School of Education I Kathmandu University, Nepal

MPhil/PhD Program in Education (DevS)

Diversity Education

Globalizati...
Presentation Context
Globalization - a catchphrase for every walk of life
A key idea for business, theory, practice, and f...
Living Environment
Word environment describes

total surroundings
includes the living and non living features
Environment ...
Living Environments

Social
Structure

Human Lives
Live together within a
relationship and
interaction

Economy
Bio-Physic...
SUN - Solar energy:
:
All life on earth depends on the
energy (light and heat)
produced by the sun.

ROCKS / SOIL
Lithosph...
-Elements of Human Environments.
Human environments are best defined as all the elements of
Elements
environments created ...
Sustaining development
Natural
resources

Balancing Globalization

8
What is globalisation?
Visible globalization?

10
Defining Globalization
Three Phenomena
◦ An economic
◦ A social
◦ A cultural
The movement towards the expansion of economi...
Globalization is a process
of interaction and integration among the people,
companies, and governments of different nation...
Globalization is a result of evolution
Globalization is not new, for thousands of years, people—
and, later, corporations—...
Globalization is a cross border integration of

14

(Biz/ad, 2007)
Brighter and darker side of the globalization
Brighter side
Industrial: worldwide access to

products, low marketing cost
...
Globalization and Nepal
Before 1955
Trade and
cultural
exchange was
limited to India
and Tibet

From 1955 to 1990
Become U...
Effects of Globalization in Nepal
Threats to manufacturing industries/risk in employment
New middle class - rich-poor divi...
Conclusion
Globalization has been quite a debatable subject. Some
opine it has a lot of ill-effects, others feel exactly t...
Reflection
Globalization is inevitable, we can not stop or oppose.
We should take it as a tool that should benefit all sec...
Reflection

cont.

Finally, to address the effects of globalization on our lives
-

local initiatives with global cooperat...
References
Beck, U. (1999). What is globalization? Cambridge: Polity Press.
Biz/ad, (2007). Presentation on globalization....
Thank you so much
Now, please contribute through
Questions and Comments

how we can best fit globalization
into our ground...
Globalization andLiving_Environment_RpS
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Globalization andLiving_Environment_RpS

  1. 1. School of Education I Kathmandu University, Nepal MPhil/PhD Program in Education (DevS) Diversity Education Globalization: Effects on living environment & our lives March 29, 2013 Rajendra P Sharma
  2. 2. Presentation Context Globalization - a catchphrase for every walk of life A key idea for business, theory, practice, and for an academic debates But what people mean by 'globalization' is often vague and confusing This presentation will focus on evolution and key aspect of globalization and its effect on living environment and our lives 3
  3. 3. Living Environment Word environment describes total surroundings includes the living and non living features Environment is divided into: Physical and human environment (Smith, M. et al. 2002) 4
  4. 4. Living Environments Social Structure Human Lives Live together within a relationship and interaction Economy Bio-Physical Environment 5
  5. 5. SUN - Solar energy: : All life on earth depends on the energy (light and heat) produced by the sun. ROCKS / SOIL Lithosphere: The earths solid outer shell. Geographers study the processes shaping the earth’s crust and how these processes affect people. Elements of Physical Environment Physical environments are dominated by natural features, such as landforms and vegetation. include the earth’s soil, water, air, sunlight and all living things. WATER - Hydrosphere: The earth’s store of water and how it circulates. People try to control and manage water resources to meet their needs. AIR- Atmosphere: 6 The combination of gases that surround the planet. Weather & climate determines where plants and animals live. Climate affects the activities of people and the activities of people also affect the climate PLANTS & ANIMALS Biosphere: Biosphere The surface of the earth in which all life exists. Living things interact with each other and the non living parts of the environment
  6. 6. -Elements of Human Environments. Human environments are best defined as all the elements of Elements environments created people. of the Social: Economic: Theywhich people social, cultural, economic and political systems created include the Human The way in by humans The production, organize themselves to live in distribution and Environment a community consumption of goods and They also include those features normally associated with settlements, services. industries and agriculture. It is important to note that the physical and human environments always Political: Cultural: interact. The manner in The beliefs, which a country, traditions and Physical environments are always affected bysociety and the activities of people; and practices affected by events within physical built environments are always generally, is environments. characteristic of a governed. group or people.
  7. 7. Sustaining development Natural resources Balancing Globalization 8
  8. 8. What is globalisation?
  9. 9. Visible globalization? 10
  10. 10. Defining Globalization Three Phenomena ◦ An economic ◦ A social ◦ A cultural The movement towards the expansion of economic and social ties between countries through the spread of corporate institutions and the capitalist philosophy that leads to the shrinking of the world in economic terms (Beck, 1999) . 11
  11. 11. Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, driven by international trade, investment aided by information technology. effects on the environment, culture, political systems, economic development and on human physical wellbeing in societies around the world (Giddens, 2002). 12
  12. 12. Globalization is a result of evolution Globalization is not new, for thousands of years, people— and, later, corporations—have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, (Silk Road across Central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages). For centuries, people and corporations have invested in enterprises in other countries. Many features of the current globalization are similar to those prevailing before the First World War. Modern form of globalization started after 1960s. Facilitated more after the establishment of World Bank, IMF, WTO, GATT, EU and even SAARC and BRICS 13 (Delors, J. et al. 1996)
  13. 13. Globalization is a cross border integration of 14 (Biz/ad, 2007)
  14. 14. Brighter and darker side of the globalization Brighter side Industrial: worldwide access to products, low marketing cost Financial: external financing Economic: market interconnect, easy transport, travel, free trade Political: regulation of relationships among government (World Bank Research, 2002) (World Bank, 1999) Informational: information flows 15 Ecological: cooperation against environmental challenges (Kyoto) Social : cultural diffusion minimizing differences, peaceful relations, international justice, media coverage draws the attention of the world Darker side Exploitation of labor Decision making power go away Changed education system caused brain drain Health risks – rise on epidemics Environment degradation Conflicts /Monopoly Disparity - major share of the profits goes to foreign company Cut-throat competition - local suffer huge losses as they lack potential to advertise /export on large scale Sophisticated weapons/terrorism Loss of culture
  15. 15. Globalization and Nepal Before 1955 Trade and cultural exchange was limited to India and Tibet From 1955 to 1990 Become UN member Development assistances were limited to trade and development works Few students used to go abroad Few people used go abroad for employment (mainly professionals and educated one After 1985 - active support from World Bank & IMF Gained momentum since 1991. Government introduced policy for liberalization, privatization and globalization. Open for privatization, private educational institutions flourished, many youths going abroad as labors, privately funded students started going abroad 16 Global trade and transit was facilitated after Nepal became member of WTO in 2005
  16. 16. Effects of Globalization in Nepal Threats to manufacturing industries/risk in employment New middle class - rich-poor divide widened - inequality Environment threat - change in weather & temperature Inflationary risks - takeover of businesses from overseas A new consumer base has developed Hard to survive local business, industry and agriculture 17
  17. 17. Conclusion Globalization has been quite a debatable subject. Some opine it has a lot of ill-effects, others feel exactly the opposite. Benefits of globalization would be achieved, only if the negative impacts are neutralized, looking at the positive effects. If do so, Nepal can march strongly on its path of development 18
  18. 18. Reflection Globalization is inevitable, we can not stop or oppose. We should take it as a tool that should benefit all sections of humankind, but one cannot ignore its negative effects. Country like Nepal, may have adverse effect, if it is not discussed and taken appropriate measures for maximization of benefit created by globalization. 19
  19. 19. Reflection cont. Finally, to address the effects of globalization on our lives - local initiatives with global cooperation is must, - because every single local actions have some global effects and every global decision and action also have some effects on the other part of the world. Saying all this, I conclude with an unanswered question Whether it is important to us to humanization of globe or globalization of human activities? Let’s think over it ..... ..... ! 20
  20. 20. References Beck, U. (1999). What is globalization? Cambridge: Polity Press. Biz/ad, (2007). Presentation on globalization. Retrieved on 20 March 2013 from www.bized.co.uk Giddens A. (2002). Runaway world. How globalization is reshaping our lives. London, UK: Profile Books Delors, J. et al. (1996). Learning: the treasure within. Paris, UNESCO. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm#II Masand, D. (n.d). Impact of globalization in India. Presentation . Date and place NA. Smith, M. K. and Doyle M. (2002). Globalization the encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved from www.infed.org/biblio/globalization.htm World Bank Research (2002). Globalization, growth and poverty: Building an inclusive world economy. The World Bank Group. Retrieved from http://econ.worldbank.org/prr/subpage.php?sp=2477 21 World Bank. (1999) World Development Report 1998/99: Knowledge for development. Washington: World Bank. [1999, 9 August]. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/wdr/wdr98/contents.htm
  21. 21. Thank you so much Now, please contribute through Questions and Comments how we can best fit globalization into our ground reality 22

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