Merits Of Ac Vs Dc Locomotives

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Merits Of Ac Vs Dc Locomotives by EMD

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Merits Of Ac Vs Dc Locomotives

  1. 1. The Merits of AC vs DC Locomotives November 13, 2008 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 1
  2. 2. The Merits of AC vs DC Tractiom 1. EMD Historical Perspective 2. Development of AC Traction 3. Performance and Maintenance Benefits of AC Traction 4. The Market- What are Railways Purchasing 5. Summary Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 2
  3. 3. EMD • Market, Design, Sell and Manufacture diesel-electric locomotives, component sets and aftermarket products Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 3
  4. 4. Fully Integrated Locomotive Supplier • Providing value to our markets by continuously developing our core competencies Locomotive Design Locomotive Systems Integration Marketing and Selling Financing Manufacturing Product Support Services • Developing and supporting global partners Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 4
  5. 5. Electro-Motive Engineering Corporation • Incorporated in August of 1922 • “The successful application of internal combustion engines to rail service” – Over 500 railcars produced by 1930 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 5
  6. 6. EMD Significant Milestones 1st Diesel-Electric Locomotive 1934 1940 1930 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 6
  7. 7. In 1939, EMD introduced the FT103 Dieselization of the American Railroads Locomotives in Service 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 Steam 20,000 Diesel 10,000 30 0 35 40 45 50 55 60 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 7
  8. 8. EMD Significant Events 1st Overseas Manufacturing Associate 1930 1948 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1940 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 8
  9. 9. Fully Integrated Locomotive Supplier • Locomotive Assembly Affiliates – EDI Rail - Australia – Rotem – South Korea – Vossloh - Spain – Tulomsas - Turkey – Indian Railways - India – ETP – Egypt – ELMOTEC – Argentina – D-LOCO - China Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 9
  10. 10. Global Presence with Broad International Customer Base EMD has delivered approximately 11,300 locomotives in 71 countries outside North America Eastern Europe Western Europe 500 Asia North America 1,650 1,400 48,750 Middle East 1,000 South America Africa 1,800 2,650 Australia 1,500 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 10
  11. 11. EMD Development of AC Traction SD60MAC SD70MAC SD80MAC SD90MAC Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 11
  12. 12. Development of AC Traction in North America • In the 1980s, EMD invested in developing AC traction for the special requirements of heavy haul – High axle loads of 32 metric tonnes – Sustained high tractive effort levels for pulling long, heavy freight trains - up to 18,000 metric tonnes • Many declared that AC was not the right technology for North America – EMD went ahead with development and tests – EMD was the first North American supplier to market AC traction locomotives Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 12
  13. 13. Evolution of Inverter Control • 1987 - EMD tested the first AC locomotive in North America with six powered axles – one inverter per axle • 1989 - EMD built the first new locomotive design in North America with AC traction (F69PH) – one inverter per two axles • 1991 - EMD built the first heavy haul locomotives in North America with AC traction (SD60MAC) – one inverter per three axles Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 13
  14. 14. SD60MAC - 1st heavy haul AC prototype • The SD60MAC added a new page to the book of locomotive technology history • Previously, dispatchable adhesion was typically less than 30% • With the SD60MAC, dispatchable adhesion was raised to 35% and higher • The SD60MAC demonstrated unprecedented adhesion levels of 45% for starting trains • This set the stage for Unit reduction on Heavy Haul Trains Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 14
  15. 15. EMD Significant Events 1st North American Order for AC Technology Freight Locomotives (Burlington Northern orders 350 SD70MACs) 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1993 2000 1990 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 15
  16. 16. Productivity Improvement 3 SD70MAC locomotives replaced 5 SD40-2 DC locomotives in heavy haul service Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 16
  17. 17. SD70MAC - 1st Series of AC Production • Today, over 900 SD70MAC locomotives are in service • This is a highly successful Systems Integration of – AC traction – Advanced computer systems – High traction bogie design • SD70MAC’s reputation has been established for high locomotive reliability • SD70MAC locomotives are typically dispatched at 35 to 38% adhesion Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 17
  18. 18. EMD AC Traction in India and Australia • Examples of modern EMD AC traction technology in other regions of the world – India: 21 mt axle load, broad gage, 4000 HP – Australia: Narrow and Standard gage, 3000 and 4300HP 20mt to 32mt axle load – Mexico and Venezuela : 32mt axle load, standard gage 4300 HP • All locomotive designs have demonstrated very high adhesion – 35 - 40% dispatchable adhesion – 43 - 50% starting adhesion Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 18
  19. 19. GT42C-AC Locomotive 3000 thp, Cape gage (1067mm), 20 tonne axle load Queensland Rail, Australia Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 19
  20. 20. SD70ACe/LCI In operation on BHP in Australia • 4300 Traction Horsepower. Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 20
  21. 21. Why is the Adhesion so High? • Speed-torque characteristic of AC motor promotes higher utilization of adhesion • High speed computer and sophisticated wheel creep control have been developed • Diesel engine with fast response is needed to optimize adhesion • Where radial steering bogies are used, transverse wheel slippage in curves is virtually eliminated Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 21
  22. 22. Wheel Creep Control • 1970s - EMD was the first locomotive builder to establish and use the wheel creep control concept • 1980s-1990s - EMD optimized use of adhesion-creep concept on modern AC and DC traction systems EMD’s Creep Control System operates at peak Wheel-Rail of Adhesion-Creep Adhesion curve Wheel Slip Systems operate at lower adhesion levels Wheel Creep Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 22
  23. 23. Tractive Effort-Wheel Creep Curves AC traction motor loading is dependent upon the friction- creep load line for a given axle. Typical 3-Axle Truck Tractive Effort – Wheel Creep Curve Characteristics AC Motor Truck Control AC Motor Axle Control DC Motor Axle Tractive Effort AC traction motors load at a Axle #3 higher tractive effort than Axle #2 DC traction motors based on Axle #1 their torque-speed characteristic and individual axle friction – wheel creep curve. Wheel Creep – Per Cent Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 23
  24. 24. AC Systems Design- AC Traction Motor Loading On a high adhesion AC Traction Locomotive, the AC traction motors are either: Connected in parallel within Individually connected to a a truck and controlled by a low power traction inverter common high power traction (axle control). inverter (truck control), Bogie Control Axle Control Inverter Inverter Inverter Inverter Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 24
  25. 25. SD70ACe Inverter Truck Control EMD Systems Design Approach To Inverter Truck Control: • Maximize System Reliability with Lower Parts Count • Automatic Load Sharing between Traction Motors within a Truck • Wheel Diameters wear together and maximize tread life • Radial Truck Design provides higher Tractive Effort and Power in curves • Fast Wheel Slip Control System with Rapid Inverter Torque Control • Quick 2-Cycle Engine Load Control Response • Proven High Voltage, High Tractive Effort, and High Power Inverter • Design with minimal EMI concerns Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 25
  26. 26. Wheel Diameter Wear Mismatch Wheel Mismatch In Service Bogie Control Axle Control Inverter Inverter Inverter Inverter Wheel Wheel Diameters Wheel Mismatch Always Converge Mismatch Wheel Diameters Diverge Unless Bogie Control is Emulated Mileage Mileage Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 26
  27. 27. SD70ACe/LCI Overview Traction System Reliability • Inverter – Utilizes proven IGBT inverter technology. Phase Modules are air cooled. – Inverter control system is integrated into EM2000 locomotive computer. Eliminates two additional computer systems (more than 25 cards in each). Improves reliability and diagnostic capability. Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 27
  28. 28. AC Inverter Phase Module Maintenance • Projected life expectancy of the Inverter Phase Modules - Greater than 15 years • Maintenance - No preventive replacement - Replace only when failure occurs • AC Inverters are Repairable Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 28
  29. 29. Creating Value For The Railways • Performance Advantages of AC Traction – Higher wheel-rail adhesion 40% advantage – Higher tractive effort 20 to 40% advantage on starting TE Greater than 40% advantage on Continuous TE – Improved mission reliability Traction Motors – Lower traction motor maintenance – Train Handling Advantages Flat Top Low Speed Dynamic Brake Roll Back and Opposite Direction Braking No issues for Dead in Consist Towing Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 29
  30. 30. AC Traction Motor Reliability and Maintenance Less Time in Shop Compared to DC Motor • Less Maintenance – No Brushes to Change – No Commutator to Inspect • Fewer Failures than DC – No Stall Burns – No armature ground relays, – No flashovers AC Traction Motors have Less Maintenance and Fewer Failures Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 30
  31. 31. AC Motor Overhaul • Overhaul Interval – At overhaul, AC motors generally require only stator and rotor bearing attention Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 31
  32. 32. AC vs. DC Locomotive Market - Historical Deliveries in USA & Canada 1993 to 2005 • When AC Traction was Traction Technology Conversion introduced, there was a 100% rapid traction technology 80% AC Traction conversion for heavy haul 60% freight 40% • However, DC traction has comprised 40 to 50% of 20% DC Traction the new locomotive 0% market 90 93 96 99 02 05 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 32
  33. 33. EMD Significant Events Largest Single International Order for Locomotives (EW&S orders 250 Class 66 diesel-electric locomotives) 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1996 2000 1990 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 33
  34. 34. EMD Significant Events Largest Single Locomotive Order in History – 1000 SD70Ms 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1999 2000 1990 Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 34
  35. 35. US and Canadian Rail Market AC vs. DC deliveries Since 2005 • Recent EMD Delivery Experience is approximately a 60/40 Spilt of AC to DC in the Marketplace DC 38% AC 62% AC and DC Locomotive Deliveries Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 35
  36. 36. Comparison of Key Buying Factors Key Buying Factors Advantage AC Traction DC Traction TE Starting and at Minimum Continuous Speed ▲ Adhesion ▲ Train Handling ▲ Traction (kW) = = TE at Moderate to High Speed = = Purchase Cost ▲ Ease of Maintenance/ Skill Set / Training ▲ Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 36
  37. 37. What Factors drive The DC or AC Purchase Decision? Service Training Required Maintenance Capital Cost Heavy Haul & Performance Planning and ROI High Speed Facilities Railway Procurement Decision Model ? Life Cycle Fleet Duty Cycle Business Cost Planning & and Asset Financing Plan Growth Analysis Logistics Utilization Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 37
  38. 38. When is DC Traction Preferred? DC Traction is the preferred lower cost solution for: – Moderate to higher train speeds – Passenger service – light tonnage General Freight service – Inter-modal freight service Different solutions for different needs Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 38
  39. 39. Perspectives From the North American Rail Market Canadian Pacific - 100% of CP's purchases since 1998 have been AC. They believe AC traction provides much greater reliability and provides unit reduction as they cross challenging grades in the Rocky Mountains. Canadian National feel the added tractive effort benefits of AC can not be fully utilized on their system to justify the premium for AC locomotives over DC. Canadian National continue to purchase 100% DC Locomotives. Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 39
  40. 40. Perspectives From the North American Rail Market UP has standardized on a building block philosophy utilizing units that can run reliably in any corridor of service. The 4300-4400 hp block with AC technology has become that standard. UP has only purchased AC freight locomotives since 2005. The SD70ACe is utilized primarily in high speed intermodal service. UP Mechanical Dept believes the added cost of AC is more than offset by the lower maintenance costs, longer component life to overhaul, and higher reliability of the AC system for a standardized fleet. BNSF continues to purchase both AC and DC as they have operations and fleet sizes that can separately utilize the advantages of each. AC for the Powder River basin heavy haul coal operations and DC for their higher speed intermodal operations. BNSF are able to keep their fleets focused on specific operations. Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 40
  41. 41. Perspectives From the North American Rail Market CSX has been purchasing AC locomotives exclusively since 2006. They have concluded that AC Traction is a more universal locomotive for them. Premium for AC is justified based on the perfromance and life cycle cost. NS has historically purchased only DC locomotives. They have recently purchased some AC locomotives but report that the purchase was driven by special incentives rather than a desire to switch to AC locomotives. They also maintain the perspective that they can maintain their DC fleet to a higher standard at a cheaper cost than their competition. Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 41
  42. 42. EMD AC Traction Summary • Since 1993, EMD has delivered over 1500 AC traction locomotives • The market shifted from DC to AC for most heavy haul operations in North America • EMD is building AC traction locomotives for international railways predominantly for Heavy Haul applications • Many railroads continue to purchase DC traction for non-heavy haul General and Intermodal freight operations • Current EMD Market Split is approximately 60% AC and 40% DC Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 42
  43. 43. AC vs. DC Traction Conclusions • EMD has successfully introduced both AC and DC locomotives designs with higher horsepower diesel engines, advanced computer technology, and high traction bogies • AC traction has generally been the choice for heavy haul freight where the number of locomotives can be reduced • DC traction is generally the choice where unit reduction cannot be achieved e.g. General Freight Operations and for medium to high speed operation. • The weighting on the many decision variables used lead to different procurement conclusions for different customers. Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 43
  44. 44. Question Time Contains proprietary Electro-Motive information that shall not be disclosed to third parties. 44

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