Sporozoa

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Sporozoa

  1. 1. PHYLUMNOW KNOWN AS Presented by:Raissa Tutanes Guldam BSMT-IV
  2. 2. Objectives:At the end of the lecture, you should be able to atleast learn the: Parasite Biology Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control
  3. 3. SPOROZOANS Sarcocystis spp. (hominis, suihominis & lindemanni) Cryptosporidia spp. (parvum) Eimeria spp. Isospora spp. (hominis & belli) Plasmodium spp. ( falciparum, vivax, malariae & ovale) Toxoplasma gondii
  4. 4. SPOROZOANS (contd.) *General Characteristics* Tissue parasites Obligate parasites Have no definite organelle for locomotion Have complex life cycle with alternating sexual and asexual generations Asexual – schizogony – schizogonic cycle Sexual – sporogony – sporogonic cycle  Female – macrogametes  Male - microgametes
  5. 5. A. SARCOCYSTIS SPP.S. HOMINIS, S. SUIHOMINIS, & S. LINDEMANNI
  6. 6. General Characteristics Infect humans (DH) and animals (IH) Sarcosporidiosis or sarcocystosis - infection Spread throughout various organs and tissues MOT – ingestion of uncooked or undercooked meat containing the SARCOCYSTS Infective Stage: Human – SARCOCYSTS IH - SPOROCYSTS
  7. 7. Parasite Biology Zoite – simplest form Banana-shaped cell Pointed end – equipped for entering the host cells Sporocyst = 4 zoites  sporozoites Sarcocyst = formed from sporozoites Asexual cycle – occurs in IH Sexual cycle – occurs in DH
  8. 8. Parasite Biology (contd.) S. hominis S. suihominis IH cattle swine DH human humanSporocyst bigger smaller Effect Intestinal Intestinal sarcocystosis sarcocystosis
  9. 9. Sarcocystis hominis
  10. 10. Pathology & Clinical Manifestation Gastroenteritis with diarrhea Eosinophilic enteritis Myalgia Weakness Mild increase of creatine kinase
  11. 11. Diagnosis Fecal flotation method – sporocysts  9-16um in length  Oblong or cylindrical  4 long teardrop-shaped sporozoites Western blot IFA and ELISA
  12. 12. Treatment & Prevention No effective treatment is known Corticosteroid – treat muscular inflammation Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole – treat intestinal infections “Cook the meat well before eating!!!”
  13. 13. B. CRYPTOSPORIDIA SPP. C. PARVUM C. HOMINIS
  14. 14. Parasite Biology Cryptosporidiosis – infection Causes severe diarrhea (immunocompromised) and transient diarrhea (healthy persons) Water-borne transmission – is the most common source of this infection MOT: ingestion of oocysts IS: oocysts containing sporozoites 1 oocyst = 4 sporozoites Oocyst = 4 to 5 um Watch this!
  15. 15. Pathogenesis & Clinical Manifestations Self-limiting diarrhea Abdominal pain Anorexia Fever Weight loss
  16. 16. Diagnosis Intestinal biopsy – identification of organism Duodenal string test (Enterotest) – to recover oocysts Zinc Sulfate Centrifugal Flotation Technique Sheather’s Sugar Flotation Procedure Formalin-Ethyl Acetate Sedimentation Acid-fast Stain – red-pink doughnut-shaped circular in blue background (quickest and cheapest method)
  17. 17. Cryptosporidia spp.
  18. 18. Treatment & Prevention Nitazoxanide – effective Paromomycin treat Clarithromycin diarrhea Azithromycin Spiramycin  “Multiple disinfectant & water treatment process”
  19. 19. C. Toxoplasma gondii A PARASITE OF COSMOPOLITAN DISTRIBUTION
  20. 20. General Characteristics House Cat – definitive host MOT – consumption or handling of infected meat or from contact with cat feces IS – oocysts Cysts – found in muscles and CNSWatch the video here I’m cute but deadly!!!
  21. 21. Parasite Biology Oocyst = 2 sporocysts, each encloses 4 sporozoites (passed in the feces)  Similarin appearance to those of Isospora belli but smaller Trophozoites – found in the mesenteric lymph nodes and other organs of the cat  Tachyzoites – multiply quickly and spread the infection  Bradyzoites – slow-developing and form cysts
  22. 22. Toxoplasma gondii
  23. 23. Pathogenesis & Clinical Manifestations Toxoplasmosis – commonly asymptomatic Cysts – can be found in the brain, skeletal and heart muscles, and retina Encephalitis, myocarditis & focal pneumonia – immunocompromised Stillbirth & abortion – 1st trimester of pregnancy Congenital toxoplasmosis
  24. 24. Diagnosis Examination of tissue imprints stained with Giemsa Sabin-Feldman methylene blue dye test – detect Ab against T. gondii Biopsy PCR ELISA Latex Agglutination Test
  25. 25. Treatment & Prevention Pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine – for 1 month -To keep under control but do not kill it Cook food well Pregnant women should avoid contact with cats Avoid unpasteurized milk
  26. 26. D. EIMERIA SPP.RESPONSIBLE FOR THE POULTRY DISEASE COCCIDIOSIS
  27. 27. General Characteristics 4 sporocysts , each containing 2 sporozoites Causes bloody diarrhea E. tenella E. maxima E. necatrix E. fraterculae
  28. 28. Eimeria spp.
  29. 29. E. ISOSPORA SPP. ISOSPORA HOMINIS ISOSPORA BELLI ISOSPORIASIS
  30. 30. Isospora hominis Host: men Vector: Dog MOT: Ingestion of mature oocyst Symptoms:  Stomach pain  Diarrhea  Steatorrhea  Anorexia  Fever
  31. 31. General Characteristics I. hominis I. belli Other name Cytospermium hominis Cytospermium intestinalis Oocyst shape Oblong papaya Layer Double-layer One layerPresence of microphyle yes no sporocysts 2 2 sporozoites 4 4 Host Men Men MOT Ingestion of oocyst Ingestion of oocyst
  32. 32. Isospora spp.
  33. 33. F. PLASMODIA SPP. THE GENUS THAT CAUSES MALARIA
  34. 34. MALARIA Is still considered the most important parasitic disease affecting man, responsible for 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths annually One of the three major infectious disease threats, along with HIV and tuberculosis (WHO) Transmitted by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito A protozoan disease caused by members of the genus Plasmodium characterized by recurring fever, chills and sweats.
  35. 35. MALARIA (contd.) P. falciparum responsible for over 90% P. vivax of all the cases of human malaria P. ovale P. malariae Pigment producers – malarial parasites feed on Hgb Ameboid in shape
  36. 36. Parasite Biology Asexual Cycle Sexual Cycle Human (IH) Anopheles mosquito (DH) Schizogony  merozoites Sporogony  sporozoitesGametogony  gametocytes MOT: bite of vectors & blood transfusion
  37. 37. Parasite Biology (contd.)• life cycles of all four human species of malaria are similar• sporozoites – infective stage to human • Injected to human and carried to the liver• Merozoites – enter the rbc  - Develop into microgametocytes (male) and macrogametocytes (female) which are picked up by the mosquito for completion of the cycle• Hypnozoites – produced by P. vivax and P. ovale ; resting stage• Trophozoites – developed in the rbc
  38. 38. Exo-erythrocytic Stage sporozoites enters hepatocytes of liver schizonts dividing forms of liver stages merozoites are released by hepatocytes hypnozoites resting liver stages
  39. 39. Blood Stages merozoites enter erythrocytes trophozoites feeding and growing stages in red cells schizonts multinuclear stages in red cells gametocytes sexual blood stages
  40. 40. 1. early trophozoite 2. early trophozoite (double infection) 3. early trophozoite double chromatin with a few Maurers dots4. late throphozoite with Maurers dots and crenated red cell5. Mature schizont with merozoites and clumped pigment6. macrogametocyte with bluish cytoplasm and compact chromatin7. microgametocyte with pinkish cytoplasm and dispersedchromatin. Watch the life cycle
  41. 41. Pathogenesis & Clinical Manifestations P. P.vivax P. ovale P. malariae falciparumOther name Malignant Benign tertian Ovale malaria Quartan tertian or malaria malaria subtertian malaria Pre-patent 11-14 days 11-15 days 14-26 days 3-4 weeks period Incubation 8-15 days 12-20 days 11-16 days 18-40 days periodErythrocytic 48 hours 48 hours 48 hours 72 hours Cycle Chromatin Maurer’s Schuffner’s Schuffner’s Zieman’s dots (coarse red (fine red granules) granules)
  42. 42. P. P.vivax P. ovale P. malariae falciparumtrophozoite Ring & comma Signet-ring Ring to Band form forms shape roundedgametocytes Banana- Oval Round Round shapedMerozoites 8-40 12-24 14-16 6-12 Schizont Single dark Loose mass Concentrated concentrated pigment mass mass
  43. 43. Pathogenesis & Clinical Manifestations (contd.) Regular Paroxysms of fever with asymptomatic intervals Prodromal symptoms  Weakness and exhaustion  Desire to stretch and yawn  Aching bones, limbs and back  Loss of appetite  Nausea and vomiting  Sense of chilliness  Malaise  Diarrhea  Epigastric discomfort
  44. 44. 3 Stages of Classical Malaria Paroxysm Cold Stage  Pressure goes down  Chilling  Intense headache  Loss of appetite  Dry skin which lasts for 2-4 hours  Goose flesh  Convulsion of children which  Sweating Stage lasts for 1-2 hours  Profuse sweating  Temp. Is going up  Gradually, temp. Goes down  Less intense headache which lasts Hot Stage for 2-5 hours  Sensation of great heat  Patient feels exhausted until falls  Restlessness asleep  Pulse is full and pounding  Vomiting
  45. 45. Diagnosis Thick and thin blood smears – “gold standard” Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) Method – screening RDT = Immunochromatographic Methods – detect Plasmodium Ag Serologic Tests – IHA, IFAT, ELISA and PCR
  46. 46. Diagnostic Points1. Red Cells are notenlarged.2. Rings appear fine anddelicate and there may beseveral in one cell.3. Some rings may have twochromatin dots.4. Presence of marginal orapplique forms.5. It is unusual to seedeveloping forms inperipheral blood films.6. Gametocytes have acharacteristic crescentshape appearance.However, they do notusually appear in the bloodfor the first four weeks ofinfection.7. Maurers dots may bepresent.
  47. 47. Diagnostic Points1. Red cells containing parasites are usually enlarged.2. Schuffners dots arefrequently present inthe red cells as shownabove.3. The mature ringforms tend to be largeand coarse.4. Developing formsare frequentlypresent.
  48. 48. Diagnostic Points1. Ring forms may have a squarish appearance.2. Band forms are a characteristic of this species.3. Mature schizonts may have a typical daisy head appearance with up to ten merozoites.4. Red cells are not enlarged.5. Chromatin dot may be on the inner surface of the ring.
  49. 49. DiagnosticPoints1. Red cells enlarged.2.Comet formscommon (topright).3. Rings largeand coarse.4. Schuffnersdots, whenpresent, may beprominent.5. Matureschizonts similarto those of P.malariae butlarger and morecoarse
  50. 50. Treatment & Prevention Chloroquine – treatment of choice Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine or quinine – alternative for chloroquine-resistant Artemisinin and derivatives Use mosquito nets Use insect repellants Wear light-colored clothing
  51. 51. Thanks for listening!  ANY QUESTION?

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