Prospects for biofuelsShort term Ethanol from sugarcane: It is beneficial to all stakeholders insustainable development.Long term Commercialization of cellulosic ethanol: widespread availability,abundance Reducing the dependency on crude oil. Reduction of Green House Gas emission
What is Ethanol Fuel? Ethanol is used as vehicle fuel mainly as biofueladditive for gasoline. Ethanol, unlike petroleum, is a form of renewableenergy that can be produced from agricultural cropssuch as sugar cane, potato, and corn. Ethanol is widely used in Brazil and in the US andtogether both countries are responsible for 89 percentof the world’s ethanol fuel production in 2009.
ETHANOL-HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE In 1880 Henry Ford designed a car solely on ethanol Subsequently Ford designed its popular model ―T‖operable on ethanol and or gasoline. Extensively used during World War II in GermanyFrom1920-1924,Standard Oil Company marketed 25% byvol. of absolute ethanol in Gasoline in Baltimore area.Project stopped because of High corn prices Problems of transportation and storage
Why biofuels are attractive? Energy security: eco-friendly, renewable energy. locallyproduced, wider availability, ―grow your own oil‖ Lower emissions of harmful pollutants Liquid fuels: conducive to existing infrastructure, storage,distribution Bioethanol: cars, light trucks, motorcycles Biodiesel: commercial vehicles, buses, pumps, isolated electricitygenerationImport of Crude can be reduced thereby foreign exchangeoutflow will be saved substantially.
Ethanol as Transport Fuel Ethanol advantages as Transport Fuel; Octane enhancer No engine modification required for E10 and lower blends Environmental benefits; Lower emissions of CO and hydrocabons Lower CO2 emissions with high compression ratio Higher biodegradability coupled with low toxicity
Raw materials required for ethanolproduction Sugarcane, Beet, Sweet Sorghun, Corn, wheat, rice,potato. Cellulose material such as wood, waste paper, cropresidue, etc
ETHANOLADDED TO PETROL IS ALSOREFERRED AS Absolute Alcohol Anhydrous Alcohol Dehydrated Alcohol Power Alcohol
BLENDING WITH PETROL Ethanol can be blended in various proportionswith Petrol Usually blended from 5 % to 10% by volume toGasoline Brazil has an experience of over 70 years inblending and now they have 24% of ethanol byvolume added to Gasoline.
Economic Impacts Creation of demand for agricultural products and mills cancome out of sugar cycle. Increases farmers income Creation of employment opportunities in rural areas Energy Independence
International Experience on use of Ethanol Brazil started commercial use of ethanol as automotive fuelin 1989 as neat hydrated ethanol and 24% ethanol -gasolineblend US Clean Air Act of 1990 made use of oxygenatesmandatory in 41 most polluted cities during winter monthsto reduce emissions Studies in the U.S. and Canada ---replacement of gasoline withethanol means a reduction in total life cycle emissions ofgreenhouse gases (expressed as ―carbon dioxide equivalents‖) ofat least 25%.
ETHANOL: WORLD PERSPECTIVE In France, ethanol is produced from grapes also. In USA, presently ethanol-blended fuels represent more than12% of motor gasoline sales. Since ethanol-blended Gasolinewas introduced in US, production was more than doubled—from20 million barrels in 1996 to over 40 million barrels in 2001. In US, gasoline is blended with 10% Ethanol whereas in Brazilthe blending percentages are 22-26%. In Thailand, approximately 564 million litres per annum–mostlyfrom Molasses is produced. Additionally Tapioca (Cassava)being studied as raw material. Brazil consumes nearly 4 billion gallons of ethanol annually. Inaddition to consumption, Brazil also exports ethanol to othercountries. Canadas annual ethanol production is approximately 225million litres per year,E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline)available in 1000 retail stations in Canada.Ethanol is widelyavailable in proportions of 5-10% ethanol blended with gasoline
ETHANOL: WORLD PERSPECTIVE• The bulk of production comes from Brazil and USA.• In European countries and in US Ethanol is produced mainlyfrom Corn (Maize). In Brazil sugarcane which is available inabundance is used as raw material for Ethanol production.India being the largest sugarcane producer in the world andhas got enormous potential which can be exploited for theproduction of Ethanol. India and Brazil produces about 2/3 ofworld total sugarcane production. However Brazil leads inproduction and consumption of Ethanol.
Studies on Ethanol in Gasoline Elaborative R&D studies conducted on 5% and 10% ethanol gasolineblends Physico-Chemical tests Identification of additive needs Material Compatibility Cold / hot startability and drivability Mass Emission tests and field trials on Bajaj 2 wheelers and MarutiZen CarsR&D Studies on the use of Ethanol in India
Observations in R&D Studies with 5% Blends Octane increases and opportunity for reducing benzeneand MTBE RVP increase and require removal of lighter ends orrelaxation of VLI Additional dosage of anti oxidants and corrosioninhibitors required in blends Tests with 5% and upto 10% blend satisfactory inselect vehicles tested Emission benefits in terms of CO observed
Pilot Studies with 5% Blending with Petrol 2 states – Maharashtra and UP Depots of Manmad, Miraj and Barelly Ethanol Storage and Blending facilities created Silica Gel Traps provided Fuel Supplied to all retail outlets fed from these depots
Sugarcane– A major indigenous sources for ethanolproduction - extracted from molasses, a by-product ofthe sugar industry. India produces 1.3 billion litres of ethanol frommolasses, installed capacity of distilleries is nearlythree times i.e. 3.2 billion litres. Brazil has an experience of over 70 years in blendingand can help India to develop faster in this field
Petrol blended with 5% ethanol w.e.f. 1.1.2003 in 9major sugar growing states of Andhra Pradesh,Gujrat, Haryana, Karnatka, Maharashtra, Punjab,Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Goa as well as theUnion Territories of Daman & Diu, Dadara & NagarHaveli, Chandigarh and Pondicherry during Phase Iand rest of the States /Union Territories duringPhase II
5% blend of ethanol and petrol would beextended to the entire country in second phase. No modification is required in vehicles with 10%ethanol blend. In the next phase ethanol will also be blended indiesel. India use 80% diesel and 20% petrol againstBrazil pattern of consumption of 10% diesel and90% petrol.
ETHANOL PRODUCTION ROUTES Fuel ethanol or absolute Alcohol is produced bydehydration (removal of water molecules) ofRectified Spirit (RS)or Industrial alcohol Commercial routes of dehydration of RS-Molecular sieve Technology-Pervaporation (membrane technology)-Azeotropic distillation
Ethanol Production from Sugar CropsCrushingSugarExtractionDistillationRectificationDehydrationFuelEthanolAnimal Feed& Bagasse(Beet, sugarcane)FeedstockHeat & PowerProductionFermentation CO2SteamSource : Institute of Technology for Biogenic Resources, Technical University of Munich
BIO-DIESEL“ The use of vegetable oils for engine may seeminsignificant to-day, but such oils may become incourse of time as important as petroleum and the coaltar products of the present time ”Rudolf Diesel (1912)
The bi-fuel system developed by the Prof H. A.Havemann and his colleagues at the Indian Institute ofScience (IISc) Bangalore, in the early 1950s, was thesubject of the earliest original published work intechnical literature regarding alcohol diesels. Essentially, this method involves giving carburetorbenefits to a diesel engine. Since alcohol and diesel oil does not mix, these fuels aresent through two different routes - by induction andinjection. Part of the fuel-energy is supplied byinducting ethanol through a carburetor, while only asmall quantity of diesel fuel is injected in theconventional injection system. Alcohol Tests forInternal combustion Engines in IISc, Bangalore in 1950s Studies on neat alcohol and blends carried out in IOCR&D,IIT D,IIT M, IIP and many other research/academic institutes
ETHANOL & DIESEL BLEND Ethanol has limited solubility in diesel Pure Energy Corporation, AAE Technologies andBetz-Dearborn use different additive packages forstability IOC ,R&D has recently developed an additivepackage to solubilize 5% of Ethanol incommercially available diesel
BIO-DIESELBiodiesel A fuel comprising of Mono-alkyl esters of longchain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils oranimal fats, designated B100Biodiesel Blend A blend of Biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX isthe volume percent Biodiesel
EXPERIMENTS WITH BIODIESEL Biodiesel is totally miscible with diesel oil in anyproportion. Biodiesel viscosity is close to diesel Calorific value of biodiesel is also very close todiesel oil.
BIO-DIESEL POTENTIAL OF INDIA From about 100 varieties of oil seeds, only 10-12varieties have been tapped so far. Only a few million tonnes have been utilizedagainst the estimated potential of about 20Million tonnes per annum. There is lack ofdemand for industrial use for biodiesel in thecountry.
Road ahead…..Remunerative uniform pricing policy throughout India for Ethanol like Petrol.Sugar factories should be permitted to use cane juice partly or fully like Brazil toproduce Ethanol since sugarcane control order was amended.Financial assistance from the sugar development fund for the establis-hment ofEthanol plant.At 5% blending rate the requirement of Ethanol will be around 450 million ltrs.When the blending rate is increased to 10% and taking into account of growth ofconsumption of Ethanol, demand for Ethanol will be around 1000 million ltrs.