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PPT of CPWD earthwork chapter

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  1. 1. SUB HEAD : 2.0EARTH WORK
  2. 2. SUB HEAD 2.0 : EARTH WORK
  3. 3. LIST OF BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARD CODES S. No. I.S. No. Subject 1 IS 632 Gamma – BHC (Lindane) emulsifiable concentrates 2 IS 1200 (Pt 1) Method of measurement of earth work 3 IS 1200 (Pt-27) Method of measurement of earth work (byMechanical Appliances ) 4 IS 4081 Safety code for Blasting and related drilling operation 5 IS 4988 (Part IV) Excavators 6 IS 6313 (pt-II) Anti Termite measures in buildings (pre -constructional) 7 IS 6313(pt.-III) Anti Termite Measures in Buildings for existingbuildings 8 IS 6940 Methods of test for pesticides and their formulations 9 IS 8944 Chlorpyrifos emulsifiable concentrates 10 IS 8963 Chlorpyrifos – Technical specifications 11 IS 12138 Earth moving Equipments
  4. 4. 2.0 EARTH WORK :- 2.0 DEFINITIONS Deadmen or Tell Tales: Mounds of earth leftundisturbed in pits dug out for borrowing earth Burjis: Short pillars of brick/ stone having top surfacefinished with cement plaster for marking etc. Formation or Profile: Final shape of the ground afterexcavation or filling up. Foul condition: Filthy and unhygienic conditions wherephysical movements are hampered such as soil mixedwith sewage or night soil
  5. 5. LeadAll distances shall be measured over theshortest practical route and not necessarily theroute actually taken. Route other than shortestpractical route may be considered in cases ofunavoidable circumstances and approved byEngineer-in-charge along with reasons in writing.Carriage by manual labour shall be reckoned inunits of 50 metres or part thereof. Carriage byanimal and mechanical transport shall bereckoned in one km. unit. Distances of 0.5 km ormore shall be taken as 1 km. and distance ofless than 0.5 km. shall be ignored. However,when the total lead is less than 0.5 km., it will notbe ignored but paid for separately in successivestages of 50 metres subject to the condition thatthe rate worked on this basis does not exceedthe rate for initial lead of 1 km. by
  6. 6. Lift :The vertical distance for removal withreference to the ground level. Theexcavation up to 1.5 metres depth belowthe ground level and depositing theexcavated materials upto 1.5 metresabove the ground level are included inthe rate of earth work. Lifts inherent inthe lead due to ground slope shall notbe paid for.
  7. 7. Safety rules:Safety rules as laid down by thestatutory authority and as provided inNational Building Code (NBC) shall befollowed.
  8. 8. 2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS2.1.0 The earthwork shall be classifiedunder the following categories andmeasured separately for eachcategory:
  9. 9. (a) All kind of soils:Generally any strata, such as sand, gravel,loam, clay, mud, black cotton moorum,shingle, river or nallah bed boulders,siding of roads, paths etc. and hard core,macadam surface of any description(water bound, grouted tarmac etc.), limeconcrete mud concrete and theirmixtures which for excavation yields toapplication of picks, showels, jumper,sacrifiers, ripper and other manualdigging implements.
  10. 10. (b) Ordinary rock:Generally any rock which can beexcavated by splitting with crow bars orpicks and does not require blasting,wedging or similar means for excavationsuch as lime stone, sand stone, hardlaterite, hard conglomerate and un-reinforced cement concrete belowground level.If required light blasting may beresorted to for loosening the materialsbut this will not in any way entitle thematerial to be classified as ‘Hard rock’.
  11. 11. (c) Hard rock:Generally any rock or boulder for theexcavation of which blasting isrequired such as quartzite, granite,basalt, reinforced cement concretereinforcement to be cut through butnotseparated from concrete) below groundlevel and the like.
  12. 12. (d) Hard rock (blastingprohibited):Hard rock requiring blasting asdescribed under (c) but where theblasting is prohibited for anyreason and excavation has to becarried out bychiseling, wedging, use of rockhammers and cutters or any otheragreed method.
  13. 13. 2.2 ANTIQUITIES AND USEFULMATERIALS 2.2.1 Any finds of archaeological interest suchas relics of antiquity, coins, fossils or otherarticles of value shall be delivered to theEngineer-in-Charge and shall be the propertyof the Government. 2.2.2 Any material obtained from theexcavation which in the opinion of theEngineer-in-Charge is useful shall bestacked separately in regular stacks asdirected by the Engineer-in-Charge andshall be the property of the Government.
  14. 14. 2.3 PROTECTIONS2.3.1 Excavation where directed by theEngineer-in-Charge shall be securelybarricaded and provided with propercaution signs, conspicuouslydisplayed during the day and properlyilluminated with red lights and/orwritten using fluorescent reflectivepaint as directed by engineer incharge during the night to avoidaccident.
  15. 15. 2.3.2 The Contractor shall take adequateprotective measures to see that theexcavation operations do not damage theadjoining structures or dislocate the services.Water supply pipes, sluice valve chambers,sewerage pipes, manholes, drainage pipesand chambers, communication cables, powersupply cables etc. met within the course ofexcavation shall be properly supported andadequately protected, so that these servicesremain functional. However, if any service isdamaged during excavation shall be restoredin reasonable time.
  16. 16. 2.3.3 Excavation shall not be carried outbelow the foundation level of theadjacent buildings until underpinning,shoring etc. is done as per thedirections of the Engineer-in-Chargefor which payment shall be madeseparately.
  17. 17. 2.3.4 Any damages done by the contractorto any existing work shall be made goodby him at his own cost. Existing drainspipes, culverts, over head wires, watersupply lines and similar servicesencountered during the course ofexecution shall be protected againstdamage by the contractor. Thecontractor shall not store material orotherwise occupy any part of the site inmanner likely to hinder the operations ofsuch services.
  18. 18. 2.4 SITE CLEARANCE2.4.1 Before the earth work is started, the areacoming under cutting and filling shall becleared of shrubs, rank vegetation, grass,brushwood, trees and saplings of girth up to30cm measured at a height of one metreabove ground level and rubbish removed upto a distance of 50 metres outside theperiphery of the area under clearance. Theroots of trees and saplings shall be removedto a depth of 60cm below ground level or 30cm below formation level or 15 cm below subgrade level, whichever is lower, and the holesor hollows filled up with the earth, rammedand leveled.
  19. 19. 2.4.2 The trees of girth above 30 cmmeasured at a height of one metreabove ground shall be cut only afterpermission of the Engineer-in-Chargeis obtained in writing. The roots oftrees shall also beremoved as specified in 2.4.1. paymentfor cutting such trees and removingthe roots shall be made separately.
  20. 20. 2.4.3 Existing structures and servicessuch as old buildings, culverts,fencing, water supply pipe lines,sewers, power cables, communicationcables, drainage pipes etc. within oradjacent to the area ifrequired to be diverted/removed, shallbe diverted/dismantled as perdirections of the Engineer-in- Chargeand payment for suchdiversion/dismantling works shall bemade separately.
  21. 21. 2.4.4 In case of archaeologicalmonuments within or adjacent to thearea, the contractor shall providenecessary fencing alround suchmonuments as per the directions ofthe Engineer-in-Charge and protectthe same properly during execution ofworks. Payment for providing fencingshall be made separately.
  22. 22. 2.4.5 Lead of 50 m mentioned in the‘Schedule Of Quantities’ is theaverage lead for the disposal ofexcavated earth within the site ofwork. The actual lead for the lead forthe disposal of earth may be more orless than the 50 m for which no costadjustment shall be made in the rates.
  23. 23. 2.4.6 Disposal of Earth shall bedisposed off at the specified locationor as decided by the Engineer-in-Charge. The contractor has to takewritten permission about place ofdisposal of earth before the earthis disposed off, from Engineer-in-Charge.
  24. 24. 2.5 SETTING OUT AND MAKING PROFILES2.5.1 A masonry pillar to serve as a bench mark will beerected at a suitable point in the area, which is visiblefrom the largest area. This bench mark shall beconstructed as per Fig. 2.1 and connected with thestandard bench mark as approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. Necessary profiles with strings stretched onpegs, bamboos or ‘Burjis’ shall be made to indicate thecorrect formation levels before the work is started. Thecontractor shall supply labour and material forconstructing bench mark, setting out and makingprofiles and connecting bench mark with the standardbench mark at his own cost. The pegs, bamboos or‘Burjis’ and the bench mark shall be maintained by thecontractor at his own cost during the excavation tocheck the profiles.
  25. 25. 2.5.2 The ground levels shall be taken at 5 to 15metres intervals (as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge) in uniformly sloping ground and at closerintervals where local mounds, pits or undulationsare met with. The ground levels shall be recordedin field books and plotted on plans. The plans shallbe drawn to a scale of 5 metres to one cm or anyother suitable scale decided by the Engineer-in-Charge. North direction line and position of benchmark shall invariable be shown on the plans. Theseplans shall be signed by the contractor and theEngineer-in-Charge or their authorizedrepresentatives before the earth work is started.The labour required for taking levels shall besupplied by the contractor at his own cost.
  26. 26. 2.6 BLASTING2.6.0 Where hard rock is met with andblasting operations are considerednecessary, the contractor shall obtainthe approval of the Engineer-in-Charge in writing for resorting toblasting operation.
  27. 27. Note: In ordinary rock blastingoperations shall not be generallyadopted. However, the contractor mayresort to blasting with the permissionof the Engineer-in-charge, but nothingextra shall be paid forsuch blasting operations.
  28. 28. The contractor shall obtain license from the competent authorityfor undertaking blasting work as well as for obtaining andstoring the explosive as per the Explosive Act, 1884 asamended up to date and the Explosive Rules, 1983. Thecontractor shall purchase the explosivesfuses, detonators, etc. only from a licensed dealer. Thecontractor shall be responsible for the safetransportation, storage and custody as per explosive rulesand proper accounting of the explosive materials. Fuses anddetonators shall be stored separately and away from theexplosives. The Engineer-in-Charge or his authorizedrepresentative shall have the right to check the contractor’sstore and account of explosives. The contractor shall providenecessary facilities for this. The contractor shall beresponsible for any damage arising out of accident toworkmen, public or property due to storage, transportationand use of explosive during blasting operation.
  29. 29. 2.6.1 Blasting operations shall be carried out under the supervision ofa responsible authorized agent of the contractor (referredsubsequently as agent only), during specified hours as approved inwriting by the Engineer-in-Charge. The agent shall be conversantwith the rules of blasting. In case of blasting with dynamite or anyother high explosive, the position of all the bore holes to be drilledshall be marked in circles with white paint. These shall beinspected by the contractor’s agent. Bore holes shall be of a sizethat the cartridge can easily pass down. After the drilling operation,the agent shall inspect the holes to ensure that drilling has beendone only at the marked locations and no extra hole has beendrilled. The agent shall then prepare the necessary chargeseparately for each bore hole. The bore holes shall be thoroughlycleaned before a cartridge is inserted. Only cylindrical woodentamping rods shall be used for tamping. Metal rods or rods havingpointed ends shall never be used for tamping.
  30. 30. One cartridge shall be placed in the bore hole and gently pressed butnot rammed down. Other cartridges shall then be added as may berequired to make up the necessary charge for the bore hole. Thetop most cartridge shall be connected to the detonator which shallin turn be connected to the safety fuses of required length. All fusesshall be cut to the length required before being inserted into theholes. Joints in fuses shall be avoided. Where joints areunavoidable a semi-circular nitch shall be cut in one piece of fuseabout 2 cm deep from the end and the end of other piece insertedinto the nitch. The two pieces shall then be wrapped together withstring. All joints exposed to dampness shall be wrapped with rubbertape.
  31. 31. The maximum of eight bore holes shall beloaded and fired at one occasion. Thecharges shall be fired successively and notsimultaneously. Immediately before firing,warning shall be given and the agent shallsee that all persons have retired to a placeof safety. The safety fuses of the chargedholes shall be ignited in the presence of theagent, who shall see that all the fuses areproperly ignited.
  32. 32. Careful count shall be kept by the agent andothers of each blast as it explodes. In caseall the charged bore holes have exploded,the agent shall inspect the site soon afterthe blast but in case of misfire the agentshall inspect the site after half an hour andmark red crosses (X) over the holes whichhave not exploded. During this interval ofhalf an hour, nobody shall approach themisfired holes. No driller shall work nearsuch bore until either of the followingoperations have been done by the agentfor the misfired boreholes.
  33. 33. (a) The contractor’s agent shall very carefully(when the tamping is of damp clay) extractthetamping with a wooden scraper and withdrawthe fuse, primer and detonator. After this afreshdetonator, primer and fuse shall be placed inthe misfired holes and fired, or(b) The holes shall be cleaned for 30 cm oftamping and its direction ascertained byplacing a stick in the hole. Another hole shallthen be drilled 15 cm away and parallel to it.This hole shall be charged and fired. Themisfired holes shall also explode along withthe new one.
  34. 34. Before leaving the site of work, the agent ofone shift shall inform the another agentrelieving him for the next shift, of any caseof misfire and each such location shall bejointly inspected and the action to be takenin the matter shall be explained to therelieving agent.The Engineer-in-Charge shall also beinformed by the agent of all cases ofmisfires, their causes and steps taken inthat connection.
  35. 35. 2.6.2 General PrecautionsFor the safety of persons red flags shall beprominently displayed around the area whereblasting operations are to be carried out. All theworkers at site, except those who actually ignitethe fuse, shall withdraw to a safe distance of atleast 200 metres from the blasting site. Audiowarning by blowing whistle shall be given beforeigniting the fuse.Blasting work shall be done undercareful supervision and trained personnel shallbe employed.Blasting shall not be done with in 200 metres ofan existing structure, unless specificallypermitted by theEngineer-in-Charge in writing.
  36. 36. All procedures and safety precautions forthe use of explosives drilling and loadingof explosives drilling and loading ofexplosives before and after shot firing anddisposal of explosives shall be taken bythe contractor as detailed in IS 4081,safety code for blasting and related drillingoperation.
  37. 37. 2.6.3 Precautions against MisfireThe safety fuse shall be cut in an oblique direction with a knife. All sawdust shall be cleared from inside of the detonator. This can be doneby blowing down the detonator and tapping the open end. No toolsshall be inserted into the detonator for this purpose. If there is waterpresent or if the bore hole is damp, the junction of the fuse anddetonator shall be made water tight by means of tough grease orany other suitable material. The detonator shall be inserted into thecartridge so that about one third of the copper tube is left exposedoutside the explosive. The safety fuse just above the detonator shallbe securely tied in position in the cartridge. Water proof fuse onlyshall be used in the damp bore hole or when water is present in thebore hole. If a misfire has been found to be due to defective fuse,detonator or dynamite, the entire consignment from which the fusedetonator or dynamite was taken shall be got inspected by theEngineer-in-Charge or his authorized representative before resumingthe blasting or returning the consignment.
  38. 38. 2.7 EXCAVATION IN ALL KINDS OF SOILS2.7.1 All excavation operations manually or bymechanical means shall include excavation and‘gettingout’ the excavated materials. In case of excavationfor trenches, basements, water tanks etc. ‘gettingout’ shall include throwing the excavated materialsat a distance of at least one metre or half thedepth ofexcavation, whichever is more, clear off the edge ofexcavation. In all other cases ‘getting out’ shallinclude depositing the excavated materials asspecified. The subsequent disposal of theexcavatedmaterial shall be either stated as a separate item orincluded with the items of excavation statinglead.
  39. 39. 2.7.2 During the excavation the natural drainage of the areashall be maintained. Excavation shall be done from top tobottom. Undermining or undercutting shall not be done.2.7.3 In firm soils, the sides of the trenches shall be keptvertical upto a depth of 2 metres from the bottom. Forgreater depths, the excavation profiles shall be widened byallowing steps of 50 cms on either side after every 2 metresfrom the bottom. Alternatively, the excavation can be doneso as to give slope of 1:4 (1 horizontal : 4 vertical). Wherethe soil is soft, loose or slushy, the width of stepsshall be suitably increased or sides sloped or the soil shoredup as directed by the Engineer-in- Charge. It shall be theresponsibility of the contractor to take complete instructionsin writing from the Engineer-in-Charge regarding thestepping , sloping or shoring to be done for excavationdeeper than 2 metres.
  40. 40. 2.7.4 The excavation shall be done true to levels, slope, shapeand pattern indicated by the Engineer-in- Charge. Only theexcavation shown on the drawings with additionalallowances for centering and shuttering or as required bythe Engineer-in-Charge shall be measured and recorded forpayment.2.7.5 In case of excavation for foundation in trenches or overareas, the bed of excavation shall be to the correct level orslope and consolidated by watering and ramming. If theexcavation for foundation is done to a depth greater thanthat shown in the drawings or as required by the Engineer-in-Charge, the excess depth shall be made good by thecontractor at his own cost with the concrete of the mix usedfor levelling/ bed concrete for foundations. Soft/defectivespots at the bed of the foundations shall be dug out andfilled with concrete (to be paid separately) as directed by theEngineer-in-Charge.
  41. 41. 2.7.6 While carrying out the excavation for drain work careshall be taken to cut the side and bottom to the requiredshape, slope and gradient. The surface shall then beproperly dressed. If the excavation is done to a depthgreater than that shown on the drawing or as required bythe Engineer-in-Charge, the excess depth shall be madegood by the contractor at his own cost with stiff clay puddleat places where the drains are required to be pitched andwith ordinary earth, properly watered and rammed, wherethe drains are not required to be pitched. In case the drain isrequired is to be pitched, the back filling with clay puddle, ifrequired, shall be done simultaneously as the pitching workproceeds. The brick pitched storm water drains should beavoided as far as possible in filled-up areas and loose soils.2.7.7 In all other cases where the excavation is taken deeperby the contractor, it shall be brought to the required level bythe contractor at his own cost by filling in with earth dulywatered, consolidated and rammed.
  42. 42. 2.7.8 In case the excavation is done wider than thatshown on the drawings or as required by theEngineer-in-Charge, additional filling whereverrequired on the account shall be done by thecontractor at his own cost.2.7.9 The excavation shall be done manually or bymechanical means as directed by Engineer-in-charge considering feasibility, urgency of work,availability of labour /mechanical equipments andother factors involved. Contractor shall ensureevery safety measures for the workers. Neitherany deduction will be made nor any extrapayment will be made on this account.
  43. 43. 2.8 EXCAVATION IN ORDINARY/HARD ROCK2.8.1 All excavation operations shall include excavation and‘getting out’ the excavated matter. In case of excavation fortrenches, basements, water tanks etc. ‘getting out’ shallinclude throwing the excavated materials at a distance of atleast one metre or half the depth of excavation, whichever ismore, clear off the edge or excavation. In all other cases‘getting out’ shall include depositing the excavated materialsas specified. The subsequent disposal of the excavatedmaterial shall be either stated as a separate item or includedwith the item of excavation stating lead.
  44. 44. 2.8.2 During the excavation, the natural drainage of thearea shall be maintained. Excavation shall be donefrom top to bottom. Undermining or under cutting shallnot be done.2.8.3 Where hard rock is met with and blastingoperations are considered necessary, the contractorshall obtain the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge inwriting for resorting to the blasting operations. Blastingoperations shall be done as specified in para 2.6 andchiseling shall be done to obtain correct levels, slopes,shape and pattern of excavation as per the drawingsor as required by the Engineer-in-Charge and nothingextra shall be payable for chiseling.
  45. 45.  2.8.4 Where blasting operations are prohibited orare not practicable, excavation in hard rock shallbe done by chiseling. 2.8.5 In ordinary rock excavation shall be carriedout by crowbars, pick axes or pneumatic drills andblasting operation shall not be generally adopted.Where blasting operations are not prohibited andit is practicable to resort to blasting for excavationin ordinary rock, contractor may do so with thepermission of the Engineer-in-Charge in writingbut nothing extra shall be paid for this blasting.Blasting shall be done as specified in para 2.6.
  46. 46. 2.8.6 If the excavation for foundations or drains isdone to a depth greater than that shown in thedrawings or as required by the Engineer-in-Charge.The excess depth shall be made good by thecontractor at his own cost with the concrete of themix used for levelling/ bed concrete forfoundations.Soft/ defective spots at the bed of foundations shallbe dug out and filled with concrete (to be paidseparately) as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.2.8.7 In all other cases where the excavation istaken deeper by the contractor, it shall be broughtto therequired level by the contractor at his own cost byfilling with earth duly watered, consolidated andrammed.
  47. 47. 2.8.8 In case the excavation is done wider than thatshown on the drawings or as required by theEngineer-in-Charge, filling wherever required on thisaccount shall be done by the contractor at his owncost.2.8.9 Only the excavation shown on the drawings or asrequired by the Engineer-in-Charge shall be measuredand recorded for payment except in case of hard rock,where blasting operations have been resorted to,excavation shall be measured to the actual levels,provided the Engineer-in-Charge is satisfied that thecontractor has not gone deeper than what wasunavoidable.2.8.10 The excavation shall be done manually or bymechanical means as desired by Engineer-in- Chargeconsidering feasibility, urgency of work, availability oflabour /mechanical equipments and other factorsinvolved Contractor shall ensure every safetymeasures for the workers. Neither any deduction willbe made nor any extra payment will be made on thisaccount.
  48. 48. 2.9 EARTH WORK BY MECHANICAL MEANSEarth work by mechanical means involvescareful planning keeping in view siteconditions i.e. type of soil, nature ofexcavation, distances through whichexcavated soil is to be transported andworking space available for employing thesemachines. The earth moving equipmentshould be accordingly selected.The earth moving equipment consists ofexcavating and transporting equipment.Excavating equipments may be furtherclassifiedas excavators and tractor based equipments.
  49. 49. 2.9.1 ExcavatorsExcavators generally used at site are asfollows:(i) Dipper–shovel : It is used for excavating againsta face or bank consisting of open-top bucket ordipper with a bottom opening door, fixed to an armor dipper stick which slides and pivots on the jib ofthe crane. It is suitable for excavating all clay chalkand friable materials and for handling rock andstone. However, it is not suitable for surfaceexcavation for which a skimmer is used.
  50. 50. (ii) Backhoe : It is similar to face shovelexcept that the dipper stick pivots on theend of the jib and the dipper or bucket workstowards the chassis and normally has nobottom door but is emptied by swingingaway from the chassis to invert the bucket. Itmay be designed to carry both a front –mounted bucket loading mechanism and arear mounted backhoe. It is mainly used toexcavate trenches and occasionally used forthe excavation of open areas such as smallBasements. In the backhoe mode thebucket lifts, swings and discharges materialswhile the undercarriage is stationary. Whenused in the ‘loader’ mode, the machineloads or excavated through forward motionof the machine, and lifts, transports anddischarges materials.
  51. 51. (iii) Skimmer : This arrangement issimilar to the face shovel except thatin this case the bucket slides onrollers directly along the jib and thushas a more restricted movement. It isused for surface excavation andlevelling in conjunction with transportto haul away the excavated material.
  52. 52. (iv) Dragline : It is usually fitted with along slender boom or jib and thebucket, which in operation facestowards the machine and has nodoor, is supported by cable only ason a crane. It works from the side ofthe excavation at normal ground leveland is used for excavating large openexcavations such as basementswhen the depth is beyond the limit ofthe boom of a backhoe. It iscommonly used for open cast miningoperations.
  53. 53. (v) Clamshell : It consists of twohinged half-buckets or jaws pivotedto a frame which is suspended bycable from a long jib of anexcavation. The grab is used fordeep excavations of limited area onall types of soil except rock. Craneand Grab is a variant of this type ofequipment.
  54. 54. 2.9.2 Tractor–based EquipmentIt is a self–propelled crawler orwheeled machine used to exert apush or pull force through mountedequipment. It is designed either asattachments to normal tracked orwheeled tractors or as machines inwhich the earth moving attachmentsand the tractor are designed as asingle integratedunit. A tractor, which is hydraulicallyoperated, can be rigged as :
  55. 55. (i) Loaders : It is used for loading, lightdozing, scraping and grabbingoperations, lifting and transporting thematerials (loose earth, rubble, sand,gravel aggregate etc) at various sitesthrough forward motion of the machine.(ii) Tractor Shovel : This consists of atipping bucket at the front attached bystrong pivoted arms or booms to theframe of the machine. It is used forstripping top soil, excavating against aface, bulldozing and for loading spoil orloose materials. It is similar to crawlerdipper-shovel.
  56. 56. (iii) Trench Digger : It operates on the same principleas a backhoe excavator except that the bucket iscontrolled by hydraulic rams instead of cables andpulleys.(iv) Scraper : Scrapers provide unique capability toexcavate, load, haul and dump materials. Scrapersare available in various capacities by a number ofmanufacturers with options such as self – loading withelevators, twin engines or push-pull capability. Theyare cost effective where the haul distance is too longfor bulldozers, yet too short for trucks. This distancetypically ranges from 120 m to 1200 m; however, theeconomics should be evaluated for each project.Scraper has an open bowl with a cuttingedge positioned between the axles, which cuts, loads,transports, discharges and spreads through forwardmotion of the machine. Loading through forwardmotion of the machine can be assisted by a poweredmechanism (elevator) fixed to the scraper bowl.
  57. 57. (v) Bulldozer and Angle-dozer : The most commonequipment used for clearing and levelling activities is abulldozer. The terms bulldozer is used to define a tractormounted with a dozingblade. The bulldozer consists of a rectangular steel bladewith renewable cutting edge set at right angles (capable ofonly tilting but not angling) to the direction of travel andattached by steelarms to the side frames of a crawler tractor. It may be usedfor excavating natural soil or for moving loose soil or debris,which is pushed forward as the tractor forces it ahead.(vi) Angledozer is capable of both tilting and angling
  58. 58. 2.9.3 Transporting EquipmentThis implies horizontal movement primarilybut it can involve some vertical movementtoo.(i) Dumpers : These are self-propelled wheeledmachines, having an open body. It is designed forthe transport of excavated materials and consistsof a shallow tipping hopper or skip mounted on awheeled chassis, such as, power barrow, dumper,multi-skip dumpers, high discharge dumpers, dumptruck, etc. These can be rear dump, side dump orbottom dump.
  59. 59. (ii) Vibratory Roller : It is a single Drum VibratoryRoller for compaction of embankments, etc. Thesmooth drum version is for compaction ofgranular and mixed soil. The sheepsfoot Rollerconsists of a hallow cylindrical steel drum ordrums on which projecting feet are mounted.These feet penetrate into the fill as a roller movesforward and cause compaction. The geometry ofthe foot may be sheep, club pyramid, cone orcylinder foot. Such rollers are employed forcompaction (densification) of cohesive and semi-cohesive soils.
  60. 60. 2.10 FILLING2.10.1 The earth used for filling shall befree from all roots, grass, shrubs, rankvegetation, brushwood, tress, saplingand rubbish.
  61. 61. 2.10.2 Filling with excavated earth shall bedone in regular horizontal layers each notexceeding 20 cm in depth. All lumps andclods exceeding 8 cm in any direction shallbe broken. Each layer shall be watered andconsolidated with steel rammer or ½ tonneroller. Where specified, every third and topmust layer shall also be consolidated withpower roller of minimum 8 tonnes. Whereverdepth of filling exceeds 1.5 metre vibratorypower roller shall be used to consolidate thefiling unless otherwise directed by Engineer-in-charge. The top and sides of filling shallbe neatly dressed. The contractor shallmake good all subsidence and shrinkage inearth fillings, embankments, traverses etc.during execution and till the completion ofwork unless otherwise specified.
  62. 62. 2.11 MEASUREMENTS2.11.1 The length and breadth ofexcavation or filling shall be measuredwith a steel tape correct to the nearestcm. The depth of cutting or height offilling shall be measured, correct to 5mm, by recording levels before thestart of the work and after thecompletion of the work. The cubicalcontents shall be worked out to thenearest two places of decimal in cubicmetres.
  63. 63. In case of open footings up tothe depth of 1.5 metres, alroundexcavation of 30 cm. Beyond theouter dimension of footing shall bemeasured for payment to makeallowances for centering andshuttering. Any additional excavationbeyond this limit shall be at the riskand cost of the contractor and shallnot be measured for payment.
  64. 64. In case of open footings/Raftsat a depth of more than 1.5 metre,alround excavation of 75 cm shall bemeasured for payment to makeallowance for centering andshuttering. Additional excavationbeyond this limit shall be at the riskand cost of the contractor and shallnot be measured for payment.
  65. 65. 2.11.2 In case the ground is fairly uniform andwhere the site is not required to be levelled, theEngineer-in-Charge may permit themeasurements of depth of cutting or height offilling with steel tape, correct to the nearest cm. Incase of borrow pits, diagonal ridges, cross ridgesor dead-men, the position of which shall be fixedby the Engineer-in-Charge, shall be left by thecontractor to permit accurate measurementsbeing taken with steel tape on the completion ofthe work Deduction of such ridges and dead menshall be made from the measurements unless thesame are required to be removed later on and theearth so removed is utilized in the work. In thelatter case nothing extra will be paid for theirremoval as subsequent operation.
  66. 66. 2.11.3 Where ordinary rock and hard rock is mixed.The measurement of the excavation shall bemade as specified in 2.11.1 and 2.11.2 The twokinds of rock shall be stacked separately andmeasured in stacks. The net quantity of the twokinds of rocks shall be arrived at by applyingdeduction of 50% to allow for voids in stacks. Ifthe sum of net quantity of two kinds of rocksexceeds the total quantity of the excavatedmaterial, then the quantity for each type of rockshall be worked out from the total quantity in theratio of net quantities in stack measurements ofthe two types of rocks. If in the opinion of theEngineering-in-charge stacking is not feasible, thequantity of ordinary and hard rock shall be workedout by means of cross-sectional measurements.
  67. 67. 2.11.4 Where soil, ordinary rock and hardrock are mixed, the measurements for theentire excavation shall be made asspecified in 2.11.1 and 2.11.2 Excavatedmaterials comprising hard rock andordinary rock shall be stacked separately,measured, and each reduced by 50% toallow for voids to arrive at the quantitypayable under hard rock and ordinaryrock. The difference between the entireexcavation and the sum of the quantitiespayable under hard rock and ordinary rockshall be paid for as excavation in ordinarysoil or hard soil as the case may be.
  68. 68. 2.11.5 Where it is not possible or convenient tomeasure the depth of cutting by recording levelsas specified in 2.11.1 quantity of excavation shallbe worked out from filling. The actualmeasurements of the fill shall be calculated bytaking levels of the original ground before start ofthe work after site clearance and after compactionof the fill as specified and the quantity of earthwork so computed shall be reduced by 10% incase of consolidated fills and by 5% in case theconsolidation is done by heavy mechanicalmachinery to arrive at the net quantity ofexcavation for payment. No such deduction shall,however, be made in case of consolidation byheavy mechanical machinery at optimummoisture content, or when the consolidated fillingis in confined situations such as under floors.
  69. 69. 2.11.6. Recording Measurements forEarth Levelling Work2.11.6.1 Level Books: In case oflevelling operations and earthwork,measurements are required to berecorded in level books in addition toMeasurement Books. The Level Booksshould be numbered, accounted for andhandled like Measurement Books.
  70. 70. Preparatory Works: Beforestarting the earth work, following stepsshould be taken :(1) Original ground levels should berecorded in the Level Book in the presenceof the contractor or his authorizedrepresentative, and should be signed byhim and the Department Officer whorecords the levels. All the local moundsand depressions should be indicatedclearly in the drawing and the field LevelBook and should be checked by theAssistant Engineer/Executive Engineerbefore the levelling work is started.
  71. 71. (2) A suitable baseline should be fixed withpermanent masonry pillars at distances notexceeding 150 metres to provide a permanentreference line for facilitating check work. The baseline (s) should be entered in the Level Book withco-ordinates. These baselines should bemaintained till the final payment for the work hasbeen made.(3) While recording the levels, it should be ensuredthat the circuit is closed by taking final levels ofthe starting point or any other point, the R.L. ofwhich was previously determined.(4) Plans showing initial levels, location of benchmarks and reduced levels, should be preparedand signed by both the parties and attached tothe agreement before commencement of thework.
  72. 72. Test Check of theLevels(1) The Assistant Engineer should exercise test check at least to theextent of 50%, and the Executive Engineer at least to the extent of10% where the value of this item of work exceeds 10% of the tenderacceptance power of the Assistant Engineer.(2) The test check of the levels should be carried out independently byeach officer, and the readings should be recorded in the prescribedLevel Book in red ink against the old levels which should be neatlyscored out wherever necessary. If the test check carried out revealsserious mistakes in the original levels, these should be taken or re-taken and re-checked.(3) The test check carried out by an officer should be as representativeas possible for the entire work done.(4) On completion of work, the levels should again be recorded in theLevel Book and the contractor’s signatures obtained. These levelsshould also be test checked by the Assistant Engineer/ExecutiveEngineer to the same extent as indicated in (1) within one month ofthe date of completion of the earth work, and according to theprocedure as laid down in the case of initial levels as indicatedabove.(5) The formation levels as per final execution of the work should be
  73. 73. Payment of LevelingWork(1) Every fourth running bill and the finalbill should be paid on the basis oflevels.(2) Intermediate payments can,however, be made on the basis ofborrow pit measurements. TheExecutive Engineer should take carethat the quantities thus assessed arenot in any case more than the actualwork done.
  74. 74. Large Scale LevelingWork(1) In case of large scale levelling work involving both cuttingand filling, an accurate site plan should be prepared beforethe work is commenced. The portions requiring cutting andfilling shall then be divided into squares and correspondingsquares into filling, which are complementary to the squaresin cutting given the same number.(2) A table may be written upon the plan showing leads involvedbetween the various complementary squares. This wouldform a lead chart for the work to be done.(3) Before the work of levelling is commenced, the lead chartshall be checked by the Assistant Engineer in the presence ofthe contractor or his authorized representative, and hissignatures shall be obtained on the same. This should forman integral part of the contract and should be duly signed byboth the integral parties before commencement of the work.(4) The quantity payable for earthwork shall be lower of thequantity derived from cutting or filling. The payment for leadshall be based on lead chart prepared in the aforesaidmanner.
  75. 75. Import of Earth: In case of earth to be imported, the areafrom where the earth is to be imported, should be pre-determinedwherever possible before the start of the work, and whereverfeasible, the average lead should be worked out and stipulated inthe tender. After this is determined, initial levels of the area to befilled should be recorded. The levels should be properly checkedduring the progress of work and on completion.
  76. 76. 2.12 RATES2.12.1 Rates for Earthwork shall include the following:(a) Excavation and depositing excavated material as specified.(b) Handing of antiquities and useful material as specified on2.2.(c) Protection as specified in 2.3.(d) Site clearance as specified in 2.4.(e) Setting out and making profiles as specified in 2.5.(f) Forming (or leaving) dead – men or ‘Tell Tales’ in borrow pitsand their removal after measurements.(g) Bailing out or pumping of rain water from excavations.(h) Initial lead of 50 m and lift of 1.5 m.(i) Blasting operations for hard rock as specified in No deduction shall be made from the rate if in the opinionof the Engineer- in-charge, operations specified in 2.12.1 (b)to (h) are not required to be carried out on any accountwhatsoever.
  77. 77. 2.13 SURFACE EXCAVATION2.13.1 Excavations exceeding 1.5 m in width and 10sqm. on plan but not exceeding 30 cm. in depth inall types of soils and rocks shall be described assurface excavation and shall be done as specifiedin 2.7 and MeasurementsThe length and breadth shall be measured with asteel tape correct to the nearest cm. and the areaworked out to the nearest two places of decimal insquare metres.2.13.3 Rate shall be as specified in 2.12.
  78. 78. 2.14. ROUGH EXCAVATION AND FILLING2.14.1 Excavation for earth from borrow pits, cuttinghill side slopes etc. shall be described as roughexcavation and shall be done as specified in2.7, 2.8 and Wherever filling is to be done, the earth fromexcavation shall be directly used for filling and nopayment for double handling of earth shall beadmissible. Filling of excavated earth shall be doneas specified in 2.10. In case of hill sidecutting, where the excavated materials is throwndown the hill slopes, payment for filling excavatedearth shall not be admissible.2.14.3 Measurements shall be as specified in Rates shall be as specified in 2.12.
  79. 79. 2.15 EXCAVATION OVER AREA (ALL KINDS OFSOIL)2.15.1 This shall comprise:(a) Excavation exceeding 1.5 m in width and 10sqm on plan and exceeding 30 cm in depth.(b) Excavation for basements, water tanks etc.(c) Excavation in trenches exceeding 1.5 m inwidth and 10 sqm on plan.2.15.2 Excavation shall be done as specified in2. Measurements shall be as specified in2. Rates shall be as specified in 2.12.
  80. 80. 2.16 EXCAVATION OVER AREA (ORDINARY/ HARD ROCK)2.16.1 This shall comprise:(a) Excavation exceeding 1.5 m in width and 10 sqm onplan and exceeding 30 cm in depth.(b) Excavation for basements, water tanks etc.(c) Excavation in trenches exceeding 1.5 m in width and10 sqm on plan.2.16.2 Excavation shall be done as specified in 2.8 and2. Measurements shall be done as specified in2. Rates shall be as specified in 2.12.
  81. 81. 2.17 EXCAVATION IN TRENCHES FOR FOUNDATIONSAND DRAINS (ALL KINDS OF SOIL)2.17.1 This shall comprise excavation notexceeding 1.5 m in width or 10 sqm on planand to any depth in trenches (excludingtrenches for pipes, cables, conduits etc.)2.17.2 Excavation shall be done as specified in2. Measurements shall be as specified in2. Rates shall be as specified in 2.12.
  82. 82. 2.18 EXCAVATION IN TRENCHES FOR FOUNDATIONAND DRAINS (ORDINARY/ HARD ROCK)2.18.1 This shall comprise excavation not exceeding1.5m in width or 10 sqm. On plan and to any depth intrenches (excluding trenches for pipes, cables,conduits etc.)2.18.2 Excavation shall be done as specified in 2.8.and Measurements shall be as specified in Rates shall be as specified in 2.12.
  83. 83. 2.19 EXCAVATION IN TRENCHES FOR PIPES,CABLES ETC. AND REFILLING2.19.1 This shall comprise excavation not exceeding1.5 mts in width or 10 sqm in plan and to any depthtrenches for pipes. Cables etc. and returning theexcavated material to fill the trenches afterpipes,cables etc. are laid and their joints tested andpassed and disposal of surplus excavated materialupto 50 m lead.
  84. 84. 2.19.2 Width of Trench(a) Upto one metre depth the authorized width of trench forexcavation shall be arrived at by adding 25 cm to the externaldiameter of pipe (not socket/ collar) cable, conduit etc. Wherea pipe is laid on concrete bed/ cushioning layer, theauthorized width shall be the external diameter of pipe (notsocket/ collar) plus 25 cm or the width of concrete bed/cushioning layer whichever is more.(b) For depths exceeding one metre, an allowance of 5 cm permetre of depth for each side of the trench shall be added tothe authorized width (that is external diameter of pipe plus 25cm) forexcavation. This allowance shall apply to the entire depth of thetrench. In firm soils the sides of the trenches shall be keptvertical upto depth of 2 metres from the bottom. For depthsgreaterthan 2 metres, the excavation profiles shall be widened byallowing steps of 50 cm on either side after every two metresfrom bottom.
  85. 85. (c) Where more than one pipe, cable, conduit etc,are laid, the diameter shall be reckoned as thehorizontal distance from outside to outside of theoutermost pipes, cable, conduit etc.(d) Where the soil is soft, loose or slushy, width oftrench shall be suitably increased or side slopedor the soil shored up as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. It shall be the responsibility of thecontractor to take complete instructions in writingfrom the Engineer-in-Charge regardingincrease in the width of trench. Sloping orshoring to be done for excavation in soft, loose orslushy soils.
  86. 86. (c) Where more than one pipe, cable, conduit etc, are laid, thediameter shall be reckoned as the horizontal distance from outsideto outside of the outermost pipes, cable, conduit etc.(d) Where the soil is soft, loose or slushy, width of trench shall besuitably increased or side sloped or the soil shored up as directedby the Engineer-in-Charge. It shall be the responsibility of thecontractor to take complete instructions in writing from theEngineer-in-Charge regardingincrease in the width of trench. Sloping or shoring to be done forexcavation in soft, loose or slushy soils.
  87. 87. 2.19.3 Excavation : Shall be done as specified in 2.7, 2.8 and RefillingFilling in trenches shall be commenced soon after the joints ofpipes, cables, conduits etc. have been tested and passed. Thespace alround the pipes, cables conduits etc. shall be cleared of alldebris, brick bats etc. Where the trenches are excavated in hard/soft soil, the filling shall be done with earth on the side and top ofpipes in layers not exceeding 20 cm in depth. Each layer shall bewatered, rammed and consolidated. All clods and lumps of earthexceeding 8 cm in any direction shall be broken or removed beforethe excavated earth is used for filling. In case of excavationtrenches in ordinary/ hard rock, the filling upto a depth of 30cmabove the crown of pipe, cable, conduits etc. shall be done withfine material like earth, moorum or pulverized/ decomposed rockaccording to the availability at site. The remaining filling shall bedone with boulders of size not exceeding 15cm mixed with finematerial like decomposed rock, moorum or earth as available to fillup the voids, watered, rammed and consolidated in layers notexceeding 30cm. Excavated material containing deleteriousmaterial, salt peter earth etc. shall not be used for filling. Rammingshall be done with iron rammers where feasible and with bluntends of crow bars where rammers cannot be used. Special careshall be taken to ensure that no damage is caused to the pipes,Cables, Conduits etc. laid in the trenches.
  88. 88. 2.19.5 Measurements2.19.5.1 Trenches for pipes, cables, conduits etc. shall be measured inrunning metre correct to the nearest cm in stages of 1.5 m depth anddescribed separately as under:(a) Pipes, cables, conduits, etc. not exceeding 80 mm dia. (b) Pipes,cables, conduits etc. exceeding 80 mm dia but not exceeding300mm dia.(c) Pipes, cables, conduits etc. exceeding 300 mm dia. Where two or more categories of each work are involved dueto different classification of soil within the same stage of trenchdepth or where the soil is soft loose or slushy requiring increase inthe width of trench or sloping sides or shoring, trenches for pipes,cables, conduits, etc. shall be measured in cubic metres as specifiedin 2.10. Extra excavation, if any, on account of collar/ socket of pipesshall neither be measured nor paid for separately.2.19.6 Rates The rate shall be as specified in 2.12 and shall alsoinclude the cost of refilling and all other operations described above.
  89. 89. 2.20 PLANKING AND STRUTTING2.20.1 When the depth of trench in soft/loose soilexceeds 2 metres, stepping, sloping and/ orplanking and strutting of sides shall be done. Incase of loose and slushy soils, the depths at whichthese precautions are to be taken, shall bedetermined by the Engineer-in-Charge according tothe nature of soil. .Planking and strutting shall be ‘close’ or ‘open’depending on the nature of soil and the depth oftrench. The type of planking and strutting shall bedetermined by the Engineer-in-Charge. It shall bethe responsibility of the contractor to take allnecessary steps to prevent the sides of trenchesfrom collapse. Engineer-in-Charge should takeguidance from IS: 3764 for designing the shoringand strutting arrangements and specifying theprofile of excavation.
  90. 90. 2.20.2 Close Planking and StruttingClose planking and strutting shall be done by completelycovering the sides of the trench generally with short upright, memberscalled ‘poling boards’. These shall be 250x38 mm in section or asdirected by the Engineer-in-Charge.The boards shall generally be placed in position vertically inpairs. One boards on either side of cutting. These shall be kept apart byhorizontal wallings of strong wood at a maximum spacing of 1.2 metrescross strutted with ballies, or as directed by Engineer-in-Charge. Thelength and diameter of the ballies strut shall depend upon the width ofthe trench. Typical sketch of close timbering is given in Fig. 2.2.Where the soil is very soft and loose, the boards shall beplaced horizontally against the sides of the excavation and supportedby vertical ‘wallings’ which shall be strutted to similar timber pieces onthe opposite face of the trench. The lowest boards supporting the sidesshall be taken in the ground for a minimum depth of 75 mm. No portionof the vertical side of the trench shall remain exposed.The withdrawal of the timber members shall be done verycarefully to prevent collapse of the trench. It shall be started at one endand proceeded systematically to the other end. Concrete or masonryshall not be damaged while removing the planks. No claim shall beentertained for any timber which cannot be withdrawn and is lost orburied, unless required by the Engineer-in-Charge to be leftpermanently in position.
  91. 91. 2.20.3 Open Planking and StruttingIn case of open planking and strutting,the entire surface of the side of the trench isnot required to be covered. The verticalboards 250 mm wide & 38 mm thick, shall bespaced sufficiency apart to leaveunsupported strips of 50 cm average width.The detailed arrangement, sizes of the timberand the distance apart shall be subject to theapproval of the Engineer-in-Charge. In allother respect, specifications for closeplanking and strutting shall apply to openplanking and strutting. Typical sketch of openplanking and strutting is given in fig. 2.2.
  92. 92. 2.20.4 MeasurementsThe dimensions shall be measured correct to the nearest cm and thearea of the face supported shall be worked out in square metrescorrect to two places of decimal. Works shall be grouped according to the following:(a) Depth not exceeding 1.5 m.(b) Depth exceeding 1.5m in stages of 1.5 m. Planking and strutting to the following shall be measuredseparately:(a) Trenches.(b) Areas- The description shall include use and waste of raking shores.(c) Shafts, walls, cesspits, manholes and the like(d) Where tightly driven close but jointed sheeting is necessary as in caseof running sheeting is necessary as in case of running sand the itemshall be measured separately and packing of cavities behind sheetingwith suitable materials included with the item.(e) Planking and strutting required to be left permanently in position shallbe measured separately.2.20.5 Rates Rates shall include use and waste of all necessary timberwork as mentioned above including fixing and subsequent removal.
  93. 93. 2.21 EXCAVATION IN WATER. MUD OR FOUL POSITION2.21.1 All water that may accumulate in excavations during the progress ofthe work from springs, tidal or river seepage, broken water mains or drains(not due to the negligence of the contractor), and seepage from subsoilaquifer shall be bailed, pumped out or otherwise removed. The contractorshall take adequate measures for bailing and/or pumping out water fromexcavations and/or pumping out water from excavations and constructdiversion channels, bunds, sumps, coffer dams etc. as may be required.Pumping shall be done directly from the foundation trenches or from asump out side the excavation in such a manner as to preclude thepossibility of movement of water through any fresh concrete or masonryand washing away parts of concrete or mortar. During laying of concreteor masonry and for a period of at least 24 hours thereafter, pumping shallbe done from a suitable sump separated from concrete or masonry byeffective means. Capacity and number of pumps, location at which thepumps are to be installed, pumping hours etc. shall be decided from timeto time in consultation with the Engineer-in-Charge. Pumping shall bedone in such a way as not to cause damage to the work or adjoiningproperty by subsidence etc. Disposal of water shall not causeinconvenience or nuisance in the area or cause damage to the propertyand structure nearby. To prevent slipping of sides, planking and struttingmay also be done with the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.
  94. 94. 2.21.2 ClassificationThe earth work for various classification of soil shall becategorised as under:(a) Work in or under water and/or liquid mud:Excavation, where water is met with from any of thesources specified in 2.21.1 shall fall in this category.Steady water level in the trial pits before thecommencement of bailing or pumping operationsshall be the sub-soil water level in that area.(b) Work in or under foul position: Excavation,where sewage, sewage gases or foul conditions aremet with from any source, shall fall in this category.Decision of the Engineer-in-Charge whether thework is in foul position or not shall be final.
  95. 95. 2.21.3 Measurements2.21.3.1 The unit, namely, metre depth shall be the depth measured fromthe level of foul position/ subsoil water level and upto the centre ofgravity of the cross sectional area of excavation actually done in theconditions classified in 2.21.2. Metre depth shall be reckoned correct to0.1 m, 0.05 m or more shall be taken as 0.1 m and less than 0.05 mignored. The extra percentage rate is applicable in respect of each itembut the measurements shall be limited only to the quantities of earthwork actually executed in the conditions classified in In case earth work in or under foul position is also in or underwater and/or liquid mud, extra payment shall be admissible only for theearth work actually executed in or under foul position. Pumping or bailing out water met within excavations from thesources specified in 2.21.1 whereenvisaged and specifically ordered inwriting by the Engineer-in-Charge shall be measured separately andpaid. Quantity of water shall be recorded in kilolitres correct to twoplaces of decimal. This paymentshall be in addition to the payment under respective items of earthworkand shall be admissible only when pumping or bailing out water hasbeen specifically ordered by the Engineer-in-Charge in writing.
  96. 96. Planking and strutting or any otherprotection work done with the approval ofthe Engineer-in- Charge to keep thetrenches dry and/or to save thefoundations against damage by corrosionof rise in water levels shall be measuredand paid for separately. Bailing or pumping outwater, accumulated in excavation, due torains is included under respective items ofearthwork and is not to be paidseparately.2.21.4 Rates The rates for respective items
  97. 97. 2.22 EARTH WORK FOR MAJOR WORKS2.22.1 Excavation shall be undertaken to the widthof the Basement/Retaining wall footing includingnecessary margins for construction operation asper drawing or directed otherwise. Where thenature of soil or the depth of the trench andseason of the year, do not permit vertical sides,the contractor at his own expense shall put upthe necessary shoring, strutting and planking orcut slopes with or withoutsteps, to a safer angle or both with due regard tothe safety of personnel and works and to thesatisfaction of the Engineer. Measurement ofplan area of excavation for payment shall bepermitted only.2.22.2 All the major excavation shall be carried outby mechanical excavator. No extra payment shall
  98. 98. 2.22.3 The contractor shall make at his own costall necessary arrangements for maintainingwaterlevel, in the area where works are underexecution low enough so as not to cause anyharm to the work shall be considered asinclusive of pumping out or bailing out water, ifrequired, for which no extra payment shall bemade. This will include water coming from anysource, such as rains, accumulated rain water,floods, leakages from sewer and water mains,subsoil water table being high or due to anyother cause whatsoever. The contractor shallmake necessary provision of pumping, dredgingbailingout water coming from all above sources andexcavation and other works shall be kept free ofwater by providing suitable system approved by
  99. 99. Sub-soil water table at work site is reported to be aboutapprox. 6.5 m. below the general ground level as observedin the month of April. The water level is likely to rise up to 1to 2 m. during rainy season. In order to avoid possibility ofbasement floor of main building being gettinguplifted/damaged due to water pressure, the contractorshall lower the ground water table below the proposedfoundation level by boring tube wells all around theproposed building using well point sinking method oranysuitable method as approved by Engineer-in-charge.Sub soil water table shall be maintained at least 50 cm.below the P.C.C. level during laying of P.C.C. waterproofing treatment, laying of basement raft and beamsincluding filling of earth/sand under the basement floor.The water table shall not be allowed to rise above base ofraft level until completion of outer retaining walls includingwater proofing of vertical surface of walls and back fillingalong the walls upto ground level and until the structureattains such height to counter balance the uplift pressure.However, the contractor should inspect the site and makehis own assessment about sub-soil water level likely to beencountered at the time of execution and quote his ratesaccordingly. Rate of all items are inclusive of pumping outor bailing out water, if required. Nothing extra on this
  100. 100. 2.22.4 The contractor shall take all necessary measures for thesafety of traffic during construction and provide, erect andmaintain such barricades including signs, markings, flags,lights and flagman, as necessary at either end of theexcavation/embankment and at such intermediate points asdirected by the Engineer-in-charge for the proper identificationof construction area. He shall be responsible for all damagesand accidents caused due to negligence on his part.2.22.5 The contractor shall provide suitable barricading withsuitably painted single row of G.I. Sheets about 3’- 0” wide (90cms.) nailed or bolted with wooden poles spaced 2 to 3 metreapart and each pole 1.6 m to 2 m long 8 cm. to 10 cm. dia. Thepoles will be embedded in mobile iron pedestal rings suitablyframed for giving stable support as per direction of theEngineer-in-charge. All management (including watch andward) of barricades shall be the full responsibility of thecontractor. The barricades shall be removed only aftercompletion of the work or part of the work. The contractor’srate shall include all above items of work and nothing extrashall be paid to the contractor over and above his quoted rates.
  101. 101. 2.23 FILLING IN TRENCHES, PLINTH, UNDER FLOOR ETC.2.23.1 Earth Normally excavated earth from same areashall be used for filling. Earth used for filling shall be freefrom shrubs, rank, vegetation, grass, brushwood, stoneshingle and boulders (larger than 75mm in any direction),organic or any other foreign matter. Earth containingdeleterious materials, salt peter earth etc. shall not beused for filling. All clods and lumps of earth exceeding 8cm in any direction shall be broken or removed before theearth is used for filling.2.23.2 Filling The space around the foundations anddrains in trenches shall be cleared of all debris, brick batsetc. The filling shall be done in layers not exceeding 20cm in depth. Each layer shall be watered, rammed andconsolidated. Ramming shall be done with iron rammerswhere possible and with blunt endof crow bars where rammers cannot be used. Specialcare shall be taken to ensure that no damage is caused tothe pipes, drains, masonry or concrete in the trenches. Incase of filling under floor, the finished level of filling shallbe kept to the slope intended to be given to the floor.
  102. 102. 2.23.3 Measurements2.23.3.1 Filling Side of Foundations: The cubicalcontents of bed concrete levelling course andmasonry/ concrete in foundations upto the groundlevel shall be worked out and the same deductedfrom the cubical contents of earthwork in excavationfor foundations already measured under therespective item of earth work to arrive at the quantityfor filling sides of foundation. The quantity shall becalculated correct to two places of decimal. Filling in Plinth and under Floors: Depth offilling shall be the consolidated depth. Thedimensions of filling shall be on the basis of pre-measurement correct to the nearest cm and cubicalcontent worked out in cubic metres correct to twoplaces of decimal.2.23.4 RatesThe rates include cost of all the operations describedabove.
  103. 103. 2.24 SAND FILLING IN PLINTH2.24.1 Sand Sand shall be clean and free from dust organicand foreign matter and its grading shall be within the limitsof grading zone IV or V specified in Section 3 ‘Mortars’.2.24.2 Filling Sand filling shall be done in a manner similar toearth filling in plinth specified in except thatconsolidation shall be done by flooding with water. Thesurface of the consolidated sand filling shall be dressed tothe required level or slope and shall not be covered till theEngineer-in-Charge has inspected and approved the sandfilling.2.24.3 Measurements The length, breadth and depth ofconsolidated sand shall be measured with steel tape correctto the nearest cm and cubical contents worked out in cubicmetres correct to two places of decimal.2.24.4 Rates The rates include the cost of material and labourinvolved in all the operations described above.
  104. 104. 2.25 SURFACE DRESSING.2.25.1 Surface dressing shall include cutting and filling upto adepth of 15 cm and clearing of shrubs, rank vegetation,grass, brushwood, trees and saplings of girth upto 30 cmmeasured at a height of one metre above the ground leveland removal of rubbish and other excavated material upto adistance of 50 metres outside the periphery of the area undersurface dressing. High portions of the ground shall be cutdown and hollows depression filled upto the required levelwith the excavated earth so as to give an even, neat and tidylook.2.25.2 Measurements Length and breadth of the dressedground shall be measured correct to the nearest cm and thearea worked out in square metres correct to two places ofdecimal.2.25.3 Rates The rates shall include cost of labour involved inall the operations described above.
  105. 105. 2.26 JUNGLE CLEARANCE2.26.0 Jungle clearance shall comprise uprooting of rankvegetation, grass, brushwood, shrubs, stumps, trees andsaplings of girth upto 30 cm measured at a height of onemetre above the ground level. Where only clearance of grassis involved it shall be measured and paid for separately.2.26.1 Uprooting of Vegetations The roots of trees andsaplings shall be removed to a depth of 60 cm below groundlevel or 30 cm below formation level or 15 cm below sub-grade level, whichever is lower. All holes or hollows formeddue to removal of roots shall be filled up with earth rammedand levelled. Trees, shrubs, poles, fences,signs, monuments, pipe lines, cable etc., within or adjacent tothe area which are not required to be disturbed during jungleclearance shall be properly protected by the contractor at hisown cost and nothing extra shall be payable.
  106. 106. 2.26.2 Stacking and DisposalAll useful materials obtained from clearing and grubbing operationshall be stacked in the manner as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. Trunks and branches of trees shall be cleared of limbsand tops and stacked neatly at places indicated by the Engineer-in-Charge. The materials shall be the property of the Government.All unserviceable materials which in the opinion of the Engineer-in-Charge cannot be used or auctioned shall be removed up to adistance of 50 m outside the periphery of the area underclearance.It shall be ensured by the contractor that unserviceable materialsare disposed off in such a manner that there is no likelihood ofgetting mixed up with the materials meant for construction.2.26.3 Clearance of GrassClearing and grubbing operation involving only the clearance of grassshall be measured and paid for separately and shall includeremoval of rubbish upto a distance of 50 m outside the periphery ofthe area under clearance.2.26.4 Measurements The length and breadth shall be measuredcorrect to the nearest cm and area worked out in square metrescorrect to two places of decimal.2.26.5 Rates The rate includes cost of all the operation describedabove.Note: Jungle clearance and clearance of grass are not payableseparately for the earth work specified in 2.13 to 2.19.
  107. 107. 2.27 FELLING TREES2.27.1 FellingWhile clearing jungle, growth trees above 30 cm girth(measured at a height of one metre above groundlevel) to be cut, shall be approved by the Engineer-in-Charge and then marked at site. Felling trees shallinclude taking out roots upto 60 cm below ground levelor 30 cm below formation level or 15 cm below sub-grade level, whichever is lower.All excavation below general ground level arisingout of the removal of trees, stumps etc. shall be filledwith suitable material in 20 cm layers and compactedthoroughly so that the surfaces at these pointsconform to the surrounding area. The trunks andbranches of trees shall be cleared of limbs and topsand cut into suitable pieces as directed by theEngineer-in-Charge.
  108. 108. 2.27.2 Stacking and DisposalWood, branches, twigs of trees and other usefulmaterial shall be the property of theGovernment.The serviceable materials shall be stacked in themanner as directed by the Engineer-in-Chargeupto a lead of 50m.All unserviceable material, which in theopinion of Engineer-in-Charge cannot be usedor auctionedshall be removed from the area and disposed offas per the directions of the Engineer-in-Charge.Careshall be taken to see that unsuitable wastematerials are disposed off in such a manner thatthere is nolikelihood of these getting mixed up with thematerials meant for construction.
  109. 109. 2.27.3 MeasurementsCutting of trees above 30 cm in girth (measured at aheight of one metre above level) shall bemeasured in numbers according to the sizesgiven below:(a) Beyond 30 cm girth, upto and including 60cmgirth.(b) Beyond 60 cm girth, upto and including 120 cmgirth.(c) Beyond 120 cm girth, upto and including 240 cmgirth.(d) Above 240 cm girth.2.27.4 RateThe rate includes the cost involved in all theoperations described above. The contract unitrate forcutting trees above 30 cm in girth shall include
  110. 110. 2.28 ANTI-TERMITE TREATMENT2.28.0 Sub-terranean termites are responsible for most of the termitedamage in buildings. Typically, they form nests or coloniesunderground. In the soil near ground level in a stump or othersuitable piece of timber in a conical or dome shaped mound. Thetermites find access to the super-structure of the building eitherthrough the timber buried in the ground or by means of mudshelter tubes constructed over unprotected foundations.Termite control in existing as well as new building structures isvery important as the damage likely to be caused by the termitesto wooden members of building and other household article likefurniture, clothing, stationery etc. is considerable. Anti-termitetreatment can be either during the time of construction i.e. pre-constructional chemical treatment or after the building has beenconstructed i.e. treatment for existing building.Prevention of the termite from reaching the super-structure of thebuilding and its contents can be achieved by creating a chemicalbarrier between the ground, from where the termites come andother contents of the building which may form food for the termites.This is achieved by treating the soil beneath the building andaround the foundation with a suitable insecticide.
  111. 111. 2.28.1 Materials2.28.1.0 Chemicals: Any one of the following chemicals in wateremulsion to achieve the percentageconcentration specified against each chemical shall be used:(i) Chlorphriphos emulsifiable concentrate of 20%(ii) Lindane emulsifiable concentrate of 20%Anti-termite treatment chemical is available in concentrated formin the market and concentration is indicated on the sealed containers.To achieve the specified percentage of concentration, Chemical shouldbe diluted with water in required quantity before it is used. Graduatedcontainers shall be used for dilution of chemical with water in therequired proportion to achieve the desired percentage of concentration.For example, to dilute chemical of 20% concentration. 19 parts of watershall be added to one part of chemical for achieving 1% concentration.Engineer-in-Charge shall procure the chemical of requiredconcentration in sealed original containers directly from the reputedand authorized dealers, chemical shall be kept in the custody of theEngineerin-Charge or his authorized representatives and issued for use to meetthe day’s requirements. Empty containers after washing andconcentrated chemical left unused at the end of the day’s work shall bereturned to the Engineer-in-Charge or his authorized representative.
  112. 112. Measurements: Concentrated chemical in sealed containers shall bemeasured in litres. Chemicals of different types and concentration shall bemeasured separately. Rate: The Rate for the concentrated chemical shall include the costof material, containers and all the operations involved in transportation anddelivery at the place specified.2.28.2 Safety Precautions Chemical used for anti-termite treatment areinsecticides with a persistent action and are highly poisonous. Thischemical can have an adverse effect upon health when absorbed throughthe skin, inhaled as vapours or spray mists or swallowed. The containershaving emulsifiable concentrates shall be clearly labelled and kept securelyclosed in stores so that children or pet cannot get at them. Storage andmixing of concentrates shall not be done near any fire source or flame.Persons using these chemical shall be warned that absorption though skinis the most likely source of accidental poisoning. Particular care shall betaken to prevent skin contact with concentrates and prolonged exposure todilute emulsion shall also be avoided. After handling the concentrates ordilute emulsion. Workers shall wash themselves with soap and water andwear clean clothing, especially before eating. In the event of severecontamination, clothing shall be removed at once and the skin washed withsoap and water. If chemical has splashed into the eyes, they shall beflushed with plenty of soap and water and immediate medical attentionshall be sought.Care should be taken in the application of chemicals to see that theyare not allowed to contaminate wells or springs which serve as source ofdrinking water.
  113. 113. 2.28.3 Anti-Termite Treatment: Constructional Measures The constructionmeasures specified below should be adopted for protection againstsubterranean termites originating both internally from within the plinth andexternally from the area surrounding the building.(i) Earth free from roots, dead leaves, or other organic matter shall beplaced and compacted in successive horizontal layers of loose material notmore than 200 mm thick. Dry brick shall be inserted at last 50 mm in brickmasonry for providing apron floor around the periphery. [See Fig. 2.3(i)](ii) Brick on edge masonry in cement mortar shall be laid on the plinthwall. Dry brick shall be placed on the inner side of plinth wall for gettinganticipated offset space for coarse sand and on the other side for installinganti-termite masonry groove. In the case of intermediate walls, dry bricksare placed on either side of the brick on edge masonry for getting offsetspace for coarse sand layer. [See Fig. 2.3(ii)](iii) The dry brick for the anti-termite groove shall be taken out and densecement concrete 1:3:6 (1 cement : 3 sand : 6 coarse aggregate by volume)sub-floor carpet shall be laid casting the anti-termite groove in position. Incase of internal partition walls, the cement concrete sub-floor shall be laidon either side over the dry bricks to sufficient extent for getting staggeredvertical joints over the joint of plinth wall and earth filling. [See Fig. 2.3(iii)](iv) Superstructure masonry shall be raised over the dense cementconcrete sub floor carpet and over-head jobs completed. [See Fig. 2.3)(iv)]
  114. 114. (v) The dry brick for coarse sand layer shall be removed and graded sand(of size 3 to 5 mm) layer at least 100 mm thick shall be compacted overthe earth filling and underneath the partially laid dense cementconcrete sub-floor carpet [See Fig. 2.3)(v)](vi) Dense cement concrete (1:3:6 mix.) sub-floor at least 75 mmthick shall be laid over the sand filling.Necessary finish may be provided to the cement concrete sub-floorcarpet. [See Fig. 2.3)(vi)](vii) Dry brick provided for apron floor shall be taken out and 600 mmwide formation of earth in1:30 slope shall be made. Over the formation, 75 mm thick limeconcrete 1:3:6 (1 lime:3 sand:6 coarse aggregate, by volume) shall be laid. [See Fig. 2.3)(vii)](viii) Over the 75 mm thick like concrete bed at least 25 mm thickcement concrete topping 1:2:4(1 cement: 2 sand: 4 fine aggregate, by volume) shall be laid and 12 mmthick cement plaster shall be applied on foundation and plinth. [SeeFig. 2.3)(viii)]The final recommendations incorporating the constructional details givenabove (i to viii) areshown in Fig. 2.4.
  115. 115. 2.28.4 Anti Termite Treatment : Treatment for Existing Building: PostConstruction Treatment2.28.4.1 MaterialChemicals : Any one of the following chemicals conforming to relevant IndianStandards in wateremulsion may be used for soil treatment in order to protecta building from termite attack.These chemicals are available in concentrated form in the market andconcentration is indicated on the sealed containers. To achieve the specifiedpercentage of concentration, chemicals should be diluted with water inrequired quantity before it is used. Graduated containers shall be used fordilution of chemicals with water in the required proportion to achieve thedesired percentage of concentration. For example, to dilute chemical of 20%concentration, 19 parts of water shall be added to one part of chemical forachieving 1% concentration. Oil or kerosene based solution of chlorpyrifos 20EC or Lindane 20 EC, 1.0 percent (by weight) concentration is useful fortreatment of wood. Engineer-in-charge shall procure the chemical of requiredconcentration in sealed original containers directly from the reputed andauthorized representative. Chemical shall be kept in the custody of theEngineer-in-charge or his authorized representatives and issued for use tomeet the day’s requirements. Empty containers after washing andconcentrated chemical left unused at the end of the day’s work shall bereturned to the Engineer-in-charge or his authorized representative.
  116. 116. (ii) Measurements : Concentrated chemical in sealed containersshall be measured in litres. Chemicals of different types andconcentration shall be measured separately.(iii) Rate : The rate for the concentrated chemical shall include thecost of material, containers and all the operations involved intransportation and delivery at the place specified.(iv) Safety Precautions : Chemical used for antitermite treatmentare insecticides with a persistent action and are highlypoisonous. This chemical can have an adverse effect uponhealth when absorbed through the skin, inhaled as vapours orspray mists or swallowed.
  117. 117. The containers having emulsifiable concentrates shall beclearly labeled and kept securely closed in stores so thatchildren or pet cannot get at them. Storage and mixing ofconcentrates shall not be done near any fire source or flame.Persons carrying out chemical soil treatments should familiarizethemselves and exercise due care when handling the chemicalswhether in concentrated or in diluted form. After handling theconcentrates or dilute emulsion, worker shall wash themselveswith soap and water and wear clean clothing especially beforeeating and smoking. In the event of severe contamination,clothing shall be removed at once and the skin washed withsoap and water. If chemical has splashed into the eyes, theyshall be flushed with plenty of soap and water and immediatemedical attention shall be sought.
  118. 118. The use of chemical shall be avoided where there is any risk of wellsor other water supplies becoming contaminated. Treatment(i) Once the termites have an ingress into the building, they keep onmultiplying and destroy the wooden and cellulosic materials, and assuch it becomes essential to take measures for protection againsttermites. Anti termite measures described below are necessary forthe eradication and control of termites in existing building. Tofacilitate proper penetrations of chemical in to the surface to betreated, hand operated pressure pump shall be used. To haveproper check for uniform penetration of chemical, graduatedcontainers shall be used. Proper check should be kept so that thespecified quantity of chemical is used for the required area duringthe operation. Chemical treatment for the eradication and control ofsub-terranean termites in existing building shall be done as per IS6313 (Part III). Treatment shall be got done only from the approvedspecialized agencies using the chemical procured directly by theEngineer-in-Charge from reputed and authorized dealers.
  119. 119. (ii) Treatment along outside of foundations: The soil in contact with theexternal wall of the building shall be treated with chemical emulsion atthe rate of 7.5 litres per square metre of vertical surface of the sub-structure to a depth of 300 mm. To facilitate this treatment, a shallowchannel shall be excavated along and close to the wall face. Thechemical emulsion shall be directed towards the wall at 1.75 litres perrunning metre of the channel. Rodding with 12 mm diameter mild steelrods at 150 mm apart shall be done in the channel. If necessary, foruniform dispersal of the chemical to 300 mm depth from the groundlevel. The balance chemical of 0.5 litre per running metre shall then beused to treat the backfill earth as it is returned to the channeldirecting the spray towards the wall surface.If there is a concrete or masonry apron around thebuilding, approximately 12 mm diameter holes shall be drilled as closeas possible to the plinth wall about 300 mm apart, deep enough toreach the soil below and the chemical emulsion pumped into theseholes to soak the soil below at the rate of 2.25 litres per linear metre.
  120. 120. In soils which do not allow percolation of chemicals to desired depth,the uniform disposal of the chemical to a depth of 300 mm shall beobtained by suitably modifying the mode of treatment depending onsite condition.In case of RCC foundations the soil (backfill) in contact with the columnsides and plinth beams along with external perimeter of the buildingshall be treated with chemical emulsion at the rate of 7.5 litres/sqm. ofthe vertical surface of the structure. To facilitate this treatment, trenchesshall be excavated equal to the width of the shovel exposing the sidesof the column and plinth beams upto a depth of 300 mm or upto thebottom of the plinth beams, if this level is less than 300 mm. Thechemical emulsion shall be sprayed on the backfill earth as it isreturned into the trench directing the spray against the concretesurface of the beam or column as the case may be.
  121. 121. (iii) Treatment of Soil under Floors : The points where the termites arelikely to seek entry through the floor are the cracks at the followinglocations:(a) At the junction of the floor and walls as result of shrinkage of theconcrete;(b) On the floor surface owing to construction defects;(c) At construction joints in a concrete floor, cracks in sections; and(d) Expansion joints in the floor.Chemical treatment shall be provided in the plinth area of ground floorof the structure, wherever such cracks are noticed by drilling 12 mmholes at the junction of floor and walls along the cracks on the floor andalong the construction and expansion joints at the interval of 300 mm toreachthe soil below. Chemical emulsion shall be squirted into these holesusing a hand operated pressure pump to soak the soil below untilrefusal or upto a maximum of one litre per hole. The holes shall then besealed properly with cement mortar 1:2 (1 cement: 2 coarse sand)finished to match the existing floors. The cement mortar applied shallbe cured for at least 10 days as perinstruction of Engineer-in-charge.
  122. 122. (iv) Treatment of Voids in Masonry : The movement of termites throughthe masonry wall may be arrested by drilling holes in masonry wall atplilnth level and squirting chemical emulsions into the holes to soak themasonry. The holes shall be drilled at an angle of 45 degree from bothsides of the plinth wall at 300 mm intervals and emulsion squirtedthrough these holes to soak the masonry using a hand operated pump.This treatment shall also be extended to internal walls havingfoundations in the soil. Holes shall also be drilled at wall corners andwhere door and window frames are embedded in the masonry or floorat ground. Emulsion shall be squirted through the holes till refusal or toa maximum of one litre per hole. Care shall be taken to seal the holesafter the treatment.
  123. 123. (v) Treatment at Points of Contact of Wood Work : The wood workwhich has already been damaged beyond repairs by termites shall bereplaced. The new timber shall be dipped or liberally brushed at leasttwice with chemical in oil or kerosene. All existing wood work in thebuilding which is in contact with the floor or walls and which is infestedby termites, shall be treated by spraying at the points of contacts withthe adjoining masonry with the chemical emulsion by drilling 6 mmholes at a dowon ward angle of about 45 degree at junction of woodwork and masonry and squirting chemical emulsion into these holes tillrefusal or to a maximum of half a litre per hole. The treated holes shallthen be sealed.Infested wood work in chaukhats, shelves, joints, purlins etc., incontact with the floor or the walls shall be provided with protectivetreatment by drilling holes of about 3 mm diameter with a downwardslant to the core of the wood work on the inconspicuous surface of theframe. These holes should be at least 150 mm centre to centre andshould cover in entire frame work.Chemicals shall be liberally infused in these holes. If the wood is notprotected by paint or varnish two coats of the chemicals shall be givenon all the surfaces and crevices adjoining the masonry.
  124. 124. Measurements : All dimensions shall be measured correct to a cm.The measurements shall be made of the surface actually provided with antitermite treatment. Measurements shall be done separately for treatment offoundations, soils under floors, voids in masonry and wood work as detailedbelow:(i) Treatment along outside of foundations : The measurements shall be madein running metres taking length along the plinth of the building.(ii) Treatment of soil under floors : The measurements shall be made in squaremetres, inside clear dimensions of rooms, verandah etc. shall be taken.(iii) Treatment of voids in masonry : The measurements shall be made inrunning metres along the plinth of the building.(iv) Treatment of wood work : The measurements shall be made in runningmetres for chowkhats, joints, purlins, beams etc. RatesThe rate shall include the cost of labour and all other inputs (exceptconcentrated chemical) involved in all the operations described aboveincluding drilling, refilling and making good the holes. Treatment of Electrical Fixtures If infestation in electrical fixture(like switch boxes in the wall) is noticed, covers of the switch boxes shall beremoved and inside of such boxes shall be treated liberally with 5 per centMalathion dusting powder. The covers of the switch boxes shall be refixedafter dusting.