School of Education I Kathmandu University, Nepal
MPhil/PhD Program in Education (DevS)
Effects on living environment & our lives
March 29, 2013
Rajendra P Sharma
Globalization - a catchphrase for every walk of life
A key idea for business, theory, practice, and for an
But what people mean by 'globalization' is often vague
This presentation will focus on evolution and key aspect
of globalization and its effect on living environment and
Word environment describes
includes the living and non living features
Environment is divided into:
Physical and human environment
(Smith, M. et al. 2002)
Live together within a
SUN - Solar energy:
All life on earth depends on the
energy (light and heat)
produced by the sun.
ROCKS / SOIL
Lithosphere: The earths
solid outer shell.
Geographers study the
processes shaping the
earth’s crust and how
these processes affect
Elements of Physical Environment
Physical environments are dominated by natural
such as landforms and vegetation.
include the earth’s soil, water, air, sunlight and
all living things.
WATER - Hydrosphere:
The earth’s store of water and how it
circulates. People try to control and manage
water resources to meet their needs.
The combination of gases that surround the
planet. Weather & climate determines where
plants and animals live. Climate affects the
activities of people and the activities of people
also affect the climate
PLANTS & ANIMALS
Biosphere The surface of the
earth in which all life exists.
Living things interact with each
other and the non living parts
of the environment
-Elements of Human Environments.
Human environments are best defined as all the elements of
environments created people.
Theywhich people social, cultural, economic and political systems created
The way in
organize themselves to live in
consumption of goods and
They also include those features normally associated with settlements,
industries and agriculture.
It is important to note that the physical and human environments always
The manner in
which a country,
Physical environments are always affected bysociety
and the activities of people; and
practices affected by events within physical
built environments are always
environments. characteristic of a
group or people.
◦ An economic
◦ A social
◦ A cultural
The movement towards the expansion of economic and
social ties between countries through the spread of
corporate institutions and the capitalist philosophy that
leads to the shrinking of the world in economic terms
(Beck, 1999) .
Globalization is a process
of interaction and integration among the people,
companies, and governments of different nations,
driven by international trade, investment aided
by information technology.
effects on the environment, culture, political systems,
economic development and on human physical wellbeing in societies around the world (Giddens, 2002).
Globalization is a result of evolution
Globalization is not new, for thousands of years, people—
and, later, corporations—have been buying from and
selling to each other in lands at great distances, (Silk Road
across Central Asia that connected China and Europe
during the Middle Ages).
For centuries, people and corporations have invested in
enterprises in other countries.
Many features of the current globalization are similar to
those prevailing before the First World War.
Modern form of globalization started after 1960s.
Facilitated more after the establishment of World Bank,
IMF, WTO, GATT, EU and even SAARC and BRICS
(Delors, J. et al. 1996)
Globalization is a cross border integration of
Brighter and darker side of the globalization
Industrial: worldwide access to
products, low marketing cost
Financial: external financing
Economic: market interconnect,
easy transport, travel, free trade
Political: regulation of relationships
(World Bank Research, 2002)
(World Bank, 1999)
Informational: information flows
Ecological: cooperation against
environmental challenges (Kyoto)
Social : cultural diffusion
minimizing differences, peaceful
relations, international justice,
media coverage draws the
attention of the world
Exploitation of labor
Decision making power go away
Changed education system
caused brain drain
Health risks – rise on epidemics
Disparity - major share of the
profits goes to foreign company
Cut-throat competition - local
suffer huge losses as they lack
potential to advertise /export on
Loss of culture
Globalization and Nepal
limited to India
From 1955 to 1990
Become UN member
Development assistances were limited to trade and
Few students used to go abroad
Few people used go abroad for employment (mainly
professionals and educated one
After 1985 - active support from World Bank & IMF
Gained momentum since 1991. Government introduced policy for
liberalization, privatization and globalization.
Open for privatization, private educational institutions flourished,
many youths going abroad as labors, privately funded students started
Global trade and transit was facilitated after Nepal became member of
WTO in 2005
Effects of Globalization in Nepal
Threats to manufacturing industries/risk in employment
New middle class - rich-poor divide widened - inequality
Environment threat - change in weather & temperature
Inflationary risks - takeover of businesses from overseas
A new consumer base has developed
Hard to survive local business, industry and agriculture
Globalization has been quite a debatable subject. Some
opine it has a lot of ill-effects, others feel exactly the
Benefits of globalization would be achieved, only if the
negative impacts are neutralized, looking at the positive
If do so, Nepal can march strongly on its path of
Globalization is inevitable, we can not stop or oppose.
We should take it as a tool that should benefit all sections
of humankind, but one cannot ignore its negative effects.
Country like Nepal, may have adverse effect, if it is not
discussed and taken appropriate measures for
maximization of benefit created by globalization.
Finally, to address the effects of globalization on our lives
local initiatives with global cooperation is must,
because every single local actions have some global
effects and every global decision and action also have
some effects on the other part of the world.
Saying all this, I conclude with an unanswered question
Whether it is important to us to humanization of globe or
globalization of human activities?
Let’s think over it ..... ..... !
Beck, U. (1999). What is globalization? Cambridge: Polity Press.
Biz/ad, (2007). Presentation on globalization. Retrieved on 20 March 2013
Giddens A. (2002). Runaway world. How globalization is reshaping our lives.
London, UK: Profile Books
Delors, J. et al. (1996). Learning: the treasure within. Paris, UNESCO. Retrieved
Masand, D. (n.d). Impact of globalization in India. Presentation . Date and
Smith, M. K. and Doyle M. (2002). Globalization the encyclopedia of informal
education. Retrieved from www.infed.org/biblio/globalization.htm
World Bank Research (2002). Globalization, growth and poverty: Building an
inclusive world economy. The World Bank Group. Retrieved from
World Bank. (1999) World Development Report 1998/99: Knowledge for
development. Washington: World Bank. [1999, 9 August]. Retrieved
Thank you so much
Now, please contribute through
Questions and Comments
how we can best fit globalization
into our ground reality