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Growth of Infrared Opto-semiconductor Components in ADAS Sensors - Rajeev Thakur

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Growth of Infrared Opto-semiconductor Components in ADAS Sensors - Rajeev Thakur

  1. 1. Rajeev Thakur, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors Inc. SAE 2015 Active Safety Systems Symposium Plymouth, MI ● November 5th , 2015 Growth of Infrared Opto Semiconductor components in ADAS sensors – Factors shaping automotive product and technology roadmap for next five years Light is OSRAM
  2. 2. SAE INTERNATIONAL Presentation Outline Page 1. OSRAM Overview 03 2 Detroit & Silicon Valley – Symbiotic growth 08 3. Automotive Safety Technology – Regulation - Business Opportunity Windows 09 4. LIDAR – Applications – Technology – Requirements - Roadmap 13 5. Infrared Camera – Applications – Technology – Requirements - Roadmap 19 6. Key Takeaways 22 2
  3. 3. SAE INTERNATIONAL OSRAM – The world’s largest, pure play lighting company 3 Number of employees 33,800 employees at the end of the fiscal year Revenues € 5,142.1 million Worldwide presence >120 countries where OSRAM had operations at the end of the fiscal year Fiscal year 2014 New OSRAM Headquarters, Munich, Germany Source: OSRAM data
  4. 4. SAE INTERNATIONAL Trendsetting and market leading products prove OSRAM’s aspiration 4 First commercial luminaire "Early Future" in 2008 LED1) Trendsetter #1 in Automotive R&D record for red and warm- white LED efficiency First company to fully switch to 6-inch wafer technology First direct emitting green laser diode OLED3) Trendsetter Record: 20 lm/W4) at 57% transmission for transparent large area OLEDs in Dec 2012 2016: OLEDs expected in series production vehicles #1 in Projection/Cinema #2 in General Illumination Innovator Market leader #2 in Opto Semiconductor Comp. #2 in Control Gears 1) Light emitting diode, 2) OSRAM blue thin film LED chip technology based on gallium nitride, 3) Organic light emitting diode , 4) Lumen per watt Source: Frost & Sullivan – LED Revolution (July 2011), OSRAM estimates
  5. 5. SAE INTERNATIONAL Presentation Outline 5 Light is Motion 600 m Hans Joachim Schwabe, CEO Of OSRAM Specialty Lighting “We have evolved from a lamp manufacturer to a solutions provider for automobile manufacturers.“ Up to -the range of the laser high beam offered in the BMW i8.
  6. 6. SAE INTERNATIONAL Presentation Outline 6 Light is Safety 90%of all information absorbed by motorists is visual. LED-MatrixIntelligent headlights: oncoming vehicles are blinded out exactly from the light distribution thanks to sensors and special electronics.
  7. 7. SAE INTERNATIONAL OSRAM Infrared & Laser Automotive Applications 7 Existing Applications Future Applications Rain sensor Tunnel sensor Optical switches Ambient light sensors • Dashboard • Car radio • Displays Immobilizer IR key Pre-crash system / Autonomous Driving Steering wheel angle sensor Camera based pedestrian protection Laser head-up display HUD Driver monitoring Seat occupancy detection IR based night vision Trunk opener / Rear Safety Blue Lasers for headlamps Gesture Recognition
  8. 8. SAE INTERNATIONAL Merging Lanes : Silicon Valley Car Detroit 8 Silicon Valley  Numerous mature & startup companies  New innovative products - life cycle < 2 years  Short development cycles (< 1 year)  Malfunction / reboot OK  Fast to adapt to new technology  Less exposure to regulations & legal  4G & Gigabytes .. Detroit  10 – 15 major mature companies  Safe and reliable cars - life cycle > 10 years  Long development cycles (4 – 7 years)  Malfunction / reboot Not OK  Slow to adapt to new technology  Very sensitive to regulations & legal  You can cut steel only so fast .. Why can’t we get along … We can leverage our strengths for mutual benefit with improved communication … $ $ $ $ $ $
  9. 9. SAE INTERNATIONAL Technology & ADAS Opportunity 9 • Innovations are streaming in for ADAS / Autonomous – Connected Car • Non-Safety / Convenience innovations  growth often through aftermarket pull • Safety critical  Needs to prove value (for market pull) or regulation guidance • Regulation guidelines / roadmap spur more innovations • Early and open communication of roadmaps / requirements benefits all Time Introduction Regulation Kicks in Market Entry Cost Revenue Potential Market Price Growth Maturity Decline Standards established Communicate roadmap as early as possible ADAS – Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
  10. 10. SAE INTERNATIONAL Regulation – Technology – Business Windows 10 Safety Technology have business windows – influenced by Regulation 1996 - 20061951 - 1991 Airbags – Invention to Regulation Airbags  OCS Airbags • 1951: Patent – Hetrick • 1967: 1st airbag to inflate < 30ms - Breed • 1984: NHTSA Regulation for automatic restraints (Airbags or Automatic Seatbelts) • 1991: End of Automatic seatbelts (Airbags win) Occupant Classification Systems • 1996: NPRM for manual switch to turn off Pass. AB • 2003: NHTSA Reg. for OCS (Advanced AB or OCS) • 2006: OCS for suppression • 2011: Advanced AB enable Low risk deployment (lower cost OCS) Automatic Seatbelts Business Window Suppression OCS business window Takeaways : • Automotive safety technology & regulations take time to develop & mature (4 to 10 years) • Sensing / Safety technology also have business windows (~ 6 years) • NHTSA & Industry work together (Silicon Valley  Comparatively new to this process) OCS – Occupant Classification System NHTSA – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
  11. 11. SAE INTERNATIONAL ADAS & Regulation 11 NHTSA Time (Years) SAE/Industry Testing Protocols Industry Testing Equipment OEM System Requirements / Roadmap Tier1 Sensing Technology & Roadmap Tier2 Basic Technology / Key Components Roadmap Comments NPRM Final Rule Phase-inNeed Identified • 4 to 6 years needed to introduce a standard • Improve and open communication of roadmap and requirements • Autonomous car regulation could take over 10 years – entering AI (Define how a human will react – or 10 humans..) • What defines a mature technology and its value proposition ? NCAP Upgrade AI – Artificial Intelligence
  12. 12. SAE INTERNATIONAL Market Forces – ADAS 12 • Euro NCAP • Tests new cars and rates them with 1 – 5 stars to promote safety for consumers • Represents Germany,UK,France,Italy,Netherlands,Sweden,Spain • Made of government and consumer agencies (Not OEM) • 2018: AEB for pedestrians and cyclists in daylight / darkness / poor lighting conditions 1 • 2015 – 2017 : Advanced rewards for driver state monitoring and other ADAS features • OEMs who fit safety technology as standard are given more credit • US NCAP • Tests and rates new cars for safety. Run by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration • Planning to upgrade NCAP with crash avoidance technologies (CIB, DBS) 2 • OEMs ,suppliers and IIHS have indicated their support to this upgrade • IIHS • Rates vehicles crash worthiness & crash avoidance • From 2014 top safety pick vehicles must have crash avoidance technology (Forward) • Autonomous Car • Google has ignited the industry with its self driving car demonstration and evolution • Robust & cost effective technologies are needed enter mass market • NHTSA plans to release roadmap for autonomous driving in 2016 3 1 – 2020 Roadmap European New Car Assessment Programme – June 2014 2 – Docket No. NHTSA -2015-0006 3 – NHTSA priority plan for vehicle safety and fuel economy 2015 - 2017 NCAP – New Car Assessment Programme IIHS – Insurance Institute of Highway Safety
  13. 13. SAE INTERNATIONAL What is the Specification ? (LIDAR Example) 13 • System requirements drive component requirements • System requirements not well defined in initial stage • Application : Map environment / avoid collision • Range : 100 – 400 m • Range Accuracy : 2 – 10 cm • FOV Horizontal : 24 to 360 degrees • FOV Vertical : 6 to 20 degrees • Angular Resolution : 0.3 – 30 degrees • Operating conditions : -40 to 125 C • Packaging / Mounting : Small / should not be noticeable/should be robust for usage and service ! • SOP : 1 – 5 years • Test Specifications/Regulation : Not available yet • Price : $ • Takeaways.. • Manufacturers developing modular designs – meet high / low end of spec • Roadmap from NHTSA/OEM/Tier1’s can speed up innovation efforts FOV – Field of View SOP – Start of Production OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer
  14. 14. SAE INTERNATIONAL RADAR / Camera / LIDAR Comparison 14 Sensor Typical Range Azimuth FOV 2015 Price Range Typical Applications Comments 24 GHz RADAR 60 m 1 56° 1 $80 - $100 Blind Spot Detection Forward Collision Warning USA Bandwidth 100 -250 MHz 2 Robust for Rain/snow Concerns for People Detection / Angular Resolution 77 GHz RADAR 200 m 1 18° 1 $150 - $175 Adaptive Cruise Control Forward Collision Warning USA Bandwidth 600 MHz 2 Robust for Rain/snow Concerns for People Detection / Angular Resolution Front Mono Camera 50 m 1 36° 1 $80 - $100 Lane Departure Warning Forward Collision Warning Traffic Sign Recognition Versatile Sensor (Applications) Limited depth perception ; affected by rain / fog Needs illumination (Visible/IR) LIDAR (Flash) 50 m 56° $60 - $100 Blind Spot Detection Forward Collision Warning Concerns for Rain/Snow Good reflection off people w/ angular resolution Range & S/N limited by eye safety LIDAR (Scanning) 120 m 360° $250 - $8000 Mapping Environment BSD/FCW/LDW/ACC Concerns for Rain/Snow Typically higher price for angular resolution Range & S/N limited by eye safety 1 : Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications: readiness of V2V technology for application – DOT HS 812014 ; Table V-7 2 : Millimeter Wave Receiver concepts for 77 GHz automotive radar in silicon Germanium Technology – D.Kissenger (SpringerBrief’s 2012) All 3 have limitations – optimum fusion determined by regulation / consumer expectations .. • False positives  Nuisance to consumer  Turns feature off (if possible) • False negatives  did not meet spec / expectations => Optimum combination of sensors will be a learning process
  15. 15. SAE INTERNATIONAL LIDAR – Technology Landscape 15 Sources for LIDAR images : Velodyne : http://velodynelidar.com Quanergy: http://www.lidarusa.com Ibeo: http://www.bayern-innovativ.de Leddartech: http://www.Leddartech.com Phantomintelligence.com The market is struggling to find the right solution for automotive LIDAR
  16. 16. SAE INTERNATIONAL Flash LIDAR Concept – OSRAM & Partner (Ref. Design) 16 30m range ~1cm accuracy 16 pixel array 24°H x 6°V FOV in a 2 x 8 array (3° x 3°per pixel) Arrangement of pixels and field of view can be customized in future products. Multiple targets in each pixel can be resolved Targets can be as close as ~1m apart (range) and still be separated Differentiating through performance, small size, scalability, and low power consumption No moving (scanning) parts Practically scalable from 8 to 128 pixels Sun blinding can affect no more than a single pixel Key Points • Est. BOM < $50 • Functional sample 01/2016 • Target SOP 2018 One ChannelADC shared among many channels Osram and partner providing a LIDAR reference design for collision avoidance (OSRAM Components – Laser & Photodiode Array) MUX – Multiplexer ADC – Analog to Digital Convertor MSPS – Mega Sample per Sec
  17. 17. SAE INTERNATIONAL Laser – Requirements and Roadmap 17 • Range : Maximum distance for target of defined size and reflectivity (Typ. 30 – 300m) • Wavelength : 905 / 1550 nm • Peak Power & Pulse Width : High power / short PW for Eye Safety (Typ. 75W ; < 5ns) • Package : Small package w/ Integrated driver ~200µm ~1µm Efficiency: ~ 50 - 65% Rise- /Fall- Time: 2 ns (*) Spectral width: ~3 nm (*) package limited OSRAM Laser Chip Technology Near Future : 905 nm ; SMD w/ integrated driver ; > 100 W Peak Power ; < 5 ns PW SMD – Surface Mount Device
  18. 18. SAE INTERNATIONAL Photodetectors – Requirements and Roadmap 18 • Sensitivity : High (50 A/W)  APD ; Low (0.5 A/W)  PIN Photodiode • Wavelength : 905 / 1550 nm  Compatible with laser peak wavelength • Cost: APD typically 20X more than Photodiode • Package : Single / Array  depends on system design • Photodiode • Fast switching time (10 ns) ; linear response ; small temp. coefficient ; Preferred in Flash LIDAR • Phototransistor • High photocurrent ; small package ; cheaper ; higher temp. coefficient • Avalanche Photodiode • High SNR / voltage supply / temperature sensitivity / Price ; Preferred in Scanning LIDAR • Single Photon Multiplier • Higher gain than APD at lower operating voltage; Dynamic range / recovery time poor - improving Near Future : Considering Photodiode Arrays NxM for collision avoidance LIDAR A/W – Amperes / Watt ; APD – Avalanche Photodiode ; SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio ; LIDAR – Light Detection And Ranging
  19. 19. SAE INTERNATIONAL Infrared Camera – Exterior Automotive applications 19 Forward Camera Surround View Camera Rearview Camera Most of current automotive cameras used in exterior applications do not have infrared illumination … • At night time – cameras depend on headlamp / tail lamp for illumination • Headlamp / tail lamps have limited range / FOV (Not typically designed for Camera) • Adding Infrared illumination is a matter of time ..cannot be autonomous only in daytime • Requires safety and lighting to work closer (Even more w/ Matrix lighting / Laser HL ..) • Also needs more collaboration between image sensor / camera / lighting .. • Expect ToF cameras to penetrate short range (Side / Rear) applications IR emitters in headlamp FOV – Field of View ; HL – Headlamp ; ToF – Time of Flight
  20. 20. SAE INTERNATIONAL Infrared Camera – Interior Automotive applications 20 Driver Monitoring Camera Infrared camera’s are already being used for driver monitoring applications .. • Interior applications prefer 950nm to avoid red glow at 850nm • Image sensors sensitivity at 850nm ~ 35% of visible / @950 nm ~ 20% & improving • Expect technology to expand to rear seats for occupant detection / baby monitoring .. • Potential exists to add iris recognition for security & customization • TOF interior cameras in use for gesture recognition • Public acceptance of privacy loss with camera is in grey zone .. ToF – Time of Flight
  21. 21. SAE INTERNATIONAL Infrared LEDs – Considerations (Camera) 21 • Wavelength : IR/850/950 • Power : Range / FOV / Eye Safety • Efficiency : Power/heat Management / # of Devices • Automotive Qualification • 10 - 15 yr. Lifetime Supply Considerations SFH 4715AS 1.37W @ 1A , 43% efficiency (Industry leading) FOV – Field of View ; TF – Thinfilm; LPE – Liquid Phase Epitaxy
  22. 22. SAE INTERNATIONAL Key Takeaways 22 • Merging lanes : Detroit   Silicon Valley • More communication to leverage new technology / startups • Suggest OEM / Tier1’s to have single window to access roadmap / requirements • OEMs can filter Tier 1 / Tier 2 through roadmap / guide posts & reduce in-house R&D costs (Leverage Silicon Valley startups) • Impact of regulation on auto-industry • Regulation guides innovation in auto industry – NHTSA roadmap has wide impact • Innovation – Regulation (One drives the other) – creates business windows • Developing standards for regulation can take > 2 years • LIDAR • LIDAR rapidly developing for automotive applications – will add to robustness under poor lighting conditions for pedestrians & other vulnerable road users • OSRAM developing higher power (>100 W ) w/ shorter PW (<5 ns) SMT pkg • IR Camera • Most external cameras now work in visible spectrum ; adding IR extends functionality • Iris / gesture recognition / rear occupant monitoring coming up • ToF camera making an appearance in market • Semiconductor Supplier Considerations • -40°C to 125°C : Not many semiconductor suppliers can do this • Stable supply of a product for 15 years is also a factor
  23. 23. SAE INTERNATIONAL Many Thanks ! www.osram-os.com 23 Questions ? Contact: Rajeev.Thakur@osram-os.com

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