Track Performance

1,500 views

Published on

Presented by: Frank Norbert at the 2009 Railways and Harbours Conference in Cape Town.

Published in: Business
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,500
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
12
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Track Performance

    1. 1. Track Performance of Advanced High-Strength Rail Steels Norbert Frank, Technical Customer Service Railways and Harbours Conference Cape Town, 06 th March 2009
    2. 2. Content of this Presentation <ul><li>Research & Development Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Head Hardened Rail Steels </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Rolling Contact Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Economical Impacts and Cost Savings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Future Work </li></ul>
    3. 3. Content of this Presentation <ul><li>Research & Development Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Head Hardened Rail Steels </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Rolling Contact Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Economical Impacts and Cost Savings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Future Work </li></ul>
    4. 4. Typical Cost Structure of the Infrastructure longest possible service life highest reliability and lowest maintenance down time maintainability source: ÖBB Strategy Track
    5. 5. Research & Development Targets <ul><li>The longest possible lifetime – conserve the rail head profile by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high wear resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>little material removal by grinding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consistent rail-wheel-contact to reduce forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The highest possible reliability – reduce inspection requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ultra-clean rail steel – avoid internal defects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The lowest requirement for maintenance – reduce costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase rolling contact fatigue (RCF) resistance – at initiation stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce crack growth speed – when RCF cracks are present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve safety and reliability </li></ul>
    6. 6. Content of this Presentation <ul><li>Research & Development Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Head Hardened Rail Steels </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Rolling Contact Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Economical Impacts and Cost Savings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Future Work </li></ul>
    7. 7. HH-Rails – History <ul><li>Non heat-treated steels: alloying is limited to max. 370 BHN -> today the most expensive rail steels! </li></ul><ul><li>1980 – Starting point for head-hardened HSH ® -rails : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standard Carbon (900A) chemistry and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a smart heat treatment of the rail head in a polymer liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next steps add alloying elements (C, Cr) to increase hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Today´s State-of-the-Art: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hardness limit for pearlite greater than 440 BHN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyper-Eutectoide steels (C ~ 1,0%) show the best track performance </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Advanced HSH ® -Rail Steels <ul><li>today highest wear resistance </li></ul><ul><li>best choice for heavy haul transport </li></ul><ul><li>according to VA-spec. </li></ul><ul><li>hypereutectoid rail steel with up to 1 % Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>~ 420 BHN </li></ul>400UHC <ul><li>up to 100 % higher wear and RCF resistance compared to R350HT </li></ul><ul><li>increasing application for heavy loaded tracks </li></ul><ul><li>according to VA-specification </li></ul><ul><li>HSH ® -rail with Cr ~ 0,50 % </li></ul><ul><li>~ 390 BHN </li></ul>370LHT <ul><li>wear rate approx. 1/3 of R260 </li></ul><ul><li>for all fields of application in railways and urban transport </li></ul><ul><li>according to EN13674-1 </li></ul><ul><li>traditional HSH ® -rail </li></ul><ul><li>~ 370 BHN </li></ul>R350HT <ul><li>increased wear and crack resistance </li></ul><ul><li>for all fields of application in railways </li></ul><ul><li>well established heavy haul grade of the 90s </li></ul><ul><li>according to EN13674-1 </li></ul><ul><li>HSH ® -rail with Cr ~ 0,25 % </li></ul><ul><li>~ 380 BHN </li></ul>R350LHT properties and application features grade
    9. 9. voestalpine‘s Track Tests Wear RCF Head Checks Spalling Wear negligible Corrugations Squats
    10. 10. voestalpine‘s Track Tests Wear RCF Head Checks Spalling Wear negligible Corrugations Squats <ul><li>R260 </li></ul><ul><li>R350HT </li></ul><ul><li>370LHT </li></ul><ul><li>400UHC </li></ul><ul><li>Dobain430 </li></ul>TTCI 4 UP 4 RWE 2,5 Ofotb 2,3 ÖBB 3 tests 1, 2, 5 DB Körle 1,2 DB Mülmisch 1,2 Pilb Rail 4 DB 2-5 NBS; 1 DB Mering I + II 1-5 DB Kerzell 1-5 SNCF, Prorail; 2,3 UP 4
    11. 11. Content of this Presentation <ul><li>Research & Development Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Head Hardened Rail Steels </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Rolling Contact Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Economical Impacts and Cost Savings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Future Work </li></ul>
    12. 12. Track Testing at the Ofotban an /Norway <ul><li>Iron ore line – LKAB </li></ul><ul><li>50 % curves with R < 500 m </li></ul><ul><li>40 % declanation with 20 ‰ </li></ul><ul><li>Axle load 25/30 tons </li></ul><ul><li>30 Mio t/a </li></ul>
    13. 13. Ofotbanan – Test Conditions <ul><li>status 1997 – Micro-alloyed S1200 best solution </li></ul><ul><li>Test with head hardened rail steels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R350HT – 370 BHN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>370LHT – 390 BHN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical topic: aluminothermic welds </li></ul>traffic direction AT-joint
    14. 14. Ofotbanan – Wear Measurements R 350HT 4 years S1200 2 years 370LHT 4 years
    15. 15. Ofotbanan – RCF Performance <ul><li>R350HT – 370 BHN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>head checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medium spalling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one year of service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>370LHT – 390 BHN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>head checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>little spalling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two years of service </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Ofotbanan – Weld Performance <ul><li>HPW weld: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less battering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No spalling next to weld </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Z90HC weld: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some battering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spalling next to weld </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Testing at FAST TTCI Pueblo 100 Mio to/a 35,7 to axle load approx. 64 km/h 350 m radius whole string flash butt welded from 40 foot rail pieces
    18. 18. TTCI Phase V: 3 rd Test voestalpine since 2005 Absolute wear data at 350 Mio to RMSM VAS AM US JFE
    19. 19. Wear – Higher Rail Hardness <ul><li>Higher hardness – less wear </li></ul><ul><li>Head hardened – maximum hardness </li></ul>
    20. 20. Pearlitic Rail Steels: Wear - properties 10 7 5 4 3 2 1 factor of improvement source: ERRI and European Railways R220 R260 R350HT R320Cr 400UHC R200 370LHT rail hardness R320Cr R220 R260 400UHC 370LHT R350HT 3 6 9
    21. 21. Content of this Presentation <ul><li>Research & Development Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Head Hardened Rail Steels </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Rolling Contact Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Economical Impacts and Cost Savings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Future Work </li></ul>
    22. 22. RCF Study with DB AG <ul><li>Comprehensive track testing at medium and high speed lines </li></ul><ul><li>In tangents, wide, medium and tight curves </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed traffic up to 22,5 to axle load </li></ul><ul><li>90.000 to/day – highest daily loads available at DB </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring, documentation and conclusions by the R & D Organisation of DB AG – DB Systemtechnik (FTZ) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Track Testing – Typical Layout
    24. 24. Wear and Corrugation Measurements <ul><li>cross-sectional profiles: Miniprof </li></ul><ul><li>longitudinal profile: RM1200 </li></ul>
    25. 25. RCF – Crack Characterization <ul><li>Magnetic particle inspection </li></ul><ul><li>In-Track Eddy current testing </li></ul><ul><li>Metallography of cut samples </li></ul>
    26. 26. Mering/DB – Surface of the Old 900A Rails <ul><li>after 9 years or </li></ul><ul><li>300 Mio to of total load </li></ul><ul><li>Severe head checks </li></ul><ul><li>5 mm deep (!) </li></ul><ul><li>Rail was never ground </li></ul><ul><li>Had to be replaced </li></ul>
    27. 27. Track Testing of 3 Grades with different Hardness: RCF Results after 100 Mio to
    28. 28. Dimensions of the Head Check ed Area R220 R260 R350HT R350HT R260 R220 grade 15 1,2 12 0,8 18 b [mm] 1,7 a [mm] a b
    29. 29. Crack Depth – Grinding Requirements 2,3 mm 1,3 mm 0,4 mm R220 240 BHN 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 [mm] R260 280 BHN R350HT 360 BHN Metallographic Eddy Curren t
    30. 30. Conclusion on the Rail Service Performance <ul><li>Wear resistance of R350HT 3 x better than R260 </li></ul><ul><li>But wear is not a life-limiting factor in medium radius curves </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance requirements – double/triple the time between grinding </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch the technical rail life from 13 (R260) to 34 years by R350HT </li></ul><ul><li>Economic analysis by Life-Cycle-Cost Calculations </li></ul>
    31. 31. Content of this Presentation <ul><li>Research & Development Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Head Hardened Rail Steels </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Rolling Contact Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Economical Impacts and Cost Savings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Future Work </li></ul>
    32. 32. LCC-Calculations Proof Economic Benefits <ul><li>Evaluate the Whole Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintenance activities – mainly grinding to remove Head Checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>replacement of worn rails </li></ul></ul>R260 Life Cylce HSH ® head hardened rail steels Life Cylce
    33. 33. LCC-Calculations Proof Economic Benefits
    34. 34. Content of this Presentation <ul><li>Research & Development Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Head Hardened Rail Steels </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Track Testing – Rolling Contact Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Economical Impacts and Cost Savings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Future Work </li></ul>
    35. 35. voestalpine‘s Track Tests Wear RCF Head Checks Spalling Wear negligible Corrugations Squats <ul><li>R260 </li></ul><ul><li>R350HT </li></ul><ul><li>370LHT </li></ul><ul><li>400UHC </li></ul><ul><li>Dobain430 </li></ul>TTCI 4 UP 4 RWE 2,5 Ofotb 2,3 ÖBB 3 tests 1, 2, 5 DB Körle 1,2 DB Mülmisch 1,2 Pilb Rail 4 DB 2-5 NBS; 1 DB Mering I + II 1-5 DB Kerzell 1-5 SNCF, Prorail; 2,3 UP 4 The Hardest Rail you can get Hard Rail and Grinding Current Investigations
    36. 36. We Define New Development Targets <ul><li>No risk of unexpected failures Reliability R </li></ul><ul><li>No corrective maintenance required Availability A </li></ul><ul><li>No maintenance required Maintainability M </li></ul><ul><li>No dangerous failures Safety S </li></ul><ul><li>Longest possible service life </li></ul><ul><li> low Life-Cycle-Costs LCC </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest total Costs </li></ul>

    ×