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Standard or Metre Gauge


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Presented by: John Morgan at the 2009 Railways and Harbours Conference in Cape Town.

Published in: Business

Standard or Metre Gauge

  1. 1. PRESENTER: John Morgan (Pr. Eng) Engineering Manager: GAUTRAIN Province Support Team JPL Morgan Associates
  2. 2. JPL Morgan Associates <ul><li>CONTENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Technical issues surrounding choice of gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Networkability </li></ul><ul><li>Economics and globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>The way forward for Africa </li></ul>
  3. 3. TECHNICAL ISSUES SURROUNDING CHOICE OF GAUGE <ul><li>Gauge Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Gauge Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum Gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Capability of Metre Gauge </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  4. 4. GAUGE <ul><li>Cape gauge (1065mm) generally used in South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Cape + metre gauges = Narrow gauge = 17% of world total </li></ul><ul><li>Standard gauge (1435mm) used for the majority of tracks worldwide (60%). </li></ul><ul><li>Broad gauge = all gauges > standard gauge = 23% of world total </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum speeds on Cape gauge normally below 130km/h </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum speeds of 160km/h and above in regular use worldwide on standard gauge. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost premium for standard gauge over Cape gauge estimated at 12.5% ( PWM + ballast). No other infrastructure premium. </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  5. 5. TECHNICAL ISSUES (contd) Gauge Dependent <ul><li>Power/Torque of Traction motors </li></ul><ul><li>Curve speeds for given radius </li></ul><ul><li>Safety against overturning </li></ul><ul><li>Speed limits </li></ul><ul><li>Track alignment maintenance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to double-stack containers </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Standard (UIC GA/GB/GC)/Cape gauge (TFR) rolling stock: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vehicle body width = 103%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gauge = 135%; </li></ul></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  7. 7. TECHNICAL ISSUES (contd) Gauge Independent <ul><li>Vehicle loading gauges </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum negotiable curve radii </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  8. 8. JPL Morgan Associates
  9. 9. TECHNICAL ISSUES (contd) Optimum Gauge <ul><li>Broad gauges </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum gauge 1676mm = 5ft 6in (Zoutendyk) </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  10. 10. TECHNICAL ISSUES (contd) Capabilities of metre gauge railways <ul><li>Queensland Railway’s 1997 study for UIC </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluated track gauge vs productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Competitiveness and/or sustainability? </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  11. 11. NETWORKABILITY <ul><li>Railway development history </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks of gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation of railway gauges </li></ul><ul><li>Gauge clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Freight rail vs passenger rail demands </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  12. 12. NETWORKABILITY (contd) Railway development history <ul><li>Plethora of gauges </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>United States of America </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  13. 13. NETWORKABILITY (contd) Breaks of gauge <ul><li>Effects on networkability </li></ul><ul><li>Various “solutions” </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  14. 14. NETWORKABILITY (contd) Standardisation of railway gauges <ul><li>Path Dependency in Spacial Frameworks (DJ Puffert) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical mass of Standard Gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Gauge not necessarily the Optimum Gauge </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  15. 15. NETWORKABILITY (contd) Gauge clusters <ul><li>United States of America </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>South America </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul><ul><li>East Asia </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  16. 16. NETWORKABILITY (contd) Freight rail vs passenger rail demands <ul><li>Horizontal alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Operating speeds </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  17. 17. <ul><li>Gautrain Rapid Rail Link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- standalone rail network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- dedicated fleet of rolling stock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Passenger interchange (networkability) with SA Rail Commuter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>system via platforms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Networkability afforded by rail found to be no special advantage, in fact a disadvantage. </li></ul></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  18. 18. ECONOMICS & GLOBALISATION <ul><li>The “Killer Applications” </li></ul><ul><li>Command economies </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation of the rail industry </li></ul><ul><li>Railway research and development </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  19. 19. ECONOMICS AND GLOBALISATION (contd) The “Killer Applications” <ul><li>Where Railways can and do successfully compete with other modes </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  20. 20. THE “KILLER APPLICATIONS” Fundamentals of railway competitiveness <ul><li>Railway genetic technologies (Dr D vd Meulen) </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally competitive applications </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially weak applications </li></ul><ul><li>Urban rail – other attributes (3 rd Genetic Technology) </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  21. 21. ECONOMICS AND GLOBALISATION (contd) Command economies <ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa of the 70’s </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  22. 22. ECONOMICS AND GLOBALISATION (contd) Globalisation of the rail industry <ul><li>Standard gauge the dominant gauge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad-based competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vibrant market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive networkability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gautrain </li></ul><ul><li>Sao Paolo line 4 </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  23. 23. <ul><li>Gautrain Rapid Rail Link </li></ul><ul><li>Standard gauge allows : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- “off the shelf” tried and tested rolling stock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- safer, higher operating speeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Greater tolerance of track imperfections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Less risk for concessionaire . </li></ul></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  24. 24. ECONOMICS AND GLOBALISATION (contd) Railway research and development <ul><li>Standard gauge - commercially driven & vibrant </li></ul><ul><li>Broad gauge – command driven </li></ul><ul><li>Metre gauge? </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  25. 25. AFRICA: THE WAY FORWARD <ul><li>Historic rail development drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Rail Road Association position paper </li></ul><ul><li>The path to the future </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  26. 26. AFRICA: THE WAY FORWARD (contd) Historic rail development drivers <ul><li>Exploitation of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental tool </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  27. 27. AFRICA: THE WAY FORWARD (contd) Rail Road Association position paper <ul><li>Developed in response to NDOT enquiry </li></ul><ul><li>General acceptance </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  28. 28. RAILROAD ASSOCIATION of SA POSITION PAPER ON TRACK GAUGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY <ul><li>Whatever decisions are taken should be economically viable—the authorities should prescribe neither that all new track should be standard gauge, nor that all existing track should be changed to standard gauge </li></ul><ul><li>It is unlikely that it will be found economic or realistic to change all existing track to standard gauge. </li></ul><ul><li>Existing meter gauge track should be operated as a going concern, as long as it can economically serve its intended purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Major new railway projects in South Africa should use the dominant applicable technology. For example, application of double-stack container trains, and/or high-speed intercity trains to new corridors should use standard gauge. Similarly, standard gauge could be considered in the urban context, but only if appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>As and if such projects gain momentum, it will then be up to future generations to convert appropriate portions of the existing rail network to standard and/or dual gauge lines. </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  29. 29. AFRICA: THE WAY FORWARD (contd) The path to the future <ul><li>Perform economic analyses of needs and transportation routes </li></ul><ul><li>Decide if rail is appropriate / the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure double stacking is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on the appropriate gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigate or remove breaks of gauge </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  30. 30. Dual Gauge and Double Gauge <ul><li>Basic dimensions when converting from Cape to Standard during operations: </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Gauge (Tri-rail configuration) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centreline of track moves 185mm in or out. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double Gauge (Quad-rail configuration) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear distance between “outer Cape” and “inner Standard” rail flange when using largest rail section currently in use in South Africa (60E1) = 32mm </li></ul></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  31. 31. Other Aspects <ul><li>Formation Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Track centres of 3,96m or 4,0m suitable for both Cape and standard gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Formation width of 3m either side of centreline adequate for standard gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Formation strength needs for standard gauge application slightly less onerous than for Cape gauge application for same axle loadings </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge strength needs are unchanged for same axle loadings </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  32. 32. AFRICA: THE WAY FORWARD (contd) The path to the future <ul><li>Remember – If rail IS selected as the appropriate mode; </li></ul><ul><li>And, should Standard Gauge be selected: </li></ul><ul><li>(as strongly recommended) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of Standard Gauge is not a “cure-all” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term planning horizons are essential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage commercial rail operators/concessionaires </li></ul></ul>JPL Morgan Associates
  33. 33. THANK YOU <ul><li>John Morgan </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>0800 Gautrain </li></ul>JPL Morgan Associates