The word “tradition "derives from the Latin
tradere or traderer literary meaning to
transmit to hand over to give for safe
Tradition is a belief or behavior passed
down within a group or society with
Beliefs or customs instituted and maintained
by societies and governments, such as
national anthems and national holidays,
such as Federal holidays in the United States.
Beliefs or customs maintained by religious
denominations and church bodies that share
history, customs, culture, and, to some
extent, body of teachings.
Tradition can also refer to larger concepts
practiced by groups, organisations or
societies such as practice of national and
Tradition often used as traditional music,
medicine, traditional values and others.
Australia is a product of a unique blend of
established traditions and new influences.
They have been living in Australia for at
least 40,000 years and possibly up to 60,000
The rest of Australia’s people are migrants
or descendants of migrants who have
arrived in Australia from about 200 countries
since Great Britain established the first
European settlement at Sydney Cove in
Everyone is expected to uphold the
principles and shared values that support
Australia’s way of life. These include:
Respect for equal worth, dignity and
freedom of the individual
Freedom of speech and association
Freedom of religion
Equality under the law
Australian are irrelevant people, law and
Australians live a cosmopolitan lifestyle in
Australians are hardworking people in the
world with longest working hours in the
They are informal, open and direct and say
what they mean.
All people in Australia are encouraged to
learn English, which is the national
language and an important element of
The most commonly spoken languages
after English are Italian, Greek, Cantonese,
Arabic, Vietnamese and Mandarin.
Australians speak more than 200
Australia is a predominantly Christian
country, with around 64 per cent of all
Australians identifying as Christians.
Australia has no official state religion and
people are free to practise any religion they
choose, as long as they obey the law.
Australians are also free not to have a
Australians have their own unique religious
traditions and spiritual values.
Australia has often achieved impressive
results at the elite level. In 2004 Athens
Olympic Games, Australia ranked fourth
overall in the medal tally behind the United
States, China and Russia.
In 2006 Football World Cup, Australia
reached the final 16. Australia is also
ranked the top cricketing nation in the
Australians has one of the diverse
cuisines in the world.
Australia, one of the world’s most efficient
agricultural nations, produces high–
quality vegetables, fruit and grains, meat,
poultry, seafood, and cheeses and other
Australians enjoy a huge range of food in
restaurants and homes, reflecting the
country’s cultural diversity.
All people in Australia must obey the
nation’s laws or face the possibility of
criminal or civil action.
Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol are
not illegal, but there are many restrictions
on their public use.
There are also laws against mistreating or
neglecting animals, carrying weapons.
There is also death penalty in Australia.
The types of clothing that people wear
reflect the diversity in Australian society and
the variations in climate.
Outside the work situation, clothing is a
personal choice—people dress for comfort,
the social situation or the weather.
Clubs, movie theatres and other places
require people to dress in neat, clean
clothes and wear appropriate footwear.
Australia does not have an official national
The culture of England is defined by the
idiosyncratic cultural norms of England and the
Owing to England's influential position within the
United Kingdom it can sometimes be difficult to
differentiate English culture from the culture of
the United Kingdom as a whole.
This has resulted in a traditional cuisine
which tended to veer from strong flavors,
such as garlic, and an avoidance of
complex sauces which were commonly
associated with Catholic Continental
Traditional meals have ancient
origins, such as bread and cheese,
roasted stewed meats, freshwater
and saltwater fish.
Tea and beer are typical and rather
iconic drinks in England, particularly
the former. Traditionally, High Tea
would be had as a separate meal.
Cuisine - Contd
The Royal Courts of Justice on the Strand,
London is the seat of the High Court of
Justice and the Court of Appeal.
The most Commonwealth countries, and
English law prior to the American revolution
is still part of the law of the United States.
Provides the basis for many American legal
traditions and policies.
› In England, Christianity became the most
practiced religion centuries ago.
› Christianity was first introduced through
English people traditionally speak the
English language, a member of the West
Germanic language family.
The modern English language evolved from
Old English, which influence from Norman-
French, Latin, and Old Norse.
India constitutes the largest part of the
sub continental land mass of South Asia,
an area it shares with six other countries,
including Nepal, Pakistan, and
It has highly variable landforms, that
range from tropical islands, and a
parched desert to the highest mountain
range in the world.
The culture name is Indian, Hindu,
There are major geographic differences in
food. Just as fundamental is the division
between those who eat meat and those
who are vegetarian.
Muslims, Jews, Sikhs, and Christians all eat
meat, with the important provision that the
first three groups do not consume pork.
Lower-caste Hindus eat any meat except
beef, whereas members of the higher
castes and all Jains are normally
vegetarian, with most even avoiding eggs.
In most parts of the country, farming is
the largest source of employment.
Some farmers produce cash crops for
sale in urban markets.
In some areas, plantation crops such
as tea, coffee, cardamom, and rubber
are of great economic importance
because they bring in foreign money.
Over the past half century the
economy has been expanding slowly
but at a steady rate on the basis of a
wide range of industries, including
Society is fragmented into castes there are
twenty or thirty distinct castes within a
Each caste is developed a distinctive
subculture that is handed down from
generation to generation.
Although the different regions and religions
have considerable variety in marital
arrangements, the arranged marriage is a
traditional feature of virtually every
community; today, except among the urban
middle classes, it still is widely practiced.
Marriages that are not arranged by the
couple's parents, often termed "love
marriages," are looked down on as impulsive
The country has two main types of
1. A north Indian one in which the must
not marry a closely related cousin
2. A south Indian in which a cross
cousin, whether the mother’s brother’s
daughter or the father’s sister’s
In the 1991 census, 82 percent of the
population was enumerated as Hindu.
However, 12 percent of Indians are Muslim,
a fact that makes this one of the largest
Islamic nations in the world.
The next largest religious category is
Christians, who make up only over 2
percent of the population and are closely
followed in number by Sikhs.
While Muslims, Jews, and Christians pray that
their individual souls will go to a paradise
after death, Hindu ideas about the after life
are very different.
Muslims, Jews, and Christians bury their dead
in cemeteries, as do most Zoroastrians today.
Extremely saintly figures may be buried in a
India has a tradition of medical healing,
teaching, and research that goes back more
than two thousand years to the two basic
medical treatises written by Charaka and
Today the country has four major medical
systems as well as dozens of localized and
tribal ones that depend on herbal
The oldest of the four systems is still widely
followed under the name of Ayurveda ,
meaning "science of long life".
Hence, there are different beliefs and
customs for different countries.
These beliefs and customs are followed
in their countries.