Animal science


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Animal science

  1. 1. Animal Science Dr. MD. SHOHIDULLAH MIAH (Ph.D. on Biotechnology from Malaysia) JSPS Post-Doctoral Fellow at JAPAN (Biomass Conversion into Bioenergy). Post-Doctoral Researcher (Center of Excellence on Green and Energy Revolution Program), Nagaoka University of Technology, JAPAN Dr. Md. Shohidullah Miah Faculty & Director College of Agricultural Sciences 1
  2. 2. Proximate Principles of Feeds Crude Protein: Crude protein is estimated from the feeds and fodders nitrogen content by multiplying with the factor of 6.25. In protein N contain about 16%  Oil cakes are rich in crude protein Similarly, fish meal, meat meal, frog meal and blood meals are high in crude protein. 2
  3. 3.  Proteins are required for the maintenance of Growth, Milk and Egg production for the animals. Estimation of Crude protein: The crude protein is estimated by multiplying the percentage of nitrogen by a factor 6.25. The N content in any sample is determined 3
  4. 4. .Crude Fibre: Crude fibre is the fraction of the total Carbohydrates which is not digested after successive boiling with dilute acid and dilute alkali. Crude fibre consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pentosans and small fractions of lignin. Crude fibre fraction represents the undigestable or less digestable fraction of the carbohydrates. 4
  5. 5. Ash: Ash is the inorganic residue which is estimated after the sample is burned at 550-600°C. 5
  6. 6. Animal Nutrition The major animal Nutrition are: a). Carbohydrates b). Proteins & c). Lipids For animal nutrition, we need to study the Biochemistry. 6
  7. 7. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are important sources of energy for the animals. Most of the energy for the metabolic activities of the cells in all organisms is derived from the oxidation of carbohydrates. The terms of CHD originally indicates the Carbon and hydrogen ratio is 2:1. 7
  8. 8. Classification of Crabohydrates: The CHD are usually divided into three main groups: a). Monosaccharids b). Disaccharids or oligosaccharids c). Polysaccharids a). Monosaccharids: The simplest sugars are the Monosaccharids.Such as Glucose, Mannose etc. 8
  9. 9. Disaccharids or Oligosaccharids: Oligosaccharids are compound of sugars that contains two simple sugar molecules. Example: Maltose, Cellobiose etc Polysaccharids: Polysaccharids are compound of sugars that contains large number of monosaccharids.Such as polymers of glucose, fructose and Xylose 9
  10. 10. Cellulose: Cellulose forms the major skeletal Material in plants. Hemicelluloses: Water insoluble compounds extractable from plant cells with 4 to 5% sodium hydroxide solution. Pectin: Pectin is important jelling agent. It is a polysaccharide of α D-galacturonic acid. Agar-Agar is a polysaccharide containing D-glactose 10
  11. 11. Chitin: It is a major constituent of the exoskeleton of insects and crustacea. It is a polysaccharide closely related to cellulose. Starch: It is the most important storage form of Carbohydrate in the plant kingdom Amylose: Straight chain polysaccharide called amylose Amylopectin: Branched chain polysacchride called amylopectin. 11
  12. 12. Glycogen: Glycogen is the storage form of Carbohydrate in animals and is aften called is animal starch. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles of animal. Lignin: Lignin is a high molecular weight polymer containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In the plants it is closely asociated with cellulose. Wood is composed mainly of mixture of lignin and cellulose. 12
  13. 13. Lipid: The lipids are a group of organic substances which are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent, like ether, benzene, chloroform and carbon disulphide. In the proximate analysis of feed and feeders they are present in the ether extract fraction. 13
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  15. 15. Saturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated Fatty Acids Butyric Acid (Butanoic acid) Oleic Acid Caproic Acid (Hexanoic acids) Lenoleic Acid Palmitic Acid Linolenic Acid Stearic Acid Eleostearic Acid Arachidic Acid Arachidonic Acid 15
  16. 16. Oils: True fats if it is liquid at ordinary temperature are called oil are constituents of both plant and animals and important sources of stored energy. Three fatty acids, viz., Linoleic, linolenic and Arachidonic acids are considered to be essential for farm animals. 16
  17. 17. Waxes: Waxes are simple lipids consisting of fatty acids combined with monohydric alcohol of high molecular weight. They are found in numerous reaction in plants, animals and micro-organisms. Waxes contain the same fatty acids as are found in fats. . 17
  18. 18. Phospholipids: Biological point of view, phospholipids are the most important of the lipids since they are present in all the living cells and essential for their proper functioning. The Phospholopids contain N and P in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Among the many vital functions regulation of plant and animal cell permeability, participation in the transport and metabolism of synthesized and dietary fats and role in 18 blood coagulation are important
  19. 19. Glycolipids: It also called Cerebroglactosides, because of their presence in the brain tissue. 19
  20. 20. Proteins: Proteins are complex organic compounds of a high molecular weight. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and often sulphur. The elementary composition of most proteins is very similar. N content in protein is about 16%. N is estimated by using Kjeldahl methods. The nitrogen compounds are found in the cell protoplasm; cell nucleus contains proteins (nucleoproteins) which are intimately 20 asssociated with cell division and heredity.
  21. 21. Proteins: In addition plants, animals and microorganisms produce extra cellular enzymes which split complex dietary proteins, lipid and Carbohydrates to simple diffusible nutrients which are absorbed by the cell and utilized within the cells. Proteins are major component of blood, muscles and connective tissue in animals . 21
  22. 22. AMINO ACIDS: The fundamental structural unit of proteins is the amino acid so that proteins are polymers of monomers called Amino Acids. Proteins can be hydrolyzed to its constituent amino acids by refluxing with 6 N HCl for 2024 h. Proteins can also be hydrolyzed by boiling in alkali [2 N NaOH ]. 22
  24. 24. AMINO ACIDS STRUCTURAL FORMULA: I) Carboxyl group: > COOH ii). Amino group > NH2 Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids: Amino acids are required by the animal body for performing various physiological function . 24
  25. 25. Essential Amino Acids: Essential amino acids are those which body can not synthesize and they are required to be supplied in the diets so they are dietary essential. On the other hand there are amino acids which the body can synthesize through transpiration. Essential amino acids can be remembered by the name of a person `A.V. HILL M.P.T.T. 25
  26. 26. Essential Amino acids Non essential Amino acids Arginine Valine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Glycine Alanine Serine Cystine Tyrosine Asparatic acid Glutamic acid Proline Hydroxy proline 26
  27. 27. Essential Amino Acids: Essential amino acids to be supplied in the diet. Essential amino acids digested in the lower gastro-intestinal tract. 27
  28. 28. Minerals and Vitamins for Animal Nutrition : Minerals: (Macro-Elements) i) Calcium (Ca) ii). Phosphorus (P) iii). Magnesium (Mg) iv). Sodium (Na) v). Potassium (k) vi). Chlorine (Cl) Minerals: (Micro-Elements) i) Iron (Fe), ii). Copper (Cu) iii). Cobalt, iv). Iodine (I) v). Manganese (Mn), vi). Zinc (Zn) vii). Molybdenum, viii). Fluorine ix). Chromium 28
  29. 29. Vitamins Vitamins are usually defined as organic compound which are required in small amounts for the maintenance and normal growth of animal life 29
  30. 30. Digestion, Absorption and metabolism of Nutrients: Digestive System, series of connected organs whose purpose is to break down, or digest, the food from complex molecules into smaller or simple form. The simple molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. The simple molecules travel through the bloodstream to all of the body's cells, which use them for growth, repair, and energy . The digestive system of most animals consists mainly of a long, continuous tube called the alimentary canal, or digestive tract 30
  31. 31. Digestive tract: The digestive system of most animals consists mainly of a long, continuous tube called the alimentary canal, or digestive tract. Digestion generally involves two phases: a mechanical phase and a chemical phase In the mechanical phase, teeth or other structures physically break down large pieces of food into smaller pieces. 31
  32. 32. Chemical Phase of digestion: In the chemical phase, digestive chemicals called enzymes break apart individual molecules of food to yield molecules that can be absorbed and distributed throughout the body. These enzymes are secreted (produced and released) by glands in the body. Most digestive organs are part of the alimentary canal. However, two accessory digestive organs, the liver and pancreas, are located outside the alimentary canal. These organs contribute to chemical digestion by releasing digestive juices into the canal through tubes called ducts. 32
  33. 33. Digestive System, Bovine Cow 33
  34. 34.  The Feed Stuffs are:  Protein, Fats, Carbohydrates, Water, Minerals and Vitamin.  Very few of these can pass directly from the intestine wall. The passage of digested nutrients through the mucous membrane.  The end product of the body is termed as metabolism.  The digestion of feed-stuff is carried by enzymatic and microbial. 34
  35. 35.  The Feed Suffs are:  Protein, Fats, Carbohydrates, Water, Minerals and Vitamin. Very few of these can pass directly from the intestine wall. The passage of digested nutrients through the mucoas membrane.  The end product of the body is termed as metabolism.  The digestion of feed-stuff is carried by enzymatic and microbial. 35
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  41. 41. Digestion Purpose: reduce feed particles in to smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the blood • Mechanical breakdown of food – chewing • Chemical breakdown of food – HCl in the stomach – enzymes • Contractions of digestive tract 41
  42. 42. Animals are Classified by the types of food they ingest • Carnivore - animal products – Dogs, Cats • Herbivore - plant products – Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Horses • Omnivore - combination of plant and animal products – humans, pigs 42
  43. 43. Animals are also classified based on stomach • Monogastrics or non-ruminants • Ruminants Monogastric – one or simple stomach structure Mostly carnivores and omnivores » Very simple: Dog » horse, rabbit or rat Ruminant - 4 compartment stomach herbivores » cattle, sheep, goats 43
  44. 44. Enzymes of the Digestive Tract Enzyme Amylase Sucrase Lactase Substrate Product Starch Dextrin, Disaccharides Sucrose glucose Lactose Glucose galactose 44
  45. 45. Enzyme Lipase Substrate Lipids Product Fatty acids glycerides Chymotrypsin Peptides Amino Acid Peptides Trypsin Protein polypeptide Pepsin Protein polypeptide Peptidase Peptides amino acid 45
  46. 46. The digestion of feed-stuffs is carried out by two means namely, enzymatic and microbial. The enzymatic digestion is carried out by the enzymes secreted into the lumen of the gastro- intestinal tract by the various gland. The microbial digestion of food, also enzymatic, is brought about by enzymes secreted by bacteria, protozoa and fungi present in the gastro-intestinal tract. 46
  47. 47.  What is Liver: i). The liver is one of the largest organs in the body. Ii). Its main function is the formation of Bile. Iii). Bile is a fluid formed in the Liver iv). After secretion of bile, Carbohydrate convert into glycogen and surplus CHD are built into fat. v). Bile looks green sticky fluid containing important substances for digestion. 47
  48. 48.  Digestive Enzymes: Large number of enzymes are secreted in the various parts of the alimentary tract which breakdown the nutrients present in the feedstuff into component units. There are three groups of enzymes which are secreted by the digestive tract vizCarbohydrases, Proteases and lipases. 48
  49. 49.  The proteolytic enzymes hydrolyse the peptide linkage. There are number of enzymes in this group like pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidases and dipeptidases. These enzymes hydrolyse proteins and certain peptides to amino acids. 49
  50. 50.  The lipases breakdown the fats into fatty acids and glycerol. 50
  51. 51.  Digestion: In the mouth the digestion is mainly mechanical, that food is broken down into smaller particles and mixed with saliva which acts as a lubricant. Saliva contain alfa-amylase which is unable to breakdown the starch in the mouth. There it is mixed with gastric juice, secreted by the gastric glands. It contains hydrochloric acid, water, mucus and pepsinogen. 51
  52. 52.  Pancreatic: The pancreatic juice, secreted by the pancreas, contains Alfa-amylase, lipase, trypsinogen, and inorganic salts like sodium carbonate.  The pancreas is stimulated by many factors to secrete its juice. Secrotin, a hormone, which stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice. 52
  53. 53.  Most of the nutrients are absorbed from the small intestine in all the animals. . A part of the feed – stuff namely, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin which can not be hydrolyzed efficiently by the monogastric animals passes through the large intestine which secrets only mucous and no enzymes. 53
  54. 54.  CHD Digestion: Major portion of the ruminant`s diet consists of polysaccharids or structural CHD like cellulose, hemicellulose and other CHD which can not hydrolyze by the enzyme About 70-75% of the digestable organic matter digested by the rumen microorganisms. Soluble CHD are rapidly fermented. Lignin digested by the enzyme which secreted by the microorganisms. Fermentation of CHD by the bacteria produced gases CH4 and CO2. CH4 contents 30-40%. CH4 formed 4.5 per 100g CHD 54
  55. 55. Cellulose Digester Closrtridium Ruminococci Starch Clostridium Streptococcus Hemicellulose Eubacterium Ruminococcus Sugar Fermenting Bacteria Lactobacollus Methanogenic Bacteria Methanobacterium Proteolytic bacteria 55
  56. 56. Metabolism: The hydrolysed products of digestion are absorbed through the alimentary tract into the blood stream is called Metabolism. Metabolisms of CHD 1 g of glucose produce 686 Kcal heat and produce CO2 and H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 ..+ 6 CO2 + 6H2O + 686 Kcal There are 3 kinds of pathways in the metabolism. i). Glycolysis ii). Citric acids (Kreb`s ) cycle iii). Pentose Phosphate pathways. 56
  57. 57. Glycolysis: In this process glycogen, glucose and other monosaccharides are broken down to pyruvic acid and lactic acid in the absence of O2 is the glycogen. 57
  58. 58. In the large intestine (caecum and colon) there is microbial activity. The proteolytic bacteria attack the undigested proteins of the food. Gizzard: which has a function of grinding the food. Food passes to small intestine and then large intestine. The function of the pancreatic juice, small intestine and large intestine are the same as described earlier. 58
  59. 59. Digestive system of poultry 59
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  62. 62. Composition of the blood 1. Blood cell: i) solid portion of the blood is called blood cells. ii) Solid portion of the bound is about 40% 2. Blood plasma: i) Liquid portion of the blood it is the plasma blood. ii) Blood plasma contains about 60% 3. Total amount of the blood 5 – 8% of the body. 62
  63. 63. Function of blood circulation • Carry out the O2 from lunch to tissue • • • Remove CO2 and other waste materials from the tissue Carry the food materials from digestive tractto tissue. Keep the water content of the body stable Three kinds of blood cell: i) Red blood corpuscles(RBC) ii) White blood corpuscles (WBC) iii) Platelets Function of Red blood corpuscles (RBC) i) RBC is the largest part of the solid portion of the blood. ii) Incase of cow blood there are approximately 6 million /mm iii) RBC is the soft cell, elustic, and it contains red pigment and hemoglobin 63
  64. 64.  RBC is very important substance because it carry CO2 and O2 In the blood stream between the tissue and the lungs.  A very important part of hemoglobin is iron and if this is shortage the blood can not carry out its functions properly. This condition is known as “Anaemia”.  Production of cells is a continuous process is called “Spleen”. Normally 1milion cells destroyed in every 1 second. 64
  65. 65. 2. White blood corpuseles (WBC) i) In the WBC, no hemoglobin. This is the reason the WBC is the colorless ii) In generally the WBC has been classified into two group such as, a) Lymphocytes b) Leucocytes iii) WBC protect the body against the bacteria. iv) WBC cells can move around the body and able 65 to destroy the toxic bacteria.
  66. 66. 3.Platelets i) Platelets cells are also colorless. ii) It looks irregular shaped cells iii) They are roughly about 1/7th of the size of RBC. iv) They are fewer in number v) They help in blood clotting Blood plasma i) Liquid portion of the blood is called blood plasma. Blood clotting 66
  67. 67.  Blood Plasma: Blood plasma is the liquid portion of the blood BP looks straw-colored, thick fluid BP contains 91% water, with many organic and inorganic substances dissolved in.  One of this substances is called Fibrinogen which is helpful for blood clotting 67
  68. 68.   Liquid portion of the blood also called serum  In the serum contains antibodies  Another liquid which is derived from BP is called Lymph  The functions of Lymph is to protect disease 68
  69. 69.  Blood Clotting: If a large amount of blood is lost at one time and it can not be replaced rapidly enough and the animal will die.  Therefore it is important to release from loss of blood from wounds and injuries is stopped relatively quickly.  The blood forming a solid mass on the surface of the skin, a process known as clotting. 69
  70. 70. Four substances are necessary for clotting: a). Prothrombin b). Thromboplastin C). Calcium D). Fibrnogen Thromboplastin is releases from the damaged tissue and from the damaged platelets 70
  71. 71. The Thromboplastin acts on Prothrombin, provided sufficient calcium Afterwards turns it into an active form called Thrombin This active thrombin turn into fibrinogen in the plasma to give fibrin which is the substances composing the fibrous network of the clot 71
  72. 72. Thromboplastin Acts on Prothrombin, Produce calcium Turn into active form Thrombin Turn into active form Fibrinogen Release Fibrin helps to Blood Clotting 72
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  74. 74. Normally blood does not clot while it is in the body, because there is not enough free thromboplastin until tissue and cells are damaged If anybody die due to serious blood injured condition, this situation is called Haemophilia Some drugs or poisons will prevent clotting and these are known as Anticoagulation Haemorrahge-means bleeding Anaemia-means lack of blood 74
  75. 75. Blood Circulation: The blood circulation round the body in a closed system consisting of the heart, which is the pump and a network of tubes known as the blood vessel. The heart is a four-Chambered organ with very strong walls of cardiac muscle  Blood leaves from the heart by Arteries Blood return to the heart by Veins 75
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  78. 78. What Is the Heart? Heart is a muscular organ that acts like a pump to continuously send blood throughout your body. Heart is at the center of circulatory system. This system consists of a network of blood vessels, such as arteries, veins, and capillaries. These blood vessels carry blood to and from all areas of the body. 78
  79. 79. Four division of the heart: a).Right and left Auricles. b). Right and left Ventricles.  The heart is surrounded by a membrane called the pericardium Blood passes from auricles to ventricles 79
  80. 80. Four division of the heart: a).Right and left Auricles. b). Right and left Ventricles.  The heart is surrounded by a membrane called the pericardium Blood passes from auricles to ventricles 80
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