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Conducting research


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How to conduct proper research; various types of research; writing a research proposal...

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Conducting research

  1. 1. Research by Rajesh Gunesh Guidelines
  2. 2. TYPES OF RESEARCH Descriptive Explanatory 2 3 1 4Reporting Types of Predictive research © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  3. 3. REPORTING Calls for knowledge and skill with information sources and gatekeepers (for example, experts in certain fields) of information sources. It requires little inference and conclusion drawing. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  4. 4. DESCRIPTIVE It involves the collection of data and the creation of the distribution of a research variable or relating the interaction of two or more variables. A descriptive study cannot explain the occurrence of an event as well as interaction of variables. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  5. 5. DESCRIPTIVE Tries to discover answers to the questions WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE and sometimes HOW. The researcher attempts to describe or define a subject by creating a profile of a group of problems. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  6. 6. EXPLANATORY It is grounded in theory, that is, it attempts to answer the WHY and HOW questions. The researcher uses hypotheses to explain the forces which caused a certain phenomenon to occur. These hypotheses are tested by appropriate modelling. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  7. 7. PREDICTIVE It calls for a high degree of inference- making and, therefore, contributes to the development of a better theory of a phenomenon (research variable). It is used in research which are conducted to evaluate specific courses of action or to forecast current and future values. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  8. 8. PREDICTIVE Prediction will be based on explanatory hypotheses. Once we can explain and predict a phenomenon, it can be controlled - control is the logical outcome of prediction. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  9. 9. GOODRESEARCH © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  10. 10. GOOD RESEARCH PURPOSE CLEARLY DEFINED The problem should be sharply delineated in terms which are as unambiguous as possible. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  11. 11. GOOD RESEARCH RESEARCH PROCESS DETAILED The research procedures used should described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to replicate the research. Sources of data and methods of obtaining data must be revealed except when secrecy is imposed. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  12. 12. GOOD RESEARCH RESEARCH DESIGN THOROUGHLY PLANNED The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned in order to obtain accurate and unbiased data (for example, experiments should be satisfactorily controlled, minimize interviewer bias). © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  13. 13. GOOD RESEARCH HIGH ETHICAL STANDARDS • Safeguards against causing psychological or physical harm to participants • Moral concern about the practice of responsible behaviour in society • Careful consideration to the possibility of exploitation, invasion of privacy and loss of dignity © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  14. 14. GOOD RESEARCH LIMITATIONS FRANKLY REVEALED Honestly report any flaws in the procedural design and estimate their effect on findings (e.g. validity and reliability) © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  15. 15. GOOD RESEARCH ADEQUATE ANALYSIS FOR DECISION-MAKER Analysis of data should be adequate to reveal its significance and methods should be appropriate – these show the competence of the researcher! Validity and reliability of data should be carefully checked. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  16. 16. GOOD RESEARCH ADEQUATE ANALYSIS FOR DECISION-MAKER The classified data should enable the researcher to come to pertinent conclusions whilst revealing clearly the findings which lead to those conclusions. Errors should be estimated whenever using statistical methods. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  17. 17. GOOD RESEARCH FINDINGS PRESENTED UNAMBIGUOUSLY • Language used must be restrained, clear and precise • Assertions should be carefully drawn and hedged with appropriate reservations • Effort to achieve maximum objectivity • Comprehensive presentation of data © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  18. 18. GOOD RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS JUSTIFIED • Conclusions confined to those justified by the data • Do NOT broaden the basis of induction by including personal experience (not verifiable) • Do NOT universalise the results • Specify conditions under which conclusions seem to be valid © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  19. 19. GOOD RESEARCH RESEARCHER’S EXPERIENCE REFLECTED Research report should include information about the qualifications of the researcher – greater confidence is warranted if the researcher is experienced or is a person of good integrity. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  20. 20. RESEARCHPROPOSAL © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  21. 21. RESEARCH PROPOSAL It is the procedure you propose to follow in order to answer the problem in your research design, a map through the terrain of research area which prevents you from losing your way in an entangled field. Once finalised and approved, you can start your thesis. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  22. 22. RESEARCH PROPOSAL Your proposal is a planning document that outlines your thinking about a research problem and describes WHAT is to be studied and HOW. It has to be laid out for inspection and comment by others in the academic community. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  23. 23. RESEARCH PROPOSAL It is an opportunity to persuade the academic community that you know what you’re talking about and that you thought through the issues involved and are going to deliver, that it is worthwhile to take the risk of giving you a licence to get on with it. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  24. 24. RESEARCH PROPOSAL It gives direction to your reading and focus to your writing and facilitates data collection. A clear proposal makes you avoid unnecessary hazards and certainly minimises wasted time. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  25. 25. RESEARCH PROPOSAL MAIN CHALLENGES • Move from a research idea to a research problem • Gain clarity on the unit of analysis • Select an appropriate research design • Conform to the style and format of a proposal © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  26. 26. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WHY DO I NEED A PROPOSAL? It is a useful document to me, my supervisor, my funders and the broader researcher community. It outlines • the focus • the limits • the logical development of my investigation • the methods to be used © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  27. 27. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WHY DO I NEED A PROPOSAL? It gives me a clearer understanding of • the literature • the main considerations • the potential pitfalls • the perspective from which to approach my research • the ways in which data will be collected from available sources © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  28. 28. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WHY DO I NEED A PROPOSAL? It indicates to my supervisor whether • I have done adequate thinking about the topic • I have the ability to put my ideas into clear and logical writing • I have a plan of action in order to reach the completion of my thesis © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  29. 29. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WHY DO I NEED A PROPOSAL? It gives my funders an indication of whether my thesis is feasible and worth supporting. For the academic community, it is an indication of the focus of my investigation and how it links to the ongoing debates in the literature. © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  30. 30. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WHY DO I NEED A PROPOSAL? A good research proposal helps me • define and formulate my research question • narrow down the study to a manageable form within the prescribed time limits • structure the development of my writing • avoid wasting time in the literature search and data collection stages of the project © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  31. 31. CRITERIA FOR JUDGING • Do you have a clear idea of what you plan to research? • Does your proposal have focus? • Is it a topic worthy of academic study and significance? • Do you demonstrate an adequate understanding of the debates in the literature on this topic? • Is the project feasible? © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  32. 32. CRITERIA FOR JUDGING • Do you have a realistic idea of how you are going to tackle the investigation? • Is it doable within the time constraints? • Does the bibliography and referencing conform to accepted conventions? • Is it technically faultless? © Rajesh Gunesh – Aug 2010
  33. 33. Thank you!