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Routes of Drug
Administration
Deepak Kumar Gupta, B.D.S.
Dentaltutor.in
CHANNELS OF
DRUG
ADMINISTRATION
ENTERAL PARENTERAL TOPICAL
Dentaltutor.in
Dentaltutor.in
ENTERAL
ORAL
RECTAL
BUCCAL
SUBLINGUAL
Dentaltutor.in
ORAL ROUTE
 Oral refers to
two methods of administration:
 applying topically to the mouth
 swallowing for absorption along the gastrointestinal
(GI) tract into systemic circulation
 po (from the Latin per os) is the abbreviation used
to indicate oral route of medication administration
Dentaltutor.in
ORAL
 Advantages
 Convenient - can be self- administered, pain free,
easy to take
 Absorption - takes place along the whole length of
the GI tract
 Cheap - compared to most other parenteral routes
Dentaltutor.in
ORAL
 Disadvantages
 Sometimes inefficient - only part of the drug may
be absorbed
 First-pass effect - drugs absorbed orally are
initially transported to the liver via the portal
vein
 irritation to gastric mucosa - nausea and vomiting
Dentaltutor.in
ORAL
 Disadvantages cont.
 destruction of drugs by gastric acid and
digestive juices
 effect too slow for emergencies
 unpleasant taste of some drugs
 unable to use in unconscious patient
Dentaltutor.in
First-pass Effect
The first-pass effect is the term used for the
hepatic metabolism of a pharmacological
agent when it is absorbed from the gut and
delivered to the liver via the portal
circulation. The greater the first-pass effect,
the less the agent will reach the systemic
circulation when the agent is administered
orally
Dentaltutor.in
First-pass Effect
Dentaltutor.in
Oral Dosage Forms
 Common dose forms for oral administration
 Solid form
 Tablets : normal or enteric coated
 Capsules : coated drug or liquid containing (gelatin)
 Liquid form
 Solutions : completely soluble either aqueous or alcholic
 Suspensions : small water-insoluble solid drug particles
dispersed in water
 Syrups : aqueous sugar solution
 elixirs : alcohlic sugar solution
Dentaltutor.in
Different form of oral method
Dentaltutor.in
SUBLINGUAL ROUTE
 Sublingual administration is
where the dosage form is
placed under the tongue
rapidly absorbed by
sublingual mucosa
Ex: GTN, Buprenorphine,
desaminooxytocin
Dentaltutor.in
SUBLINGUAL ROUTE
ADVANTAGES
 ECONOMICAL
 QUICK TERMINATION
 FIRST-PASS AVOIDED
 DRUG ABSORPTION IS QUICK
DISADVANTAGES
 UNPALATABLE & BITTER DRUGS
 IRRITATION OF ORAL MUCOSA
 LARGE QUANTITIES NOT GIVEN
 FEW DRUGS ARE ABSORBED
Dentaltutor.in
BUCCAL ROUTE
 Buccal
administration is
where the dosage
form is placed
between gums and
inner lining of the
cheek (buccal
pouch)
absorbed by
buccal mucosa Dentaltutor.in
BUCCAL ROUTE
ADVANTAGES
– Avoid first pass effect
– Rapid absorption
– Drug stability
DISADVANTAGES
– Inconvenience
– advantages lost if
swallowed
– Small dose limit
Dentaltutor.in
Rectal route
 Suppositories or
retention enema
 Haemorrhoidal veins
– 50 %
 Ex: Diazepam,
Indomethacin,aspiri
n,theophylline,
chlorpromazine
Dentaltutor.in
RECTAL ROUTE
ADVANTAGES
 USED IN CHILDREN
 LITTLE OR NO FIRST PASS EFFECT
 USED IN
VOMITING/UNCONSCIOUS
 HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS RAPIDLY ACHIEVED
DISADVANTAGES
 INCONVENIENT
 ABSORPTION IS SLOW AND ERRATIC
 IRRITATION OR INFLAMMATION OF RECTAL
MUCOSA CAN OCCUR Dentaltutor.in
SYSTEMIC-PARENTERAL
 Parenteral administration is
injection or infusion by means of
a needle or catheter inserted into
the body
 The term parenteral comes from
Greek words
 para, meaning outside
 enteron, meaning the intestine
 This route of administration
bypasses the alimentary canal
Dentaltutor.in
SYSTEMIC-PARENTERAL
 INJECTABLES
I. INTRAVENOUS
II. INTRAMUSCULAR
III. SUBCUTANEOUS
IV. INTRA-ARTERIAL
V. INTRA-ARTICULAR
VI. INTRATHECAL
VII. INTRADERMAL
 INHALATION - Absorption through the lungsDentaltutor.in
INTRAVENOUS
ADVANTAGES
 BIOAVAILABILITY 100%
 DESIRED BLOOD
CONCENTRATIONS ACHIEVED
 LARGE QUANTITIES
 VOMITING & DIARRHEA
 EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
 FIRST PASS AVOIDED
 GASTRIC MANUPALATION
AVOIDED
DISADVANTAGES
 IRRITATION & CELLULITIS
 THROMBOPHELEBITIS
 REPEATED INJECTIONS NOT
ALWAYS FEASIBLE
 LESS SAFE
 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
REQUIRED
 DANGER OF INFECTION
 EXPENSIVE
 LESS CONVENIENT AND
PAINFULDentaltutor.in
INTRAMUSULAR ROUTE
ADVANTAGES
 ABSORPTION
REASONABLY UNIFORM
 RAPID ONSET OF
ACTION
 MILD IRRITANTS CAN BE
GIVEN
 FIRST PASS AVOIDED
 GASTRIC FACTORS CAN
BE AVOIDED
DISADVANTAGES
 ONLY UPTO 10ML DRUG
GIVEN
 LOCAL PAIN AND ABCESS
 EXPENSIVE
 INFECTION
 NERVE DAMAGE
Dentaltutor.in
SUBCUTANEOUS
 Injected under the skin.
 Absorption is slow, so action is prolonged.
1. Dermojet: high velocity jet of drugs – microfine
orifice
2. Pellet Implantation: solid pellet – trochar or cannula.
Sustained release over year or month Ex: DOCA or
testosterone
3. Silaistic and biodegradable IMPLANT: a tablet or
porous capsule is inserted into the loose tissues by
incision of the skin, which is then stiched up. example
: certain hormonal drugs NORPLANTDentaltutor.in
INTRA-ARTERIAL
 Rarely used
 Anticancer drugs are given for localized effects
 Drugs used for diagnosis of peripheral vascular
diseases
Dentaltutor.in
INTRA-ARTICULAR
 injections of antibiotics
and corticosteroids are
administered in
inflammed joined
cavities by experts.
example: hydrocortisone
in rheumatoid arthritis
Dentaltutor.in
INTRADERMAL
 drug is given within skin layers
(dermis)
 Painful
 Mainly used for testing sensitivity
to drugs.
e.g. penicillin, ATS (anti tetanus
serum)
INOCULATION :administration of
vaccine (like small pox vaccine )
Dentaltutor.in
Topical Routes of Administration
 Topical administration is the application of a drug
directly to the surface of the skin
 Includes administration of drugs to any mucous
membrane
 eye – vagina
 nose – urethra
 ears – colon
 lungs
Dentaltutor.in
Topical Dosage Forms
Dose forms for topical administration include:
 Skin:
 creams
 ointments
 lotions
 gels
 transdermal patches
 disks
Dentaltutor.in
Dentaltutor.in
Topical Dosage Forms
• Eye or ear:
– solutions
– suspensions
– ointments
• Nose and lungs:
– sprays and powders
Dentaltutor.in
Dentaltutor.in
Advantages and Disadvantages of the
Topical Route
Advantage
 Local therapeutic effects
 lower risk of side effects
 Transdermal route offers steady level of
drug in the system
Disadvantage
 Not well absorbed into the deeper layers of the
skin or mucous membrane
Dentaltutor.in
Transdermal
absorption of drug through skin (systemic action)
i. stable blood levels
ii. no first pass metabolism
iii. drug must be potent or patch
becomes too large
Dentaltutor.in
 intravenous 30-60 seconds
 intraosseous 30-60 seconds
 endotracheal 2-3 minutes
 inhalation 2-3 minutes
 sublingual 3-5 minutes
 intramuscular 10-20 minutes
 subcutaneous 15-30 minutes
 rectal 5-30 minutes
 ingestion 30-90 minutes
 transdermal (topical) variable (minutes to hours)
Route for administration
-Time until effect-
Dentaltutor.in
SELECTION OF ROUTE
The ROA is determined by :
 the physical characteristics of the drug
 the speed which the drug is absorbed and/
or released
 the need to bypass hepatic metabolism
 to achieve high conc. at particular sites
 Accuracy of dosage
 Condition of the patientDentaltutor.in
Dentaltutor.in
Dentaltutor.in

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Routes of drug administration

  • 1. Routes of Drug Administration Deepak Kumar Gupta, B.D.S. Dentaltutor.in
  • 5. ORAL ROUTE  Oral refers to two methods of administration:  applying topically to the mouth  swallowing for absorption along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract into systemic circulation  po (from the Latin per os) is the abbreviation used to indicate oral route of medication administration Dentaltutor.in
  • 6. ORAL  Advantages  Convenient - can be self- administered, pain free, easy to take  Absorption - takes place along the whole length of the GI tract  Cheap - compared to most other parenteral routes Dentaltutor.in
  • 7. ORAL  Disadvantages  Sometimes inefficient - only part of the drug may be absorbed  First-pass effect - drugs absorbed orally are initially transported to the liver via the portal vein  irritation to gastric mucosa - nausea and vomiting Dentaltutor.in
  • 8. ORAL  Disadvantages cont.  destruction of drugs by gastric acid and digestive juices  effect too slow for emergencies  unpleasant taste of some drugs  unable to use in unconscious patient Dentaltutor.in
  • 9. First-pass Effect The first-pass effect is the term used for the hepatic metabolism of a pharmacological agent when it is absorbed from the gut and delivered to the liver via the portal circulation. The greater the first-pass effect, the less the agent will reach the systemic circulation when the agent is administered orally Dentaltutor.in
  • 11. Oral Dosage Forms  Common dose forms for oral administration  Solid form  Tablets : normal or enteric coated  Capsules : coated drug or liquid containing (gelatin)  Liquid form  Solutions : completely soluble either aqueous or alcholic  Suspensions : small water-insoluble solid drug particles dispersed in water  Syrups : aqueous sugar solution  elixirs : alcohlic sugar solution Dentaltutor.in
  • 12. Different form of oral method Dentaltutor.in
  • 13. SUBLINGUAL ROUTE  Sublingual administration is where the dosage form is placed under the tongue rapidly absorbed by sublingual mucosa Ex: GTN, Buprenorphine, desaminooxytocin Dentaltutor.in
  • 14. SUBLINGUAL ROUTE ADVANTAGES  ECONOMICAL  QUICK TERMINATION  FIRST-PASS AVOIDED  DRUG ABSORPTION IS QUICK DISADVANTAGES  UNPALATABLE & BITTER DRUGS  IRRITATION OF ORAL MUCOSA  LARGE QUANTITIES NOT GIVEN  FEW DRUGS ARE ABSORBED Dentaltutor.in
  • 15. BUCCAL ROUTE  Buccal administration is where the dosage form is placed between gums and inner lining of the cheek (buccal pouch) absorbed by buccal mucosa Dentaltutor.in
  • 16. BUCCAL ROUTE ADVANTAGES – Avoid first pass effect – Rapid absorption – Drug stability DISADVANTAGES – Inconvenience – advantages lost if swallowed – Small dose limit Dentaltutor.in
  • 17. Rectal route  Suppositories or retention enema  Haemorrhoidal veins – 50 %  Ex: Diazepam, Indomethacin,aspiri n,theophylline, chlorpromazine Dentaltutor.in
  • 18. RECTAL ROUTE ADVANTAGES  USED IN CHILDREN  LITTLE OR NO FIRST PASS EFFECT  USED IN VOMITING/UNCONSCIOUS  HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS RAPIDLY ACHIEVED DISADVANTAGES  INCONVENIENT  ABSORPTION IS SLOW AND ERRATIC  IRRITATION OR INFLAMMATION OF RECTAL MUCOSA CAN OCCUR Dentaltutor.in
  • 19. SYSTEMIC-PARENTERAL  Parenteral administration is injection or infusion by means of a needle or catheter inserted into the body  The term parenteral comes from Greek words  para, meaning outside  enteron, meaning the intestine  This route of administration bypasses the alimentary canal Dentaltutor.in
  • 20. SYSTEMIC-PARENTERAL  INJECTABLES I. INTRAVENOUS II. INTRAMUSCULAR III. SUBCUTANEOUS IV. INTRA-ARTERIAL V. INTRA-ARTICULAR VI. INTRATHECAL VII. INTRADERMAL  INHALATION - Absorption through the lungsDentaltutor.in
  • 21. INTRAVENOUS ADVANTAGES  BIOAVAILABILITY 100%  DESIRED BLOOD CONCENTRATIONS ACHIEVED  LARGE QUANTITIES  VOMITING & DIARRHEA  EMERGENCY SITUATIONS  FIRST PASS AVOIDED  GASTRIC MANUPALATION AVOIDED DISADVANTAGES  IRRITATION & CELLULITIS  THROMBOPHELEBITIS  REPEATED INJECTIONS NOT ALWAYS FEASIBLE  LESS SAFE  TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIRED  DANGER OF INFECTION  EXPENSIVE  LESS CONVENIENT AND PAINFULDentaltutor.in
  • 22. INTRAMUSULAR ROUTE ADVANTAGES  ABSORPTION REASONABLY UNIFORM  RAPID ONSET OF ACTION  MILD IRRITANTS CAN BE GIVEN  FIRST PASS AVOIDED  GASTRIC FACTORS CAN BE AVOIDED DISADVANTAGES  ONLY UPTO 10ML DRUG GIVEN  LOCAL PAIN AND ABCESS  EXPENSIVE  INFECTION  NERVE DAMAGE Dentaltutor.in
  • 23. SUBCUTANEOUS  Injected under the skin.  Absorption is slow, so action is prolonged. 1. Dermojet: high velocity jet of drugs – microfine orifice 2. Pellet Implantation: solid pellet – trochar or cannula. Sustained release over year or month Ex: DOCA or testosterone 3. Silaistic and biodegradable IMPLANT: a tablet or porous capsule is inserted into the loose tissues by incision of the skin, which is then stiched up. example : certain hormonal drugs NORPLANTDentaltutor.in
  • 24. INTRA-ARTERIAL  Rarely used  Anticancer drugs are given for localized effects  Drugs used for diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases Dentaltutor.in
  • 25. INTRA-ARTICULAR  injections of antibiotics and corticosteroids are administered in inflammed joined cavities by experts. example: hydrocortisone in rheumatoid arthritis Dentaltutor.in
  • 26. INTRADERMAL  drug is given within skin layers (dermis)  Painful  Mainly used for testing sensitivity to drugs. e.g. penicillin, ATS (anti tetanus serum) INOCULATION :administration of vaccine (like small pox vaccine ) Dentaltutor.in
  • 27. Topical Routes of Administration  Topical administration is the application of a drug directly to the surface of the skin  Includes administration of drugs to any mucous membrane  eye – vagina  nose – urethra  ears – colon  lungs Dentaltutor.in
  • 28. Topical Dosage Forms Dose forms for topical administration include:  Skin:  creams  ointments  lotions  gels  transdermal patches  disks Dentaltutor.in
  • 30. Topical Dosage Forms • Eye or ear: – solutions – suspensions – ointments • Nose and lungs: – sprays and powders Dentaltutor.in
  • 32. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Topical Route Advantage  Local therapeutic effects  lower risk of side effects  Transdermal route offers steady level of drug in the system Disadvantage  Not well absorbed into the deeper layers of the skin or mucous membrane Dentaltutor.in
  • 33. Transdermal absorption of drug through skin (systemic action) i. stable blood levels ii. no first pass metabolism iii. drug must be potent or patch becomes too large Dentaltutor.in
  • 34.  intravenous 30-60 seconds  intraosseous 30-60 seconds  endotracheal 2-3 minutes  inhalation 2-3 minutes  sublingual 3-5 minutes  intramuscular 10-20 minutes  subcutaneous 15-30 minutes  rectal 5-30 minutes  ingestion 30-90 minutes  transdermal (topical) variable (minutes to hours) Route for administration -Time until effect- Dentaltutor.in
  • 35. SELECTION OF ROUTE The ROA is determined by :  the physical characteristics of the drug  the speed which the drug is absorbed and/ or released  the need to bypass hepatic metabolism  to achieve high conc. at particular sites  Accuracy of dosage  Condition of the patientDentaltutor.in