The objective:What is management? is to provide basic understanding on thefollowing key features of management: > Management is a collaborative work. > Management is a process wherein all managers engage in certaininterrelated activities in order to achieve the desired goals. > It uses all resources of the organization, both physical and human. > It aims at achieving the organization’s goals. > Management has the features of a science, an art and a profession. > Primary functions of the management are planning, organizing, staffing andcontrolling. > The normal structure of the management is in a pyramid shape with threelevels.
The wordManagementThe verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle —especially a horse), which in turn derives from the Latin manus(hand). The French word mesnagement (laterménagement) influenced the development in meaning of theEnglish word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Definition ofManagementThere is no universally accepted single definition for Management.Management means many things to many people.One of the simple definitions of management by Mary ParkerFollet will be a good start for our study. She called management as"the art of getting things done through people".
Definition ofManagementThe most appropriate definition of management is: "Managementin simple terms means the act of getting people together toaccomplish desired goals. Management comprises planning,organizing, resourcing, leading or directing, and controlling anorganization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effortfor the purpose of accomplishing a goal.Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation ofhuman resources, financial resources, technological resources, andnatural resources".
Process ofManagementFor realizing its declared objectives every organization, whetherbusiness or non-business, receives certain inputs from the externalenvironment, process them and delivery outputs. The outputs inturn goes to the external environment, and the externalenvironment continues to supply the inputs.Therefore the whole process of managing is related to this chain ofevents.
Process ofManagement TRANSFORMATION INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUTS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT The diagram of the Input-Output Model
Process ofManagementFrom the diagram, a process uses inputs to generate outputs. Therefore we cansay that a process is an integrated set of activities that uses resources totransform inputs into outputs.A system exists whenever several processes are interconnected using suchinput-output relationships. Processes are interconnected because the outputfrom one process becomes the input for another process.Therefore the process of management is facilitating, regulating and improvinga network of processes for planned outputs from planned inputs. The processis made up of people, work, activities, tasks, records, documents, forms,resources, rules, regulations, reports, materials, supplies, tools, equipment etc.These are all the things needed to transform inputs into outputs.
Nature ofManagementManagement has the features of a Science, an Art and a Profession.Management as a science…Management is a near-Science branch of knowledge because it issystematic and principles are being evolved on the basis ofconstant enquiry and experimentation. In the formulation ofprinciples the science of management can be developed.A management principle distils & organizes knowledge that hasbeen built up through experience & analysis. Management is notlikely to become an exact science as personal judgment will alwaysbe needed to supplement available knowledge but, byunderstanding & applying accepted principles can be greatlyimproved.
Nature ofManagementManagement as an art…Management is an Art because it deals with the ways of doingthings in a perfect way with organized knowledge and skills.Therefore, as a practice, management will always be an art.
Nature ofManagementManagement as a profession…The study of management is chiefly aimed at developing skills tomanage a business or organization. It also brings socialresponsibilities and a fees for the service. Based on these qualities,we can call it a profession, but it is not a profession by all means.
Nature ofManagementThree major specifications for a profession are:> There must exist a body of principles, skills & techniques andspecialized knowledge. > There must be formal methods of acquiring training &experience. > An organization should be established which forms ethical codesfor the guidance & conduct of members.
Nature ofManagementWhen we consider the above standards, management cannot reallybe called a profession. Because, there are no licenses for managers,nor is there an accepted code of ethics, but there are movementstowards professionalization and in many countries apex bodies formanagement have been established.Therefore, we can say, professionalization of management is inprogress.