification
in sec 164?
Neither the company nor the Central Govt.
can relax any of the disqualifications.
Can articles provide for additional
disqualifications
1. A private company can so provide in its
articles.
2. They
may
provide
for
qualifications, experience, age, deposit
requirements etc,
3. By implication, a public company cannot so
provide other than those specified in sec 164.
In a private company the disqualifications referred
in section 164(1) (d), (e) and (g) shall not take
effect
for 30 days from the date of conviction or order
of disqualification;
where an appeal is preferred within 30 days of
order, until expiry of 7 days from the date on
which such appeal is disposed off; or
where any further appeal is preferred within 7
days, until such further appeal is disposed off.
However, the above proviso will not apply to
public company.
Hence, in a public company he shall be
disqualified to be appointed as director from the
date of court order.
Can a minor be a director
1. Section 164 does not address this issue.
2. However by implication, a minor, being
incompetent to contract, cannot file any valid
consent, under section 152(5).
3. Hence he cannot be appointed as a director of
any company.
Minimum & maximum directors for a
company – sec 149(1)
Public company – minimum 3 directors
Private company – minimum 2 directors
One person company – minimum 1 director
Maximum directors for all companies – 15
Articles can provide for lower maximum limit.
For appointment of more than 15 directors Special Resolution required.
Every company should comply with this section
within 1 year of applicability
Women director
Every listed company should have atleast one
woman director – section to be complied within
1 year.
Every other company having paid up capital of
Rs. 100 crores or more should also have atleast
one woman director – section to be complied
within 5 years.
What are the consequences if the number of
directors are reduced below the statutory
minimum?
1. The legislative intention appears that the
minimum directors must be maintained under
all circumstances.
2. Hence the directors must be appointed within a
reasonable period of time
How ? - We can visualize three different
situations!
(a) the number of directors reduced below the
statutory minimum but quorum can be formed
1. Convene BM or an EGM to appoint directors.
2. Any business transacted after such reduction
is invalid.
3. Where there are 2 directors against the
minimum 3, an allotment of shares is
invalid, though 2 directors can form a quorum.
(b) the number of directors reduced below
the minimum required and no quorum for BM.
Reg 69 of Table F provides, that the
continuing directors may act,
 for appointing directors to that fixed for the
quorum, or
 for summoning a General Meeting for
appointing directors, but for no other purpose'.
(c ) the company becomes directorless
In such situation, directors are to be appointed
as provided in section 168(3).(promoter and in
his absence the CG will appoint the auditors)
Number of directorships – sec 165
1. A person shall not be a director in more than
20 companies at the same time, including
alternate directorships.
2. In case of public companies, the maximum
number shall not exceed 10.
3. A private company which is a holding or a
subsidiary of a public company, will be
reckoned as public company for calculating the
limit of 10 directors.
4. The members of a company may, by special
resolution, specify the number less than 20 or
10 (as the case may be) companies in which a
director of the company can act as director.
5. Penalty for contravention of section 165(1)
shall be not less than Rs.5,000/- which may
extend to Rs. 25,000/- for every day of
contravention.
6. The limits are specified to ensure
(a) directors spend more time for the affairs of
the company
(b) to prevent concentration of economic power
in the hands of few persons.
Transitory provision – sec 165(3)-(5)
1. Consequent to the reduction from 15 to 10 (public
companies), the Director concerned has to, within
1 year of commencement of the Act,
 choose the directorship in companies, not more
than the specified limits;
 resign as director
in the other remaining
companies;
 intimate the choice to each of the companies; &
 intimate the ROC.
2. Such resignation shall become effective
immediately on dispatch to the company
concerned. (irrespective of sec 168 regarding
resignation of directors).
Only individual to be the Director - Sec. 149(1)
No body corporate, firm or association can
become a director.
Only an individual can be a director because his
office is a office of responsibility, accountability
and position of trust.
Resident Director
Section 149(2)
Every company should have
at least one director who stayed in India
for not less than 182 days
in the previous calendar year
DIN for Directors
Section 152 (3) & (4)
Every person shall be allotted DIN before
appointment as a director.
Every such proposed person, before his
appointment in the GM, shall furnish his DIN to
the company and a declaration that he is not
disqualified for the appointment under the act.
Consent for directorship
Section 152(5)
1. The section specifies two types of consents,
applicable for all companies:
First, consent to be filed by the director with the
company on or before his appointment in Form
no. 11.2,
Second, consent to be filed by the company
with the ROC within 30 days of appointment in
Form no. 11.8
2. In case of independent directors appointed in
GM, the explanatory statement shall include a
statement that he fulfills the conditions
specified in the Act for his appointment
Appointment of a person as director other
than retiring director – section 160
Members shall take the initiative for the
appointment of a director other than retiring
director (similar to special notice).
What is special notice?
• Normally in any GM, it is the board which
proposes the items of business.
• The shareholders, by resolutions, either
approve or disapprove the items of business.
• Special notice is a concept which enables the
members themselves to take the initiative and
propose the items of business.
Procedure in section – 160
1. The proposer, shall give a 14 days notice to
the company along with a deposit of
Rs.1,00,000/-.
2. The company shall serve, at least 7 days
before the meeting
 individual notice to all the members in writing
or through electronic mode and place notice
on its website.
 failing which two newspaper advertisements
can be given.
3. At the general meeting after the regular items
of business, the matters given in the special
notice will be taken up for consideration.
4. If ordinary resolution is passed the director
stands elected.
Other issues in section 160
1. Appointment in AGM/EGM
2. Section 160 notice by member - irrespective
of number of shares held by him
3. Preference shareholder can also give Section
160 notice.
• Member can give section 160 notice
- proposing himself
- proposing any other member
- proposing even an outsider
• Outsider can give section 160 notice only
- proposing himself
Deposit for the candidature
• A
proposed
candidate
shall
deposit
Rs.1,00,000/- at least 14 days before the
meeting.
• The deposit will be refunded if the person
proposed gets elected as a director or gets
more than 25% of total valid votes cast.
Sec 160 - the only route to enter the
company
Sec 160 must be complied with for appointment
of director at any GM.
Thus if an additional director, casual vacancy
director or alternate director, after expiry of his
office, is proposed to be appointed as a director
at the GM, section 160 must be complied with.
How about immediate appointment
For immediate appointment of a director, Sec.
160 can be combined with sec 100 to
requisition an EGM to appoint a director.
Other procedural compliances
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Filing of Form 11.8 – consent with ROC
Updating ‗Register of Directors‘
Updating ‗Register of Directors shareholding‘
Informing stock exchange – for listed company.
Refund of deposit.
Differences between sec 161(1) and 161(4)
Additional Director
1. Best interest of the co
2. Public & private co
3. Board meeting or
resolution by circulation
4. Power derived from the
articles
5. Holds office upto the
next AGM

Casual vacancy Director
1. Casual vacancy to arise
2. Only for public companies
3. Board meeting only
4. Power subject to articles

5. Holds office upto the period
original director would have
held office
Alternate director- Sec 161(2)
1. Applicable to public & private companies
2. Board to appoint – not MD/Manager/sec
3. Appointment either at Board meeting or
by resolution by circulation
4. Articles to specifically provide
Who can appoint alternate director
 The power to appoint has been given to
the Board
 and not to the original director who is
absent.
Can general meeting appoint alternate
director
1. The power is vested only with the Board, and
cannot be exercised by the GM.
2. The members by ordinary resolution can only
authorise the Board to appoint, if articles
doesnot authorise.
Issues in appointment of alternate director

1. Alternate director can be appointed only
when the director is absent for 3 months
from INDIA.
2. His intention to be absent for 3 months from
India, is a pre-requisite to form an opinion.
 It does not refer to actual absence. The
original director may return back before 3
months itself.
3. The phrase, "during his absence " suggests that the
Original director is going to be outside India.
But the phrase "returns to India " indicates the act of
retuning back to India.
4. Thus alternate directors cannot be appointed in case
of a director who resides outside India (and is
already there) – foreign director/ NRI director
5. An alternate director to an independent
director should also satisfy the criteria for
independent directors.
6. The person to be appointed as the alternate
director shall be the person other than person
holding any alternate directorship for any
other director in the company.
However, a director of the company may act
in dual capacity, i.e. for himself and as an
alternate director for any other director of the
company.
Term of office of alternate director
1. An alternate director shall not hold office
longer than that 'permissible' to the original
director.
2. If the original director ceases due to death/
resignation/ removal or vacation of office, the
alternate director shall immediately cease to
hold his office.
3. The alternate director shall vacate, when the
original director returns to India.
4. The office shall come to an end, irrespective
whether the original director returns to India
for attending a BM or for any other purpose.
• However the Bombay High Court in Janson Engineering
and Trading (Pvt) Limited (18 August 2011) held as under:
• For an alternate director to cease to be a director, actual
attendance at the board meeting of the director appointing him
has not been contemplated under section 313 of the
Companies Act, 1956. Consequently the return to the state
would suffice though the director does not commence
attending board meetings held after his return. The provisions
in the section 313 of the 1956 Act would show not only a
temporary return, but an intention to stay in that state so as to
enable him to transact the business of the company.
• If a director merely comes to the state and leaves India again
he would not be able to transact business. Hence the alternate
director would have continued. The term ―the original director
returns to the state‖, must be read as contemplating a return
which would have some amount of permanence. The director
must return to carry on the business. He must return for a
length of time. The intent of the director must be to return to
India, not for a temporary period eg, on a holiday or on a
vacation. Therefore, when the original director returned to India
to carry on his business in India then the alternate director
would vacate his office under section 313(2) of the 1956 Act.
Status of alternate director
1. Alternate director is not a proxy of original
director
2. Original director cannot influence him in the
manner of exercise of powers.
3. He is in the same position as any other director
as regards his rights, duties and liabilities.
Appointment of alternate director as MD/WTD

1. If original director was MD, alternate director
will not automatically become MD.
2. Alternate director can be appointed as
MD, even if the original director was not so.
Nominee Director - Section 161(3)
Subject to the articles of a company,
the Board may appoint any person as a director
nominated by any institution
in pursuance of the provisions of any law or of
any agreement or by the Central Government
or the State Government by virtue of its
shareholding in a Government company.
Option to adopt principle of proportional
representation for appointment of directors – sec 163
 Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act,
 the articles of a company may provide for the
appointment of not less than two-thirds of the total
number of the directors in accordance with the
principle of proportional representation,
 whether by the single transferable vote or by a system
of cumulative voting or otherwise and
 such appointments may be made once in every three
years and casual vacancies of such directors shall be
filled as provided in section 161(4).
Principle of proportional representation
Sec - 163
1. Directors are appointed by shareholders in
proportion to the shares held by them.
2. Purpose of the section – to give effect to
group interests, minority interests etc.,
3. Section 163 overrides inconsistent sections
like 152, 160, 162 etc.,
4. Applicable to all companies – Public & Private.
5. Articles to specifically provide.
6. Not less than 2/3rd of the total directors must
be appointed under the principle –
remaining directors shall be appointed as per
the articles.
7. These directors can hold office for 3 years.
8. They cannot be removed from office under
section 169 – hence permanent directors for 3
years.
9. After 3 years they shall be again appointed by
the members based on shareholding pattern and
the process carries on.
10. Any casual vacancy in the office shall be filledup under section 161(4) by the board.
Vacation of office of Director - Sec 167
The implications of vacation of office are:
1. The vacation shall be automatic.
2. On happening of the events - forthwith cease
to be a director.
3. No need for opportunity to show cause.
4. The Board need not pass a resolution.
5. The Board shall have no power to waive the
event .
6. Where a director disputes the vacation, he
shall first vacate the office, and then resort to
the Court for a direction that the section was
not applicable and that he be reinstated.
The office of a director shall become vacant
automatically in the following circumstances
1. if he incurs any of the disqualifications
specified in section 164 (10 circumstances).
Thus, it implies the disqualifications for a
director would arise not only at the point of
appointment but also during his tenure as
director.
2. he absents himself from all the meetings of
the board held during a period of 12 months
with or without seeking leave of absence from
the board.
Issues
Absent from all board meetings held in 12
months
 With or without seeking leave of absence from the
board

absents himself – scope for legal & medical
impossibility
 The onus of proving rests on the company. It
has to prove the following
1. The notice of the meeting was duly sent.
2. The director has received the notice.
3. The meeting was duly held.
4. The director did not attend the meeting.
3. he acts in contravention of section 184 relating
to entering into contracts or arrangements in
which he is directly or indirectly interested;
4. he fails to disclose his interest in any contract
in which he is interested, in contravention of
section 184;
5. he becomes disqualified by an order of a court
or the Tribunal;
6. he is convicted by a court of any offence,
whether involving moral turpitude or otherwise
and sentenced in respect thereof to
imprisonment for not less than 6 months:
Provided that the office shall be vacated by
the director even if he has filed an appeal
against the order of such court;
7. he is removed in pursuance of the provisions
of this Act;
8. he, having been appointed a director by virtue
of his holding any office or other employment
in the holding, subsidiary or associate
company, ceases to hold such office or other
employment in that company.
Penalties under sec 167(2)
• If a person, functions as a director even when
he knows that the office of director held by him
has become vacant, he shall be punishable with
imprisonment for a term which may extend to
one year or with fine which shall not be less
than Rs. 1,00,000/- but which may extend to
Rs. 5,00,000/-, or with both.
Promoters to act as Directors
• Where all the directors of a company vacate
their offices under any of the disqualifications
specified, the promoter or, in his absence, the
CG shall appoint the required number of
directors who shall hold office till the directors
are appointed by the company in the general
meeting.
Vacation of office of director - Pvt co
• A private company may provide additional
grounds in its articles.
• By implication, a public company cannot
provide for additional grounds.
• A private company cannot circumvent section
169, in the guise of including additional grounds
in its articles for the vacation of office by
directors under section 167(4).
• Whenever any such additional ground included
virtually results in the removal of a director, the
power in this behalf can only be exercised by
the company in general meeting under section
169.
Resignation of directors – Sec 168
1. A director may resign from his office
by giving a notice in writing to the company and
the Board shall take note of the same and
the company shall intimate the ROC within 30
days in Form No. 11.8 and
post the information on its website, if any, and
shall also specify such resignation in the
forthcoming Director‘s Report.
2. The resigning director shall forward a copy of
his resignation letter with detailed reasons to
ROC in Form No. 11.7 within 30 days of his
resignation.
3. The resignation of a director shall take effect
from the date on which the notice is received
by the company or the date, if any, specified
by the director in the notice, whichever is later.
4. The director who has resigned shall be liable
even after his resignation for the offences
which occurred during his tenure.
Promoters to act as Directors
• Where all the directors resign from their
offices, the promoter or, in his absence, the
Central Government shall appoint the required
number of directors who shall hold office till the
directors are appointed by the company in the
general meeting.
Resignation of MD/WTD
1. There are no provisions in the Act regarding
resignation of MD/WTD
2. It appears that, in case of resignation of MD/
WTD, apart from compliance of section 168,
the resignation has to be accepted by the
Board and he should be relieved from his
duties.
Right to resign

• Where there were two directors, one died and
the other wanted
to resign, a letter of
resignation to the company under intimation to
ROC was enough to make the resignation
effective.
• It was not necessary that the surviving
director should first co-opt a director and
then hand over the resignation to him.
Small shareholder’s Director – sec 151
1. A listed company may
 suo motu or
 upon the notice of not less than 500 or 1/10th of the
total number of small shareholders,
 whichever is lower,
 elect one small shareholders‘ director from amongst
the small shareholders.
2. Such small shareholders intending to propose a
person as a candidate
 shall leave a notice of their intention with the company
at least 14 days before the meeting under their
signature
 specifying the name, address, shares held and folio
number of the proposed person and of the small
shareholders who are proposing such person.
3. Such notice shall be accompanied by a statement
stating  his DIN;
 that he is not disqualified to become a director;
and
 his consent to act as a director of the company.
4. Such director shall be considered as an independent
director subject to his giving a declaration of his
independence as specified.
5. The appointment of small shareholders‘ director shall
be subject to section 152 except thatThe director shall not be liable to retire by rotation;
The small shareholders‘ director‘s tenure shall not
exceed a period of three consecutive years; and
on the expiry of the tenure, the director shall not be
eligible for re-appointment.
6. A person shall not be appointed as small
shareholders‘ director, if the person is disqualified for
appointment in terms of section 164.
7. A person appointed as small shareholders‘ director
shall vacate the office if the director ceases to be a small shareholder, on
and from the date of cessation;
the director incurs any of the disqualifications
specified in section 164;
the office of the director becomes vacant under
section 167;
the director ceases to meet the criteria of
independence as provided in section 149(6)
8. No person shall hold the office of small shareholders‘
director in more than two companies at the same
time.
9. A small shareholder means a shareholder holding
shares of nominal value of not more than Rs. 20,000.
Removal of small shareholders director
• He can be removed by ordinary resolution passed in
the general meeting after compliance of the
procedural requirements of section 169.
• There is nothing in the act or in the rules which
requires, obtaining the consent of small shareholders,
for removal.
• A Small Shareholders‘ Director can be removed only
with the consent of all the shareholders of the
company.
Duties of Director – section 166
1. A director shall act in accordance with the
articles of the company.
2. A director of a company shall
 act in good faith to promote the company‘s objects
for the benefit of its members as a whole, and
 in the best interests of the company, its
employees, the shareholders, the community and
 for the protection of environment.
3. A director shall exercise his duties with due and
reasonable care, skill and diligence and shall
exercise independent judgment.
4. A director shall not involve in a situation in which he
may have a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or
possibly may conflict, with the interest of the
company.
5. A director shall not achieve or attempt to achieve
any undue gain or advantage either to himself or to
his relatives, partners, or associates and if such
director is found guilty of making any undue gain, he
shall be liable to pay an amount equal to that gain to
the company.
6. A director of a company shall not assign his office
and any assignment so made shall be void.
7. If a director of the company contravenes the
provisions of this section such director shall be
punishable with fine which shall not be less than Rs.
1,00,000/- but which may extend to Rs. 5,00,000/-
Penalties – sec 172
If a company contravenes any of the provisions
of this Chapter XI and for which no specific
punishment is provided therein, the company
and every officer in default shall be punishable
with fine which shall not be less than Rs.
50,000/- but which may extend to Rs. 5,00,000.
Director Identification Number (DIN)
Sec 153-158
1. Every individual, who is to be appointed as director
of a company, shall make an application
electronically to CG for allotment of DIN (Form No.
11.3).
2. The CG shall allot a DIN, within 1 month of receipt of
application.
3. No individual, who has already been allotted a DIN,
shall apply for another DIN.
4. Every director shall intimate his DIN to the company
or all the companies wherein he is a director within 1
month of receipt of DIN.
5. Every company shall furnish DIN of all its directors to
ROC within 15 days of the receipt of the same from
the directors.
6. Every person or company shall mention the DIN in
returns, information or particulars filed under the Act.
7. Penalty for violation – Imprisonment upto 6 months
or fine Rs. 50,000
Independent Director – sec 149(6)
1. An independent director means
 a director other than a managing director or a wholetime director or a nominee director,
Should be a person of integrity and possesses
relevant expertise and experience;
 Such person should not have been
 a promoter of the company or its holding, subsidiary or
associate company or
 related to promoters or directors in the company, its
holding, subsidiary or associate company;
 not have any pecuniary relationship with the company,
its holding, subsidiary or associate company, or their
promoters, or directors, during the two immediately
preceding financial years or during the current
financial year;
 none of the relatives of such person must have
pecuniary relationship or transaction with the
company, its holding, subsidiary or associate
company, or their promoters, or directors, amounting
to 2% or more of its gross turnover or total income or
Rs 50 lakhs or such higher amount as may be
prescribed, whichever is lower, during the two
immediately preceding financial years or during the
current financial year;
 who, neither himself nor any of his relatives—
holds or has held the position of a key managerial
personnel or is or has been employee of the
company or its holding, subsidiary or associate
company in any of the 3 financial years immediately
preceding the financial year in which he is proposed
to be appointed;
 is or has been an employee or proprietor or a partner,
in any of the 3 financial years immediately preceding
the financial year in which he is proposed to be
appointed, of—
(A) a firm of auditors or company secretaries in
practice or cost auditors of the company or its
holding, subsidiary or associate company; or
(B) any legal or a consulting firm that has or had any
transaction with the company, its holding,
subsidiary or associate company amounting to
10% or more of the gross turnover of such firm;
 holds, together with his relatives, 2% or more of the
total voting power of the company; or
 is a Chief Executive or director, by whatever name
called, of any non profit organisation that receives
25% or more of its receipts from the company, any of
its promoters, directors or its holding, subsidiary or
associate company or that holds 2% or more of the
total voting power of the company; or
 who possess appropriate balance of skills, experience
and knowledge in one or more fields of
finance, law, management, sales, marketing, administr
ation, research, corporate governance, technical
operations or other disciplines related to the
company‘s business:
2. Every listed public company; or
 Public Companies having paid up share capital of Rs.
100 crores or more; or
 Public Companies having turnover of Rs. 300 crores
or more; or
 Public
Companies
which
have,
in
aggregate, outstanding loans or borrowings or
debentures or deposits, exceeding Rs. 200 crores
shall have at least one-third of the total number of
directors as independent directors. Any fraction
contained in such one-third number shall be rounded off
as one.
3. Every company existing on or before the date of
commencement of this Act shall, within one year from
such commencement or from the date of notification
of the rules in this regard as may be
applicable, comply with the requirements of the
provisions of sub-section (3).
4. Every independent director shall
 at his first Board meeting
 and thereafter at the first Board meeting in every
financial year or
 whenever there is any change in the
circumstances which may affect his status as an
independent director,
give a declaration that he meets the criteria of
independence as provided in sub-section (6).
5. The company and independent directors shall abide
by certain duties specified in Schedule IV.
6. An independent director shall not be entitled to any
stock option and may receive remuneration by way of
sitting fees, reimbursement of expenses for
participation in the Board and other meetings and
profit related commission as may be approved by the
members.
7. An independent director shall hold office for a term
up to 5 consecutive years, but shall be eligible for
reappointment on passing of a special resolution by
the company and disclosure of such appointment in
the Board's report.
8. No independent director shall hold office for more
than two consecutive terms, but he shall be eligible
for appointment after the expiration of three years of
ceasing to become an independent director. Also, he
shall not, during the said period of three years, be
appointed in or be associated with the company in
any other capacity, either directly or indirectly.
9. An independent director, a non-executive director not
being promoter or key managerial personnel,
 shall be held liable, only for such acts of omission or
commission by a company
 which had occurred with his knowledge, attributable
through Board processes, and with his consent or
connivance or where he had not acted diligently.
10.The provisions of retirement of directors by
rotation, shall not be applicable to appointment of
independent directors.

More Related Content

What's hot

Reduction of share capital
Reduction of share capitalReduction of share capital
Reduction of share capital
Pankaj Malkani
 
Removal of directors
Removal of directorsRemoval of directors
Removal of directors
Uttma Shukla
 
winding up of company
winding up of companywinding up of company
winding up of company
Anurag Bhatt
 

What's hot (20)

Provision related to audit and auditor Companies Act, 2013
Provision related to audit and auditor Companies Act, 2013Provision related to audit and auditor Companies Act, 2013
Provision related to audit and auditor Companies Act, 2013
 
Reduction of share capital
Reduction of share capitalReduction of share capital
Reduction of share capital
 
Removal of directors
Removal of directorsRemoval of directors
Removal of directors
 
Directors
DirectorsDirectors
Directors
 
Directors company act law
Directors company act lawDirectors company act law
Directors company act law
 
Oppression and Management
Oppression and ManagementOppression and Management
Oppression and Management
 
Debentures
DebenturesDebentures
Debentures
 
Appointment of Director
Appointment of Director Appointment of Director
Appointment of Director
 
Oppression & Mismanagement.pptx
Oppression & Mismanagement.pptxOppression & Mismanagement.pptx
Oppression & Mismanagement.pptx
 
Director of Companies Act
Director of Companies ActDirector of Companies Act
Director of Companies Act
 
Winding up of Companies – Part-1
Winding up of Companies – Part-1Winding up of Companies – Part-1
Winding up of Companies – Part-1
 
Difference between a public and a private company under Companies Act, 2013
Difference between a public and a private company under Companies Act, 2013Difference between a public and a private company under Companies Act, 2013
Difference between a public and a private company under Companies Act, 2013
 
winding up of company
winding up of companywinding up of company
winding up of company
 
DOCTRINE OF INDOOR MANAGEMENT.pptx
DOCTRINE OF INDOOR MANAGEMENT.pptxDOCTRINE OF INDOOR MANAGEMENT.pptx
DOCTRINE OF INDOOR MANAGEMENT.pptx
 
Company Directors as per Companies Act 2013
Company Directors as per Companies Act 2013Company Directors as per Companies Act 2013
Company Directors as per Companies Act 2013
 
Origin of company law
Origin of company lawOrigin of company law
Origin of company law
 
Appointment and qualification of auditors
Appointment and qualification of auditorsAppointment and qualification of auditors
Appointment and qualification of auditors
 
Company Meetings
Company MeetingsCompany Meetings
Company Meetings
 
borrowing powers
borrowing powersborrowing powers
borrowing powers
 
Company Directors
Company DirectorsCompany Directors
Company Directors
 

Viewers also liked

Appointment of directors
Appointment of directorsAppointment of directors
Appointment of directors
Akshada Somani
 
DIRECTOR POSITION , DISQLALIFICATION AND APPOINMENT
DIRECTOR POSITION , DISQLALIFICATION AND APPOINMENTDIRECTOR POSITION , DISQLALIFICATION AND APPOINMENT
DIRECTOR POSITION , DISQLALIFICATION AND APPOINMENT
pratik dattani
 
Appointment and removal of director
Appointment and removal of directorAppointment and removal of director
Appointment and removal of director
Rahul's Ventures
 
Consumer Protection Act
Consumer Protection ActConsumer Protection Act
Consumer Protection Act
Atif Ghayas
 

Viewers also liked (9)

Appointment of directors
Appointment of directorsAppointment of directors
Appointment of directors
 
DIRECTOR POSITION , DISQLALIFICATION AND APPOINMENT
DIRECTOR POSITION , DISQLALIFICATION AND APPOINMENTDIRECTOR POSITION , DISQLALIFICATION AND APPOINMENT
DIRECTOR POSITION , DISQLALIFICATION AND APPOINMENT
 
Removal of Director -News letter
Removal of Director -News letterRemoval of Director -News letter
Removal of Director -News letter
 
Legal Position Of Directors
Legal Position Of DirectorsLegal Position Of Directors
Legal Position Of Directors
 
Appointment and removal of director
Appointment and removal of directorAppointment and removal of director
Appointment and removal of director
 
Companies Act, 2013 - ICSI Thrissur - Directors, Meetings, Public vs Private ...
Companies Act, 2013 - ICSI Thrissur - Directors, Meetings, Public vs Private ...Companies Act, 2013 - ICSI Thrissur - Directors, Meetings, Public vs Private ...
Companies Act, 2013 - ICSI Thrissur - Directors, Meetings, Public vs Private ...
 
BOARD OF DIRECTOR
BOARD OF DIRECTORBOARD OF DIRECTOR
BOARD OF DIRECTOR
 
The board of directors
The board of directorsThe board of directors
The board of directors
 
Consumer Protection Act
Consumer Protection ActConsumer Protection Act
Consumer Protection Act
 

Similar to PPT on company law

Appointment of directors powers, duties and liabilities
Appointment of directors powers, duties and liabilitiesAppointment of directors powers, duties and liabilities
Appointment of directors powers, duties and liabilities
mcomgirl
 
Auditors (Companies Bill, 2012) (1)
Auditors (Companies Bill, 2012) (1)Auditors (Companies Bill, 2012) (1)
Auditors (Companies Bill, 2012) (1)
pankaj farmaha
 
Chapter XI Board and Board Provisions (Cos Act 2013)
Chapter XI Board and Board Provisions (Cos Act 2013)Chapter XI Board and Board Provisions (Cos Act 2013)
Chapter XI Board and Board Provisions (Cos Act 2013)
Mamta Binani
 
Exhaus comp old form
Exhaus comp old formExhaus comp old form
Exhaus comp old form
videoaakash15
 

Similar to PPT on company law (20)

DISQUALIFIED DIRECTORS ANTICIPATE RELIEF FROM BOMBAY HC
DISQUALIFIED DIRECTORS ANTICIPATE RELIEF FROM BOMBAY HCDISQUALIFIED DIRECTORS ANTICIPATE RELIEF FROM BOMBAY HC
DISQUALIFIED DIRECTORS ANTICIPATE RELIEF FROM BOMBAY HC
 
Appointment of directors powers, duties and liabilities
Appointment of directors powers, duties and liabilitiesAppointment of directors powers, duties and liabilities
Appointment of directors powers, duties and liabilities
 
Auditors (Companies Bill, 2012) (1)
Auditors (Companies Bill, 2012) (1)Auditors (Companies Bill, 2012) (1)
Auditors (Companies Bill, 2012) (1)
 
Board Meetings and Directors - Companies Act 2013
Board Meetings and Directors - Companies Act 2013Board Meetings and Directors - Companies Act 2013
Board Meetings and Directors - Companies Act 2013
 
B law presentation
B law presentationB law presentation
B law presentation
 
Chapter XI Board and Board Provisions (Cos Act 2013)
Chapter XI Board and Board Provisions (Cos Act 2013)Chapter XI Board and Board Provisions (Cos Act 2013)
Chapter XI Board and Board Provisions (Cos Act 2013)
 
How directors are governed under singapore companies act
How directors are governed under singapore companies actHow directors are governed under singapore companies act
How directors are governed under singapore companies act
 
Icai chennai - companies act - directors - practical aspects - 06.07.2014
Icai   chennai - companies act - directors - practical aspects - 06.07.2014Icai   chennai - companies act - directors - practical aspects - 06.07.2014
Icai chennai - companies act - directors - practical aspects - 06.07.2014
 
How auditors are governed under Singapore Companies Act?
How auditors are governed under Singapore Companies Act?How auditors are governed under Singapore Companies Act?
How auditors are governed under Singapore Companies Act?
 
Company Law
Company LawCompany Law
Company Law
 
Appointment of Statutory Auditor
Appointment of Statutory AuditorAppointment of Statutory Auditor
Appointment of Statutory Auditor
 
Audit of Limited Companies
Audit of Limited CompaniesAudit of Limited Companies
Audit of Limited Companies
 
Deficiencies in insolvensy and bankrupty
Deficiencies in insolvensy and bankruptyDeficiencies in insolvensy and bankrupty
Deficiencies in insolvensy and bankrupty
 
Exhaus comp old form
Exhaus comp old formExhaus comp old form
Exhaus comp old form
 
Presentation
PresentationPresentation
Presentation
 
Companies act 2013 Nihal Kare
Companies act 2013   Nihal KareCompanies act 2013   Nihal Kare
Companies act 2013 Nihal Kare
 
Appointment and qualification of managerial personnel or key managerial perso...
Appointment and qualification of managerial personnel or key managerial perso...Appointment and qualification of managerial personnel or key managerial perso...
Appointment and qualification of managerial personnel or key managerial perso...
 
Chapter xi 13.09.2013.appointment and qualification of directors
Chapter xi 13.09.2013.appointment and qualification of directorsChapter xi 13.09.2013.appointment and qualification of directors
Chapter xi 13.09.2013.appointment and qualification of directors
 
Financial statements under Singapore Companies Act- Part II
Financial statements under Singapore Companies Act- Part IIFinancial statements under Singapore Companies Act- Part II
Financial statements under Singapore Companies Act- Part II
 
Action Points for Listed Companies under Companies Act, 2013
Action Points for Listed Companies under Companies Act, 2013Action Points for Listed Companies under Companies Act, 2013
Action Points for Listed Companies under Companies Act, 2013
 

More from Raju and Associates (11)

Secretarial audit & certification of annual return
Secretarial audit & certification of annual returnSecretarial audit & certification of annual return
Secretarial audit & certification of annual return
 
Company incorporation under nca 2013 and rules there under
Company incorporation under nca 2013 and rules there underCompany incorporation under nca 2013 and rules there under
Company incorporation under nca 2013 and rules there under
 
Companies Act-2013-key-highlights-and-analysis
Companies Act-2013-key-highlights-and-analysisCompanies Act-2013-key-highlights-and-analysis
Companies Act-2013-key-highlights-and-analysis
 
Impotant provisions under Companies Act, 2013
Impotant provisions under Companies Act, 2013Impotant provisions under Companies Act, 2013
Impotant provisions under Companies Act, 2013
 
loans to directors (section 185)
loans to directors (section 185)loans to directors (section 185)
loans to directors (section 185)
 
Companies main objects at one place
Companies main objects  at one placeCompanies main objects  at one place
Companies main objects at one place
 
Values of life
Values of lifeValues of life
Values of life
 
Directors role & liabilities
Directors   role & liabilitiesDirectors   role & liabilities
Directors role & liabilities
 
Presentation on companies bill
Presentation on companies billPresentation on companies bill
Presentation on companies bill
 
Section comparison of companies act 1956 and companies bill 2012
Section comparison of companies act 1956 and companies bill 2012Section comparison of companies act 1956 and companies bill 2012
Section comparison of companies act 1956 and companies bill 2012
 
Ppt on company law2
Ppt on company law2Ppt on company law2
Ppt on company law2
 

Recently uploaded

Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
AnaAcapella
 
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaPersonalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
EADTU
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
EADTU
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
CaitlinCummins3
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
cupulin
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
COMMUNICATING NEGATIVE NEWS - APPROACHES .pptx
COMMUNICATING NEGATIVE NEWS - APPROACHES .pptxCOMMUNICATING NEGATIVE NEWS - APPROACHES .pptx
COMMUNICATING NEGATIVE NEWS - APPROACHES .pptx
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
 
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaPersonalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxHow to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer  Multilingual LearnersSupporting Newcomer  Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
 
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.pptAIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 

PPT on company law

  • 1. Companies Act 2013 Dawn of new era for Corporate professionals Role of Directors & Related party transactions (chapters XI & XII)
  • 2. Disqualification & Vacation of office • Sec 164 – Disqualifications of Directors arises at the point of appointment. • Sec 167 – Vacation of office of Directors after his appointment.
  • 3. Section applies to All companies – private or public. All types of directors unless otherwise specified.
  • 4. Disqualifications - Section 164(1)(a)  he is of unsound mind  and stands so declared  by a competent court.
  • 5. Disqualifications Section 164(1)(b) and (c) • he is an un-discharged insolvent. • he has applied to be adjudged insolvent and his application is pending.
  • 6. Suppose a person made an application to the court on 1.1.2010 and the court adjudged him as insolvent on 31.12.2010,
  • 7. • the un-discharged insolvency period is, - 1.1.2011 to 31.12.2013 (3 years) – the time taken to sell all his assets and pay off the liabilities & - 1.1.2014 to 31.12.2020 (7 years) – the time specified by the court restraining him from doing further business.
  • 8. Thus, he cannot be a director from 1.1.2010 to 31.12.2020 (11 years) - 1.1.2010 to 31.12.2010 (1 year) – the time taken by the court to declare him as insolvent, - 1.1.2011 to 31.12.2013 (3 years) – the time taken to sell his assets & pay off the liabilities, - 1.1.2014 to 31.12.2020 (7 years) – the period specified by the court restraining him from doing further business.
  • 9. Disqualification - Section 164(1)(d)  he has been convicted by a court  for an offence whether involving moral turpitude or otherwise and  sentenced for imprisonment of not less than 6 months  a period of 5 years has not elapsed from the date of expiry of the sentence.
  • 10. Also, a person who has been convicted for any offence & sentenced in respect there of to imprisonment for 7 years or more, he shall not be eligible to be appointed as a director in any company.
  • 11. Disqualification - Section 164(1)(e)  an order disqualifying him has been passed by a court or tribunal  and the order is in force.
  • 12. Disqualification - Section 164(1)(f)     he has not paid his calls In respect of shares held by him whether alone or jointly and 6 months has elapsed from the last date fixed for the payment of calls.
  • 13. Disqualification - Section 164(1)(g) He has been convicted of the offence dealing with related party transactions under section 188 at any time during the last preceding 5 years.
  • 14. Disqualification - Section 164(1)(h) He has not obtained DIN under section 152 (3)
  • 15. Disqualification – Sec 164(2)(a) No person who is or has been a director of a company which, (a) has not filed financial statements or annual returns for any continuous period of 3 financial years.
  • 16. Every company has to file with ROC Financial statements (consisting of Balance sheet, P&L account, Directors report and Auditors report) within 30 days of AGM and annual returns within 60 days of AGM.
  • 17. Failure should be to file financial statements or annual returns for any continuous 3 financial years Thus, if a company has filed  either financial statements or annual returns  the director is not disqualified.
  • 18. Suppose a company has filed any ONE of the following SIX documents - for the year 2010-11 F/S A/R - for the year 2011-12 F/S A/R - for the year 2012-13 F/S A/R Are the directors disqualified ? NO
  • 19. Intermittent failures within 3 years • Failure to file them should be for a continuous period of 3 years. • Thus, any intermittent failures for 3 years will not attract the disqualification.
  • 20. Can the default be subsequently rectified?  Even where the default is subsequently cured (by belated filing), the disqualifications shall remain. Once defaulted, subsequent rectification of default is of no consequence.
  • 21. Disqualification – Sec 164(2)(b) No person who is or has been a director of a company which has failed to repay the deposits accepted by it or pay interest thereon or to redeem any debentures on the due date or pay interest due thereon or
  • 22.  pay any dividend declared and  such failure to pay or redeem continues for one year or more,  shall be eligible to be re-appointed as a director of that company or  appointed in other company  for a period of 5 years from the date on which the said company fails to do so.
  • 23. Disqualification - Sec 164(2)(b) What is a ‘deposit’? ‗Deposit‘ should not be understood as •‗Public deposit‘ or as •‗deposit as defined under section 73‘ but all deposits of money including dealer deposit, inter-corporate deposit, security deposit from employees etc.
  • 24. Failure to pay dividends? ‗failure to pay dividend declared‘ should be read as ‗failure to pay dividend declared but not paid within the time specified in section 123‘
  • 25. Non-payment of dividend, due to dividend not claimed or failure to keep in separate bank account sec 124 not paid into Investors education & protection fund - sec 125 shall not be deemed to be a ‗failure to pay dividend declared‘.
  • 26. Default to banks & financial institutions  Failure to pay interest / repayment of loans/ working capital taken from a Bank/ Public financial institution  does not attract the disqualification.
  • 27. Failure for one year or more The disqualification of Sec 164(2)(b) takes place only when such failure continues for one year or more, whereas in case of sec 164(2)(a), it takes place immediately on default.
  • 28. Consider the following situation DIRECTORSHIP STATUS Date of default Effective date of default (1.1.2013) (31.12.2013) situation – 1 yes yes situation – 2 yes no situation – 3 no yes situation – 4 yes no yes Only in situation – 1 the director stands disqualified
  • 29. • Sec 164(1)(b) will be attracted only when the default continues for one year and he was a director as on the date of default and continued as director till the effective date of default.
  • 30. Can be default be subsequently rectified? • Even where the default under sec 164(1)(b) is subsequently cured by the company after one year (by belated repayment), the directors shall continue to remain disqualified. • Once defaulted subsequent rectification of default is of no consequence.
  • 31. Section 164(1) (a) & (b)  Suppose a person is a director of ABC Ltd, the defaulting company,  he shall vacate his office of director not only in the defaulting company but also the office of director in all other companies and  shall not be eligible to be reappointed as a director of that company or appointed in any other company  for a period of 5 years.
  • 32. Period of disqualification • The disqualification is only for 5 years and after which he can be appointed or reappointed.
  • 33. How do you calculate the period of 5 years? • The disqualification under sec 164(2)(a), shall be for 5 years from the date of default, whereas, under sec 164(2)(b), shall be for 5 years from the date of default itself (or 4 yrs from the effective date of default).
  • 34. Section 164(2) monitoring mechanism 1. Declaration by the proposed director that he is not so disqualified. 2. Statutory auditor shall report under sec 143, as to whether the directors are so disqualified.
  • 35. Who can relax the disqualification in sec 164? Neither the company nor the Central Govt. can relax any of the disqualifications.
  • 36. Can articles provide for additional disqualifications 1. A private company can so provide in its articles. 2. They may provide for qualifications, experience, age, deposit requirements etc, 3. By implication, a public company cannot so provide other than those specified in sec 164.
  • 37. In a private company the disqualifications referred in section 164(1) (d), (e) and (g) shall not take effect for 30 days from the date of conviction or order of disqualification; where an appeal is preferred within 30 days of order, until expiry of 7 days from the date on which such appeal is disposed off; or where any further appeal is preferred within 7 days, until such further appeal is disposed off.
  • 38. However, the above proviso will not apply to public company. Hence, in a public company he shall be disqualified to be appointed as director from the date of court order.
  • 39. Can a minor be a director 1. Section 164 does not address this issue. 2. However by implication, a minor, being incompetent to contract, cannot file any valid consent, under section 152(5). 3. Hence he cannot be appointed as a director of any company.
  • 40. Minimum & maximum directors for a company – sec 149(1) Public company – minimum 3 directors Private company – minimum 2 directors One person company – minimum 1 director Maximum directors for all companies – 15 Articles can provide for lower maximum limit.
  • 41. For appointment of more than 15 directors Special Resolution required. Every company should comply with this section within 1 year of applicability
  • 42. Women director Every listed company should have atleast one woman director – section to be complied within 1 year. Every other company having paid up capital of Rs. 100 crores or more should also have atleast one woman director – section to be complied within 5 years.
  • 43. What are the consequences if the number of directors are reduced below the statutory minimum? 1. The legislative intention appears that the minimum directors must be maintained under all circumstances. 2. Hence the directors must be appointed within a reasonable period of time How ? - We can visualize three different situations!
  • 44. (a) the number of directors reduced below the statutory minimum but quorum can be formed 1. Convene BM or an EGM to appoint directors. 2. Any business transacted after such reduction is invalid. 3. Where there are 2 directors against the minimum 3, an allotment of shares is invalid, though 2 directors can form a quorum.
  • 45. (b) the number of directors reduced below the minimum required and no quorum for BM. Reg 69 of Table F provides, that the continuing directors may act,  for appointing directors to that fixed for the quorum, or  for summoning a General Meeting for appointing directors, but for no other purpose'.
  • 46. (c ) the company becomes directorless In such situation, directors are to be appointed as provided in section 168(3).(promoter and in his absence the CG will appoint the auditors)
  • 47. Number of directorships – sec 165 1. A person shall not be a director in more than 20 companies at the same time, including alternate directorships. 2. In case of public companies, the maximum number shall not exceed 10. 3. A private company which is a holding or a subsidiary of a public company, will be reckoned as public company for calculating the limit of 10 directors.
  • 48. 4. The members of a company may, by special resolution, specify the number less than 20 or 10 (as the case may be) companies in which a director of the company can act as director. 5. Penalty for contravention of section 165(1) shall be not less than Rs.5,000/- which may extend to Rs. 25,000/- for every day of contravention.
  • 49. 6. The limits are specified to ensure (a) directors spend more time for the affairs of the company (b) to prevent concentration of economic power in the hands of few persons.
  • 50. Transitory provision – sec 165(3)-(5) 1. Consequent to the reduction from 15 to 10 (public companies), the Director concerned has to, within 1 year of commencement of the Act,  choose the directorship in companies, not more than the specified limits;  resign as director in the other remaining companies;  intimate the choice to each of the companies; &  intimate the ROC.
  • 51. 2. Such resignation shall become effective immediately on dispatch to the company concerned. (irrespective of sec 168 regarding resignation of directors).
  • 52. Only individual to be the Director - Sec. 149(1) No body corporate, firm or association can become a director. Only an individual can be a director because his office is a office of responsibility, accountability and position of trust.
  • 53. Resident Director Section 149(2) Every company should have at least one director who stayed in India for not less than 182 days in the previous calendar year
  • 54. DIN for Directors Section 152 (3) & (4) Every person shall be allotted DIN before appointment as a director. Every such proposed person, before his appointment in the GM, shall furnish his DIN to the company and a declaration that he is not disqualified for the appointment under the act.
  • 55. Consent for directorship Section 152(5) 1. The section specifies two types of consents, applicable for all companies: First, consent to be filed by the director with the company on or before his appointment in Form no. 11.2, Second, consent to be filed by the company with the ROC within 30 days of appointment in Form no. 11.8
  • 56. 2. In case of independent directors appointed in GM, the explanatory statement shall include a statement that he fulfills the conditions specified in the Act for his appointment
  • 57. Appointment of a person as director other than retiring director – section 160 Members shall take the initiative for the appointment of a director other than retiring director (similar to special notice).
  • 58. What is special notice? • Normally in any GM, it is the board which proposes the items of business. • The shareholders, by resolutions, either approve or disapprove the items of business. • Special notice is a concept which enables the members themselves to take the initiative and propose the items of business.
  • 59. Procedure in section – 160 1. The proposer, shall give a 14 days notice to the company along with a deposit of Rs.1,00,000/-.
  • 60. 2. The company shall serve, at least 7 days before the meeting  individual notice to all the members in writing or through electronic mode and place notice on its website.  failing which two newspaper advertisements can be given.
  • 61. 3. At the general meeting after the regular items of business, the matters given in the special notice will be taken up for consideration. 4. If ordinary resolution is passed the director stands elected.
  • 62. Other issues in section 160 1. Appointment in AGM/EGM 2. Section 160 notice by member - irrespective of number of shares held by him 3. Preference shareholder can also give Section 160 notice.
  • 63. • Member can give section 160 notice - proposing himself - proposing any other member - proposing even an outsider • Outsider can give section 160 notice only - proposing himself
  • 64. Deposit for the candidature • A proposed candidate shall deposit Rs.1,00,000/- at least 14 days before the meeting. • The deposit will be refunded if the person proposed gets elected as a director or gets more than 25% of total valid votes cast.
  • 65. Sec 160 - the only route to enter the company Sec 160 must be complied with for appointment of director at any GM. Thus if an additional director, casual vacancy director or alternate director, after expiry of his office, is proposed to be appointed as a director at the GM, section 160 must be complied with.
  • 66. How about immediate appointment For immediate appointment of a director, Sec. 160 can be combined with sec 100 to requisition an EGM to appoint a director.
  • 67. Other procedural compliances 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Filing of Form 11.8 – consent with ROC Updating ‗Register of Directors‘ Updating ‗Register of Directors shareholding‘ Informing stock exchange – for listed company. Refund of deposit.
  • 68. Differences between sec 161(1) and 161(4) Additional Director 1. Best interest of the co 2. Public & private co 3. Board meeting or resolution by circulation 4. Power derived from the articles 5. Holds office upto the next AGM Casual vacancy Director 1. Casual vacancy to arise 2. Only for public companies 3. Board meeting only 4. Power subject to articles 5. Holds office upto the period original director would have held office
  • 69. Alternate director- Sec 161(2) 1. Applicable to public & private companies 2. Board to appoint – not MD/Manager/sec 3. Appointment either at Board meeting or by resolution by circulation 4. Articles to specifically provide
  • 70. Who can appoint alternate director  The power to appoint has been given to the Board  and not to the original director who is absent.
  • 71. Can general meeting appoint alternate director 1. The power is vested only with the Board, and cannot be exercised by the GM. 2. The members by ordinary resolution can only authorise the Board to appoint, if articles doesnot authorise.
  • 72. Issues in appointment of alternate director 1. Alternate director can be appointed only when the director is absent for 3 months from INDIA.
  • 73. 2. His intention to be absent for 3 months from India, is a pre-requisite to form an opinion.  It does not refer to actual absence. The original director may return back before 3 months itself.
  • 74. 3. The phrase, "during his absence " suggests that the Original director is going to be outside India. But the phrase "returns to India " indicates the act of retuning back to India. 4. Thus alternate directors cannot be appointed in case of a director who resides outside India (and is already there) – foreign director/ NRI director
  • 75. 5. An alternate director to an independent director should also satisfy the criteria for independent directors.
  • 76. 6. The person to be appointed as the alternate director shall be the person other than person holding any alternate directorship for any other director in the company. However, a director of the company may act in dual capacity, i.e. for himself and as an alternate director for any other director of the company.
  • 77. Term of office of alternate director 1. An alternate director shall not hold office longer than that 'permissible' to the original director. 2. If the original director ceases due to death/ resignation/ removal or vacation of office, the alternate director shall immediately cease to hold his office.
  • 78. 3. The alternate director shall vacate, when the original director returns to India. 4. The office shall come to an end, irrespective whether the original director returns to India for attending a BM or for any other purpose.
  • 79. • However the Bombay High Court in Janson Engineering and Trading (Pvt) Limited (18 August 2011) held as under: • For an alternate director to cease to be a director, actual attendance at the board meeting of the director appointing him has not been contemplated under section 313 of the Companies Act, 1956. Consequently the return to the state would suffice though the director does not commence attending board meetings held after his return. The provisions in the section 313 of the 1956 Act would show not only a temporary return, but an intention to stay in that state so as to enable him to transact the business of the company.
  • 80. • If a director merely comes to the state and leaves India again he would not be able to transact business. Hence the alternate director would have continued. The term ―the original director returns to the state‖, must be read as contemplating a return which would have some amount of permanence. The director must return to carry on the business. He must return for a length of time. The intent of the director must be to return to India, not for a temporary period eg, on a holiday or on a vacation. Therefore, when the original director returned to India to carry on his business in India then the alternate director would vacate his office under section 313(2) of the 1956 Act.
  • 81. Status of alternate director 1. Alternate director is not a proxy of original director 2. Original director cannot influence him in the manner of exercise of powers. 3. He is in the same position as any other director as regards his rights, duties and liabilities.
  • 82. Appointment of alternate director as MD/WTD 1. If original director was MD, alternate director will not automatically become MD. 2. Alternate director can be appointed as MD, even if the original director was not so.
  • 83. Nominee Director - Section 161(3) Subject to the articles of a company, the Board may appoint any person as a director nominated by any institution in pursuance of the provisions of any law or of any agreement or by the Central Government or the State Government by virtue of its shareholding in a Government company.
  • 84. Option to adopt principle of proportional representation for appointment of directors – sec 163  Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act,  the articles of a company may provide for the appointment of not less than two-thirds of the total number of the directors in accordance with the principle of proportional representation,  whether by the single transferable vote or by a system of cumulative voting or otherwise and  such appointments may be made once in every three years and casual vacancies of such directors shall be filled as provided in section 161(4).
  • 85. Principle of proportional representation Sec - 163 1. Directors are appointed by shareholders in proportion to the shares held by them. 2. Purpose of the section – to give effect to group interests, minority interests etc., 3. Section 163 overrides inconsistent sections like 152, 160, 162 etc.,
  • 86. 4. Applicable to all companies – Public & Private. 5. Articles to specifically provide. 6. Not less than 2/3rd of the total directors must be appointed under the principle – remaining directors shall be appointed as per the articles.
  • 87. 7. These directors can hold office for 3 years. 8. They cannot be removed from office under section 169 – hence permanent directors for 3 years. 9. After 3 years they shall be again appointed by the members based on shareholding pattern and the process carries on. 10. Any casual vacancy in the office shall be filledup under section 161(4) by the board.
  • 88. Vacation of office of Director - Sec 167 The implications of vacation of office are: 1. The vacation shall be automatic. 2. On happening of the events - forthwith cease to be a director. 3. No need for opportunity to show cause.
  • 89. 4. The Board need not pass a resolution. 5. The Board shall have no power to waive the event . 6. Where a director disputes the vacation, he shall first vacate the office, and then resort to the Court for a direction that the section was not applicable and that he be reinstated.
  • 90. The office of a director shall become vacant automatically in the following circumstances 1. if he incurs any of the disqualifications specified in section 164 (10 circumstances). Thus, it implies the disqualifications for a director would arise not only at the point of appointment but also during his tenure as director.
  • 91. 2. he absents himself from all the meetings of the board held during a period of 12 months with or without seeking leave of absence from the board.
  • 92. Issues Absent from all board meetings held in 12 months  With or without seeking leave of absence from the board absents himself – scope for legal & medical impossibility
  • 93.  The onus of proving rests on the company. It has to prove the following 1. The notice of the meeting was duly sent. 2. The director has received the notice. 3. The meeting was duly held. 4. The director did not attend the meeting.
  • 94. 3. he acts in contravention of section 184 relating to entering into contracts or arrangements in which he is directly or indirectly interested; 4. he fails to disclose his interest in any contract in which he is interested, in contravention of section 184; 5. he becomes disqualified by an order of a court or the Tribunal;
  • 95. 6. he is convicted by a court of any offence, whether involving moral turpitude or otherwise and sentenced in respect thereof to imprisonment for not less than 6 months: Provided that the office shall be vacated by the director even if he has filed an appeal against the order of such court; 7. he is removed in pursuance of the provisions of this Act;
  • 96. 8. he, having been appointed a director by virtue of his holding any office or other employment in the holding, subsidiary or associate company, ceases to hold such office or other employment in that company.
  • 97. Penalties under sec 167(2) • If a person, functions as a director even when he knows that the office of director held by him has become vacant, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which shall not be less than Rs. 1,00,000/- but which may extend to Rs. 5,00,000/-, or with both.
  • 98. Promoters to act as Directors • Where all the directors of a company vacate their offices under any of the disqualifications specified, the promoter or, in his absence, the CG shall appoint the required number of directors who shall hold office till the directors are appointed by the company in the general meeting.
  • 99. Vacation of office of director - Pvt co • A private company may provide additional grounds in its articles. • By implication, a public company cannot provide for additional grounds.
  • 100. • A private company cannot circumvent section 169, in the guise of including additional grounds in its articles for the vacation of office by directors under section 167(4). • Whenever any such additional ground included virtually results in the removal of a director, the power in this behalf can only be exercised by the company in general meeting under section 169.
  • 101. Resignation of directors – Sec 168 1. A director may resign from his office by giving a notice in writing to the company and the Board shall take note of the same and the company shall intimate the ROC within 30 days in Form No. 11.8 and post the information on its website, if any, and shall also specify such resignation in the forthcoming Director‘s Report.
  • 102. 2. The resigning director shall forward a copy of his resignation letter with detailed reasons to ROC in Form No. 11.7 within 30 days of his resignation.
  • 103. 3. The resignation of a director shall take effect from the date on which the notice is received by the company or the date, if any, specified by the director in the notice, whichever is later. 4. The director who has resigned shall be liable even after his resignation for the offences which occurred during his tenure.
  • 104. Promoters to act as Directors • Where all the directors resign from their offices, the promoter or, in his absence, the Central Government shall appoint the required number of directors who shall hold office till the directors are appointed by the company in the general meeting.
  • 105. Resignation of MD/WTD 1. There are no provisions in the Act regarding resignation of MD/WTD 2. It appears that, in case of resignation of MD/ WTD, apart from compliance of section 168, the resignation has to be accepted by the Board and he should be relieved from his duties.
  • 106. Right to resign • Where there were two directors, one died and the other wanted to resign, a letter of resignation to the company under intimation to ROC was enough to make the resignation effective. • It was not necessary that the surviving director should first co-opt a director and then hand over the resignation to him.
  • 107. Small shareholder’s Director – sec 151 1. A listed company may  suo motu or  upon the notice of not less than 500 or 1/10th of the total number of small shareholders,  whichever is lower,  elect one small shareholders‘ director from amongst the small shareholders.
  • 108. 2. Such small shareholders intending to propose a person as a candidate  shall leave a notice of their intention with the company at least 14 days before the meeting under their signature  specifying the name, address, shares held and folio number of the proposed person and of the small shareholders who are proposing such person.
  • 109. 3. Such notice shall be accompanied by a statement stating  his DIN;  that he is not disqualified to become a director; and  his consent to act as a director of the company. 4. Such director shall be considered as an independent director subject to his giving a declaration of his independence as specified.
  • 110. 5. The appointment of small shareholders‘ director shall be subject to section 152 except thatThe director shall not be liable to retire by rotation; The small shareholders‘ director‘s tenure shall not exceed a period of three consecutive years; and on the expiry of the tenure, the director shall not be eligible for re-appointment.
  • 111. 6. A person shall not be appointed as small shareholders‘ director, if the person is disqualified for appointment in terms of section 164. 7. A person appointed as small shareholders‘ director shall vacate the office if the director ceases to be a small shareholder, on and from the date of cessation; the director incurs any of the disqualifications specified in section 164;
  • 112. the office of the director becomes vacant under section 167; the director ceases to meet the criteria of independence as provided in section 149(6) 8. No person shall hold the office of small shareholders‘ director in more than two companies at the same time. 9. A small shareholder means a shareholder holding shares of nominal value of not more than Rs. 20,000.
  • 113. Removal of small shareholders director • He can be removed by ordinary resolution passed in the general meeting after compliance of the procedural requirements of section 169. • There is nothing in the act or in the rules which requires, obtaining the consent of small shareholders, for removal. • A Small Shareholders‘ Director can be removed only with the consent of all the shareholders of the company.
  • 114. Duties of Director – section 166 1. A director shall act in accordance with the articles of the company. 2. A director of a company shall  act in good faith to promote the company‘s objects for the benefit of its members as a whole, and  in the best interests of the company, its employees, the shareholders, the community and  for the protection of environment.
  • 115. 3. A director shall exercise his duties with due and reasonable care, skill and diligence and shall exercise independent judgment. 4. A director shall not involve in a situation in which he may have a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly may conflict, with the interest of the company.
  • 116. 5. A director shall not achieve or attempt to achieve any undue gain or advantage either to himself or to his relatives, partners, or associates and if such director is found guilty of making any undue gain, he shall be liable to pay an amount equal to that gain to the company. 6. A director of a company shall not assign his office and any assignment so made shall be void.
  • 117. 7. If a director of the company contravenes the provisions of this section such director shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than Rs. 1,00,000/- but which may extend to Rs. 5,00,000/-
  • 118. Penalties – sec 172 If a company contravenes any of the provisions of this Chapter XI and for which no specific punishment is provided therein, the company and every officer in default shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than Rs. 50,000/- but which may extend to Rs. 5,00,000.
  • 119. Director Identification Number (DIN) Sec 153-158 1. Every individual, who is to be appointed as director of a company, shall make an application electronically to CG for allotment of DIN (Form No. 11.3). 2. The CG shall allot a DIN, within 1 month of receipt of application.
  • 120. 3. No individual, who has already been allotted a DIN, shall apply for another DIN. 4. Every director shall intimate his DIN to the company or all the companies wherein he is a director within 1 month of receipt of DIN. 5. Every company shall furnish DIN of all its directors to ROC within 15 days of the receipt of the same from the directors.
  • 121. 6. Every person or company shall mention the DIN in returns, information or particulars filed under the Act. 7. Penalty for violation – Imprisonment upto 6 months or fine Rs. 50,000
  • 122. Independent Director – sec 149(6) 1. An independent director means  a director other than a managing director or a wholetime director or a nominee director, Should be a person of integrity and possesses relevant expertise and experience;
  • 123.  Such person should not have been  a promoter of the company or its holding, subsidiary or associate company or  related to promoters or directors in the company, its holding, subsidiary or associate company;  not have any pecuniary relationship with the company, its holding, subsidiary or associate company, or their promoters, or directors, during the two immediately preceding financial years or during the current financial year;
  • 124.  none of the relatives of such person must have pecuniary relationship or transaction with the company, its holding, subsidiary or associate company, or their promoters, or directors, amounting to 2% or more of its gross turnover or total income or Rs 50 lakhs or such higher amount as may be prescribed, whichever is lower, during the two immediately preceding financial years or during the current financial year;
  • 125.  who, neither himself nor any of his relatives— holds or has held the position of a key managerial personnel or is or has been employee of the company or its holding, subsidiary or associate company in any of the 3 financial years immediately preceding the financial year in which he is proposed to be appointed;
  • 126.  is or has been an employee or proprietor or a partner, in any of the 3 financial years immediately preceding the financial year in which he is proposed to be appointed, of— (A) a firm of auditors or company secretaries in practice or cost auditors of the company or its holding, subsidiary or associate company; or (B) any legal or a consulting firm that has or had any transaction with the company, its holding, subsidiary or associate company amounting to 10% or more of the gross turnover of such firm;
  • 127.  holds, together with his relatives, 2% or more of the total voting power of the company; or  is a Chief Executive or director, by whatever name called, of any non profit organisation that receives 25% or more of its receipts from the company, any of its promoters, directors or its holding, subsidiary or associate company or that holds 2% or more of the total voting power of the company; or
  • 128.  who possess appropriate balance of skills, experience and knowledge in one or more fields of finance, law, management, sales, marketing, administr ation, research, corporate governance, technical operations or other disciplines related to the company‘s business:
  • 129. 2. Every listed public company; or  Public Companies having paid up share capital of Rs. 100 crores or more; or  Public Companies having turnover of Rs. 300 crores or more; or  Public Companies which have, in aggregate, outstanding loans or borrowings or debentures or deposits, exceeding Rs. 200 crores shall have at least one-third of the total number of directors as independent directors. Any fraction contained in such one-third number shall be rounded off as one.
  • 130. 3. Every company existing on or before the date of commencement of this Act shall, within one year from such commencement or from the date of notification of the rules in this regard as may be applicable, comply with the requirements of the provisions of sub-section (3).
  • 131. 4. Every independent director shall  at his first Board meeting  and thereafter at the first Board meeting in every financial year or  whenever there is any change in the circumstances which may affect his status as an independent director, give a declaration that he meets the criteria of independence as provided in sub-section (6).
  • 132. 5. The company and independent directors shall abide by certain duties specified in Schedule IV. 6. An independent director shall not be entitled to any stock option and may receive remuneration by way of sitting fees, reimbursement of expenses for participation in the Board and other meetings and profit related commission as may be approved by the members.
  • 133. 7. An independent director shall hold office for a term up to 5 consecutive years, but shall be eligible for reappointment on passing of a special resolution by the company and disclosure of such appointment in the Board's report.
  • 134. 8. No independent director shall hold office for more than two consecutive terms, but he shall be eligible for appointment after the expiration of three years of ceasing to become an independent director. Also, he shall not, during the said period of three years, be appointed in or be associated with the company in any other capacity, either directly or indirectly.
  • 135. 9. An independent director, a non-executive director not being promoter or key managerial personnel,  shall be held liable, only for such acts of omission or commission by a company  which had occurred with his knowledge, attributable through Board processes, and with his consent or connivance or where he had not acted diligently.
  • 136. 10.The provisions of retirement of directors by rotation, shall not be applicable to appointment of independent directors.