Machine element,

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Threads,screws,bolts,section

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Machine element,

  1. 1. Rajesh K Behra TCET Machine Elements – understanding basics
  2. 2. Full section
  3. 3. Half section
  4. 4. Offset Section
  5. 5. Part Section:
  6. 6. Revolved Section: Removed Section:
  7. 7. Auxiliary section
  8. 8. Fastener  A machine element used for holding or joining two or more parts of a machine or structure .  The process of joining the parts is called fastening.  Two types : Permanent and Removable (temporary).  Riveting and welding processes are used for fastening permanently  Screwed fasteners such as bolts, studs and nuts in combination, machine screws, set screws, etc., and  keys, cotters, couplings, etc., are used for fastening components that require frequent assembly and dissembly.
  9. 9.  A screw thread is obtained by cutting a continuous helical groove on a cylindrical surface
  10. 10. V-Threads Square- Threads Right Hand External Left Hand External Threads
  11. 11. Depending on the direction of the helix
  12. 12. British standard whit worth (B.S.W.) thread./ V-thread  This thread profile has a larger contact area, providing more frictional resistance to motion.  Hence, it is used where effective positioning is required. It is also used in brass pipe work.  These threads are also used where the connected parts are subjected to increased vibrations as in
  13. 13. Square-thread  Square thread is an ideal thread form for power transmission.  The nut transmits very high pressures, as in the case of a screw jack and other similar applications.
  14. 14. Buttress-thread  This thread is a combination of V-and square threads. It exhibits the advantages of square thread, like the ability to transmit power and low frictional resistance, with the strength of the V-thread.  It is used where power transmission takes place in one direction only such as screw press, quick
  15. 15. ACME-thread  It is a modified form of square thread. It is much stronger than square thread because of the wider base and it is easy to cut. The inclined sides of the thread facilitate quick and easy engagement and disengagement as for example, the split nut with the lead screw of a lathe..
  16. 16. Multi-start threads  A single-start thread: the lead is equal to the pitch.  A double-start thread: the lead is equal to twice the pitch.  A triple-start thread: the lead is equal to thrice the pitch.
  17. 17. Bolt Joint  A bolt and nut in combination is a fastening device used to hold two parts together.  The body of the bolt, called shank is cylindrical in form,  the head; square or hexagonal in shape, is formed by forging.  Screw threads are cut on the other end of the shank.
  18. 18. Other Bolts  Square headed bolt with square neck  T-headed bolt
  19. 19. Other Bolts  Hook bolt  Eye-bolt
  20. 20. Forms of Nuts
  21. 21. Set screws  used to prevent relative motion between two rotating parts, such as the movement of pulley on shaft.
  22. 22. Keys  machine elements used to prevent relative rotational movement between a shaft and the parts mounted on it, such as pulleys, gears, wheels, couplings, etc
  23. 23. KEYS Saddle Keys Sunk Keys Round keys
  24. 24. Saddle Keys  These are taper keys, with uniform width but tapering in thickness on the upper side.  suitable for light duty only
  25. 25. Sunk Keys  These are the standard forms of keys used in practice, and may be either square or rectangular in cross- section.  The end may be squared or rounded  used for heavy duty, as the fit between the key and the shaft is positive.
  26. 26. Round Keys  A round key fits in the hole drilled partly in the shaft and partly in the hub.  Round keys are generally used for light duty, where the loads are not considerable.
  27. 27. Foundation bolts
  28. 28. Cotter joints  A cotter is a flat wedge shaped piece, made of steel. It is uniform in thickness but tapering in width, generally on one side; the usual taper being 1:30.  Cotter joints are used to connect two rods, subjected to tensile or compressive forces along their axes.  These joints are not suitable where the members are under rotation.
  29. 29. Commonly used cotter joints:  Cotter joint with sleeve  Cotter joint with socket and spigot ends
  30. 30. Cotter joint with socket and spigot ends  chiefly used for pipes which are buried in the earth.  important features of this joint is its flexibility as it adopts itself to small changes in level due to settlement of earth which takes place due to climate and other conditions.

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