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This presentation contains information regarding stuttering (a type of disfluency). Its definition, characteristics, onset and management/intervention.

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  1. 1. Stuttering Ancellie Espino Raizel Rose Leuterio
  2. 2. Overview  Definition  Core and Secondary Behaviors  Onset  Management/Intervention  Sample Case/s
  3. 3. What is Stuttering?
  4. 4. What Differentiates Stuttering from Other Types of Disfluencies?1. Disfluency pattern is highly episodic at first then gradually becomes chronic and consistent.2. Symptoms can be modified by any number of clinical manipulations -- helpful for differential diagnosis. e.g. Adaptation effect (Johnson and Knott, 1937)3. Distractibility when presented with white noise, speaking in time to a metronome, singing group recitation, finger tapping, arm swinging.4. [bae-baesbaul]  [b^-b^-baesbaul]
  5. 5. Core Behaviors
  6. 6. Core Behaviors Blocks - typically the last behavior to appear; occurs whena person inappropriately stops the flow of air or voiceand often the movement of his articulators as well.(Guitar,2006)
  7. 7. Secondary Behaviors Presence of an apparent struggle toproduce sounds and words that havelittle to do with speech production:jaw tremors, head shaking, eyeclosing, or total body gyrations Absent during fluentcommunication productions
  8. 8. Secondary Behaviors
  9. 9. Secondary Behaviors
  10. 10. Onset may occur at any time duringchildhood, from the beginning ofmultiword utterances, around 18months, until puberty, around 11 ortwelve years of age. most likely to occur between ages 2and 5 years. (Andrew et al, 1983)
  11. 11. Developmental Phases of Stuttering
  12. 12. Developmental Phases of Stuttering
  13. 13. Developmental Phases of Stuttering
  14. 14. Developmental Phases of Stuttering
  15. 15. Management/InterventionReduce the frequency of stutteringReduce the abnormality of stutteringReduce negative feelings about stuttering andabout speakingReduce negative thoughts and attitudes aboutstuttering and about speakingReduce avoidanceIncrease overall communication abilitiesCreate an environment that facilitates fluency
  16. 16. Famous People Who Stutter
  17. 17. Learn well your grammar, And never stammer, Write well and neatly, And sing soft sweetly, Drink tea, not coffee; Never eat toffy. Eat bread with butter. Once more dont stutter. - Lewis Carroll
  18. 18. References
  19. 19. Thank you for listening! Have a blessed day! Soli Deo Gloria! :D