CAM First Chapter


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You get the idea of CAM subject from this slide. Its not enoguh but also not too short. Wait for second chapter.....

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CAM First Chapter

  1. 1. The form factor of a motherboard determines the specifications for its general shape and size. Form Factor It also specifies what type of case and power supply will be supported, the placement of mounting holes, and the physical layout and organization of the board. AT Prior to 1997, IBM computers used large motherboards. After that, however, the size of the motherboard was reduced and boards using the AT (Advanced Technology) form factor was released. The AT form factor is found in older computers (386 class or earlier). ATX With the need for a more integrated form factor which defined standard locations for the keyboard, mouse, I/O, and video connectors, in the mid 1990's the ATX form factor was introduced.
  2. 2. ATX defined to address four areas of improvement: enhanced ease of use, better support for current and future I/O, better support for current and future processor technology, and reduced total system cost
  3. 3. Micro-ATX This form factor was developed as a natural evolution of the ATX form factor to address new market trends and PC technologies. MicroATX supports: • Reduction in the physical size of the motherboard • Reducing the number of I/O slots supported on the board • Current processor technologies • The transition to newer processor technologies • AGP high performance graphics solutions • Smaller motherboard size • Smaller power supply form factor
  4. 4. LPX White ATX is the most well-known and used form factor, there is also a non-standard proprietary form factor which falls under the name of LPX, and Mini-LPX. The LPX form factor is found in low-profile cases NLX Boards based on the NLX form factor hit the market in the late 1990's. This "updated LPX" form factor offered support for larger memory modules, tower cases, AGP video support and reduced cable length. BTX The BTX, or Balanced Technology Extended form factor, was developed to take advantage of technologies such as Serial ATA, USB 2.0, and PCI Express. The BTX form factor provides the industry push to tower size systems with an increased number of system slots. Supports current and future processor technologies Supports new Accelerated Graphics Port (A.G.P.) high performance graphics solutions Supports tall memory technology Provides more system level design and integration flexibility
  5. 5. A System Configuration is defined as the computers, processes, and devices that compose the system and its boundary. The system configuration is the specific definition of the elements that define and/or prescribe what a system is composed of. System Configuration System configuration is the process of setting up your hardware devices and assigning resources to them so that they work together without problems.
  6. 6. Chipset : Combining a PC’s sophisticated logic circuitry onto a few chips shorten the signal path allows the circuits to operate at higher speed is known as chipset. FSB : The pathway between CPU & RAM is called Front Side Bus.
  7. 7. North Bridge IC South Bridge IC
  8. 8. Northbridge Chip : This is the chip responsible for interfacing the CPU, main memory, local bus and main system bus. • Connects CPU via FSB (400/266/200/133/100/66MHz) • Various types of processors are supported. • Connects the slower AGP (533/266/133/66MHz) • It supports the various memory types (PC133 SDRAM or PC800 RDRAM) • It supports the memory technologies (64 128 Mbit SDRAM) • Parity or ECC type of memory error correction supported. • Number of processors are supported (for multiprocessing)
  9. 9. Southbridge Chip : Since ports and buses generally operate at speeds that are far slower than the FSB, system support provided through a second chip called Southbridge chip. It handles the system’s peripheral and I/O bus operations. It supports ISA bus bridged with PCI bus. Supports one or more USB, serial and a parallel port(s) Supports an infrared (IrDA) port. Supports two channel hard drive controller. (Dual ATA) Handles power management features. Handles keyboard controller, including support for a PS/2 mouse.
  10. 10. • Hub Architecture: Intel introduced its hub architecture starting with the 820 chipset, which divides control between a memory controller chip (MCH) and an I/O controller chip (ICH).
  11. 11. Hub Architecture: North Bridge chip is called a Memory Controller Hub (MCH) and South Bridge is called an I/O Controller Hub (ICH). Now MCH is replaced with Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) & connects through dedicated hub interface that is twice as fast as PCI. Advantages over North/South Bridge Architecture •It’s faster – The Accelerated Hub Architecture (AHA) interface used by the 8xx series has twice the throughput of PCI. Also 9xx series use DMI (Direct Media Interface), which is 7.5x to 15x faster than PCI •Reduced PCI loading – The hub interface is independent of PCI. This improves performance of all PCI bus connected devices. •Reduced board wiring – The AHA interface is only 8 bits wide & requires only 15 signals to be routed on the motherboard, while MDI is only 4 bits wide requiring only 8 pairs of signals.
  12. 12. Features Benefits 800/533 MHz system bus Front Side Bus (FSB) support for high-performance Intel® processors and greater system performance. Supports Hyper- Threading Technology† Increased system responsiveness for multi-tasking. LGA775 socket LGA775 socket supports the highest performance Intel® desktop processors. Intel® Graphics Media Accelerator 900 (Intel® GMA 900 graphics) Stunning media, incredible visuals and new 3D capabilities. For business users, Intel validates the chipset, processor, graphics and software stack to provide a well-tested platform with support for Microsoft* Windows 2000, Windows* XP, Linux (top distributions) and OS/2 (SciTech). PCI Express* bus architecture PCI Express* x16 graphics delivers up to 4 GB/s per direction, 3.5 times more bandwidth than AGP 8X. PCI Express x1 I/O offers 500 MB/s concurrently, over 3.5 times more bandwidth than PCI at 133 MB/s. View PCI Express* Animation PCI Express* x16 Graphics Interface
  13. 13. Dual-channel DDR2 or DDR Flexible memory support, for dual-channel DDR2 533/DDR2 400 or DDR400/DDR333 memory, in configurations of up to 4 GB RAM. Direct Media Interface (DMI) For I/O intensive applications, new serial point-to-point bus delivers up to 2.0 GB/s concurrent bandwidth between the memory and I/O controllers, compared to 266 MB/s with previous generation Intel® hub architecture. Intel® High Definition Audio Support for new consumer entertainment formats such as 7.1 surround sound, Dolby* Digital, and DTS*. Audio codec support for 192 kHz quality, multiple streams, and better voice input for speech recognition and voice-over-IP. Intel® Matrix Storage Technology with ICH6R or RW only Boosts storage performance with RAID 0, while protecting your digital memories with RAID 1, on the same disks. Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) further boosts performance with Native Command Queuing (NCQ), and provides native hot plug for drive swaps.
  14. 14. Four Serial ATA ports (SATA/150) Integrated serial ATA controller facilitates high-speed data transfers at up to 150 MB/s for each of four ports. Allows easier hard drive upgrades and expansion for new SATA optical drives. Ultra ATA/100 Supports legacy hard drives and optical drives. High-speed USB 2.0 Ports Eight ports offer up to 40X greater bandwidth over USB 1.1, for high-speed I/O peripherals such as digital video cameras. Intel Serial Digital Video Output (SDVO) ports Dual SDVO ports offer maximum display (digital CRT or TV) flexibility through the existing PCI Express* x16 connector. Processors Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor supporting Hyper-Threading Technology Chipsets Intel® 915GV Express, 910GL Express and 915P Express chipsets Desktop Boards Intel® Desktop Board D915GAG, D915GAV, D915GEV, D915GUX and D915GVWB Other Intel® Platform Memory (Validated DDR and DDR2) Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 775 Land Grid Array (LGA) Intel® 82915G GMCH 1210 Flip Chip Ball Grid Array (FCBGA)
  15. 15. Supports Intel® Core™2 Processor with Viiv™ Technology Get ready for a new kind of consumer entertainment PC that will change the way you enjoy entertainment at home. With a system based on the Intel® 945G Express Chipset*, control the music, movies, games, and photos you want to enjoy both from your personal entertainment collections and endless entertainment options from a wide range of Intel® Core™2 processor with Viiv™ technology verified service providers delivered right to your living room. 1066/800/533 MHz System Bus Supports Intel® Core™2 Duo processor, Intel® Pentium® D processor, Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor with HT Technology and all other Intel® Pentium® processors and Intel® Celeron® processors in the LGA775 socket, with scalability for future processor innovations. PCI Express* x16 Interface Delivers greater than 3.5 times the bandwidth over the traditional AGP 8X interface and supports the latest high- performance graphics cards. PCI Express* x1 Interface Offers up to 3.5 times the bandwidth over traditional PCI architecture, delivering faster access to peripheral devices and networking. Features and benefits
  16. 16. Intel® Graphics Media Accelerator 950 Boosts graphics performance to deliver richer visual color and picture clarity without the need for additional discrete graphics cards. Intel® High Definition (Intel® HD Audio) Integrated audio support enables premium home theater sound and delivers advanced features such as multiple audio streams and jack re-tasking. The Dolby* PC Entertainment Experience1 is available exclusively on systems with Intel® High Definition Audio. Intel® Matrix Storage Technology Provides protection against data loss from a hard drive failure, and quicker access to digital photo, video, and music files by supporting NCQ as well as RAID 0, 1, 5, and 10. Matrix RAID enables two RAID levels to be combined for data loss protection plus performance. Intel® Active Management Technology Enables remote, down-the-wire management of out-of-band networked systems regardless of system state. Helps to improve IT efficiency, asset management and system security and availability. Serial ATA* (SATA) 3 Gb/s High-speed storage interface supports faster transfer rate for improved data access.
  17. 17. Dual-channel DDR2 Memory Support Up to 10.7 GB/s of bandwidth and 4GB memory addressability for faster system responsiveness and support for 64-bit computing. Intel® Flex Memory Technology Gives users a more flexible memory upgrade option by allowing different memory sizes to be installed while maintaining dual-channel mode/performance. Intel® Serial Digital Video Output (SDVO) ports Dual SDVO ports offer increased display flexibility (digital CRT or TV) through the existing PCI Express* x16 connector using integrated graphics and third party manufactured add-in cards. ADD2 cards increase system display output to a television, digital display, or simultaneously to a monitor and digital display. Media Expansion Cards This document details the Media Expansion card key benefits and operation. It is intended for a technical audience interested in learning about Media Expansion card architecture. File Type/Size: PDF 203KB bring a multitude of video in/out features, including single or dual channel Television.
  18. 18. Superscalar Execution : The Pentium processor can sometimes execute two instructions simultaneously. Pipeline Architecture : The Pentium processor executes instructions in five stages. Branch Target Buffer : The Pentium processor fetches the branch target instruction before it executes the branch instruction. Dual 8-KB On-Chip Caches : The Pentium processor has two separate 8-kilobyte (KB) caches on chip--one for instructions and one for data--which allows the Pentium processor to fetch data and instructions from the cache simultaneously. Write-Back Cache : When data is modified; only the data in the cache is changed 64-Bit Bus : It can handle up to twice the data of the Intel486 Floating-Point Optimization : The Pentium processor executes individual instructions faster through execution pipelining
  19. 19. Available in speeds from 233 MHz up to 450 MHz. Includes MMX media enhancement technology. Dual Independent Bus (DIB) architecture increases bandwidth and performance over single-bus processors. 32K (16K/16K) non-blocking, level-one cache provides fast access to heavily used data. 512K unified, non-blocking, level-two cache. 450, 400, and 350 MHz versions support memory cacheability for up to 4GB of addressable memory space. Includes data integrity and reliability features such as Error Correction Code (ECC), Fault Analysis, Recovery, and Functional Redundancy Checking for both system and L2 cache buses.
  20. 20. 1.26 GHz 370-pin FC-PGA2 package with 512 KB Advanced Transfer Cache supports 133 MHz processor side bus . Greater performance with Hyper-Threading Technology. Optimizes the use of data bandwidth from the memory subsystem to accelerate out of order execution. Supports highend communications, transaction terminal, and industrial automation applications. Scalability and performance with Intel® EM64.
  21. 21. Versatility and reliability to meet all computing needs. Greater performance with Hyper-Threading Technology. Improved power management with enhanced Intel speed technology, increasing power efficiency Scalability and performance with Intel® EM64, impoves performance by allowing the system to address more than 4 GB of both virtual and physical memory
  22. 22. With an Intel Pentium D processor-based PC featuring two full processing cores, you get the flexibility and performance to handle multimedia entertainment, digital photo editing, even multiple users, simultaneously. Built for advanced applications Get the most out of your demanding, multi-threaded applications. dual-core processing technology provides the performance to take advantage of sophisticated gaming software which can result in realistic game environments and challenging game play. 800MHz front side bus delivers excellent system bandwidth for efficient and improved system performance.
  23. 23. Single-Core Processing - New micro architecture with 800 MHz FSB enhances your computing experience. Wide Dynamic Execution - Improves execution speed and efficiency, delivering more instructions per clock cycle. Smart Memory Access - Optimizes the use of the data bandwidth from the memory subsystem to accelerate out-of-order execution. Advanced Digital Media Boost - Significantly improves the media performance on a broad range of applications including video, audio, image and photo processing, multimedia, encryption, financial, engineering, and scientific applications. Intel® 64² architecture - Allows the desktop processor platform to access larger amounts of memory.
  24. 24. Large Level 1 Cache - The K6 uses a full 64 KB of level 1 cache Extra Decoders - The K6 has four x86 instructions decoders, compared with only three for the Pentium Pro and Pentium II Large Branch Prediction Table - The K6's branch history table contains 8,192 entries, while most other processors top out at 1/8th this size. Six Integer Execution Units - The K6 has more internal execution units than any other x86 processor right now, allowing for more parallelism and efficiency.
  25. 25. The XP is fully micro architecture. The XP is able to perform more calculations per second. It supports 64-bit bi-directional data. 512 K L2 cache increases the performance of applications. It prevents the processor from waiting when future data is requested.
  26. 26. Athlon 64 support the NX bit, a security feature named “enhanced virus protection”. It has an Integrated Heat Spreader (HIS) which prevents the CPU core from accidently being damaged when mounting and unmounting cooling solutions. Hyper transport technology for high speed I/O communication. One 16-bit link upto 2000MHz bi- directional upto 8 GB/s hyper Transport I/O bandwidth. The AMD 64b core provides leading edge performance for both 32-bit and 64-bit application. CPU speed throttling technology branded cool n quiet.
  27. 27. Processor Speed (MHz) Front Side Bus L2 Cache size Multiproces sing Hyper threading Pentium Pentium-1 60-233 60 MHz FSB 128 kb Supported Not Supported Pentium-2 233-450 100 MHz FSB 512 KB backside cache running at 1/2 CPU frequency Supported Supported Pentium-3 450-500 133 MHz FSB 256 KB on-die cache running at CPU frequency Supported Supported Pentium-4 450-500 133 MHz FSB 512 kb -2048 kb Supported Supported Comparison between Pentium, Celeron and AMD processors
  28. 28. Processor Speed (MHz) Front Side Bus L2 Cache size Multiproces sing Hyper threading 100 MHz To 2 GHz 66 MHz FSB 766 MHz, 100 MHz FSB 800 MHz, 400 MHz FSB 1.7 GHz 512 kb -2048 kb Supported Supported Athlon 600 - 1400 200, and some 266 MHz FSB 256 kb Supported Supported Celeron AMD Athlon XP 1500 266 to 333 MHz FSB 512 kb Supported Supported
  29. 29. It contains several important core components, including the chipset, which controls many of the most essential functions of the PC. It directly interfaces with other key components of the PC, and is responsible in large part for the stability, feature support, expandability and upgradeability of any system. Form Factor - The initial decision is the form factor of the motherboard, which must be mated to that of the power supply and case. CPU Support - The chipset must support the particular CPU you want to use Chipset - The chipset is the core logic of the motherboard and is responsible for most of its characteristics Video Support - The video card either goes into a slot on the motherboard, or its functionality is integrated onto it. Memory Support - Motherboards vary in terms of the number of memory slots they provide, and also what sizes and types of modules are supported. I/O Interfaces - Almost all modern motherboards come with support for at least the following: two serial ports, one parallel port, one keyboard port, and one PS/2 mouse port. Most also now come with two USB ports etc. BIOS Upgrade Support - BIOS upgrades are key to future support for new technologies, as well as correcting known problems with the board.