Nfc power point

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NFC modes and security

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Nfc power point

  1. 1. NFC Operating Modes and Security By Rajeev Verma and Alessandro Sarra
  2. 2. Overview ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Brief Introduction Induction coupling Modes Essentials of each mode Security Future Development Conclusions References
  3. 3. Introduction to NFC ● Communication technology which works on physical touch (4-10cm) of the devices. ● Benefits: Intuitive Versatile Open and standard based Inherently secure Interoperable Security-ready
  4. 4. Induction Coupling Induction coupling is the technology behind the data transfer in NFC communication. Power received by receiver: C is coupling coefficient which decides the effectiveness in communication.
  5. 5. NFC Operating Modes
  6. 6. NFC Modes : Card Emulation Mode ● ● ● ● Emulate contact-less smart card Communicate with RFID readers Mobile payment and ticketing Compatible to existing infrastructure
  7. 7. Card Emulation Mode Communication Architecture
  8. 8. NFC Operating Modes
  9. 9. NFC Modes :Reader/Writer Mode ● Communicate with: ○ Smart Cards ○ NFC tags ● Embedded in readable object ● Sends Information Passively
  10. 10. Communication Architecture of Reader/Writer Mode
  11. 11. NDEF: NFC Data Exchange Format ● Standardized format ○ Store data on tags ○ Transport data ● Lightweight Binary ○ Encapsulation ■ Single message construct ■ One or more payload
  12. 12. NDEF Message
  13. 13. NDEF : Record ● ● ● ● ● ● ● MB - msg begin ME - msg end CF - Chunk Flag ○ CF = 0 No chunk. SR - Short Record ○ SR=0 : Single octet msg. ○ Max 255 octets IL - Identification length ○ IL = 0 : ID Length omitted from Record. Type Length : Define length of Type field octet Payload Length
  14. 14. NDEF : TNF ● → structure of type field ● → 3 bits field ● Type field finally have the type for message.
  15. 15. NFC Operating Modes
  16. 16. NFC Modes : Peer-to-Peer ● 2 Devices ● Direct Communication ● Share Bluetooth or WiFi setup ● Send photos or small text
  17. 17. NFC Modes: Peer-to-Peer ● Communication Architecture
  18. 18. Peer-to-Peer mode essentials ● Protocol Stack ● LLCP Protocol Services ○ Connectionless transport ○ Connection oriented transport ○ Link related Services ○ Asynchronous Balanced communication ○ Protocol Multiplexing OSI vs LLCP
  19. 19. Security Aspects in NFC ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Eavesdropping Data Corruption Data Modification Relay Attack Lost Property Walk-off NDEF and Signature Recognition Weaknesses of Digital Signing
  20. 20. Eavesdropping ● Even though Range is small in NFC, still signals are retrievable from 1mt to 10mt. ● Using a secure channel can be a solution for NFC data transfer.
  21. 21. Data Corruption ● Attacker can attempt to disrupt communications by forcefully sending seemingly valid data. ● Channel can be blocked for ongoing data transmission between devices. Solution: ● Device can report the higher power used for communication which is possibly the corrupted Data.
  22. 22. Data Modification ● Data can be maliciously altered in the communication path keeping the data format same. Solution: ● 100% modulation and Miller encoding can prevent Data Modification. ● Data transfer at 106 baud rate is least susceptible for modification but eavesdropping probability can be increased.
  23. 23. Man in the middle ● Communication between two parties can is interrupted by third. ● Potentially possible when two mobile devices are actively communicating in peer-to-peer mode. ● Communication in other modes are immune to this attack.
  24. 24. Walk-off ● Attacks are possible during access to a secure NFC function or data is given prior to it timing out after a period of inactivity. Solution: ● Wireless authentication factor known as an electronic "leash" ● Devices are leashed till the device goes out of the range.
  25. 25. Relay Attack ● Similar to Man in Middle attack, adversary has to forward the request of the reader to the victim. ● Attacker potentially has access any service directly related to the data being sent.
  26. 26. Lost Property ● If the NFC device is lost, it will open access to anyone who finds it and can pass authenticity checks. ● Extended security concepts do exist at the application level that provide theft protection and tracking.
  27. 27. NDEF and Signature Recognition ● Digital Signature Records can provide encryption through use of public-key cryptography. ● Digital Signature Records, when coupled with the NFC Data Exchange Format, can serve as a feasible means of security. Benefits: Authentic → There is a unique signer. Unforgettable → Only the signature owner may create a key. Non-reusable: → The signature is bound the signed
  28. 28. Weakness ● Digital Signing is still a weakness for NFC communication. ● Digital signing can resolve the problem of device authentication and reliable event triggering.
  29. 29. Future Applications ● Interactive data ● NFC Tag Everything!!! ○ Tag doubles as bar-code ● Mobile Device Transactions ● Organization and Awareness
  30. 30. Future Development ● Wireless charging ○ reception ○ transmission ○ both ● Dock for home/office/car ● 13.56MHz ● 1 Watt Max ● Energy Saving
  31. 31. Future Development ● SD Card Integration ○ ○ ○ ○ Isolated Antenna Memory Controller Card Controller Memory ● OTA, MiFare, JCOP, Perso
  32. 32. Conclusion ● Emerging Technology ● Pros ○ Power-saving ○ Low Profile ● Cons ○ Inefficient ○ Hard to ‘Sell’
  33. 33. Questions??
  34. 34. Thank You! [1] V. Coskun, K. Ok, et al., “NFC Operating Modes,” Near Field Communication: From Theory to Practice, Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2012, ch. 4. [2] S. A. Ahson and I. Mohammad, “Security in NFC,” in Near Field Communications Handbook, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2012, ch. 2, sec. 2, pp. 26-45 [3] NFC Record Type Definition, NFC Forum Technical Specification, Rev. 1.0, Jul. 2006. [4] E. Strommer, M. Jurvansuu, T. Tuikka, A. Yisaukko-oja, H. Rapakko, and J. Vesterinen, “NFC-enabled wireless charging,” in Near Field Communication (NFC), 2012 4th International Workshop on, march 2012, pp. 36-41. [5] M. Roland and J. Langer, “Digital Signature Records for the NFC Data Exchange Format,” in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2010), Monaco, Apr. 2010, pp. 71-76. [6] G. Madlmayr, J. Langer, C. Kanter, and J. Scharinger, “NFC Devices: Security and Privacy,” in Third International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, March 2008, pp.642-647. [7] Yen-Sheng Chen, “Analysis of antenna coupling in near-field RFID systems,” in IEEE AP-S Int. Symp. Dig., Jun. 2009, pp. 1-4. [8] P. Dobrigkeit, T. Flach, P. Faymonville, J. Muller. Exchange of contact data between mobile phones using NFCIP” in Proceedings of 4th European Workshop on RFID Systems and Technologies (RFID SysTech), 2008, pp. 1-9. [9] S. Wu, “Promoting Collaborative Mobile Payment by Using NFC-Micro SD Technology,” in Tenth International Conference on Services Computing, Jun. 2013, pp. 454-461.

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