The Endocrine System


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The Endocrine System

  1. 1. The Endocrine System Glands, Hormones and Whatnot
  2. 2. Glands of the Endocrine System
  3. 3. Endocrine System <ul><li>Made up of glands that secrete hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>These glands affect organs, muscles and other glands in the body. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pineal Gland
  5. 5. Pineal Gland <ul><li>Regulates the bodies daily cycles (circadian rhythms) of sleep/waking. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces the hormone melatonin -released in the dark during sleep . </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal gland secretes it when our eyes register the fall of darkness . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hypothalamus
  7. 7. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Secretes hormones that make other endocrine glands secrete their hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the control center of the endocrine system. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces two types of hormones: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Releasing hormones- switch on hormone production. </li></ul><ul><li>2)Inhibiting hormones- switch off hormone production. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pituitary Gland
  9. 9. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>2 sections-anterior (front)-posterior (back). </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the “master gland” of the endocrine system. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hormones of the Pituitary Gland… <ul><li>(FSH) Follicle Stimulating Hormone-stimulates the follicle of the ovaries to release estrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>In males, it helps in the production of sperm. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Prolactin <ul><li>During pregnancy, prepares the breasts for milk production. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Human Growth Hormone (HGH) <ul><li>Promotes body growth (muscles, bones, ligaments, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion=dwarfism </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion=gigantism </li></ul>
  13. 14. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) <ul><li>In females-stimulates the production of estrogen at inception of menstruation. </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers ovulation (release of the ovum). </li></ul><ul><li>In males-produces testosterone. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) <ul><li>Acts on the collection ducts of the kidneys to facilitate the reabsorption of water into the blood-reducing the volume of urine formed in the kidneys. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Oxytocin <ul><li>Stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates releasing of milk when babies begin to suckle. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts on the amygdala to enhance bonding between males and females after they mate. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Vasopressin <ul><li>Released by the Posterior pituitary. </li></ul><ul><li>Constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure </li></ul>
  17. 18. Thyroid
  18. 19. Thyroid <ul><li>Regulates the body’s growth and metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces Thyroxine- increases rate of metabolism and increases rate and strength of heartbeat . </li></ul>
  19. 20. Adrenal Glands
  20. 21. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>- Located on the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce adrenaline and noradrenaline. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the body to respond to stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate blood sugar and salt balances, growth of secondary sex characteristics. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Pancreas
  22. 23. Pancreas <ul><li>Secretes two hormones that go directly into the bloodstream: </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin -lowers blood-sugar levels and increases the amount of glycogen (stored carbs) in the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon- increases blood-sugar level if it becomes too low. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Pancreas <ul><li>Too little insulin= diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Too much insulin- hypoglycemia </li></ul>
  24. 25. Gonads
  25. 26. Gonads
  26. 27. Ovaries <ul><li>Produce estrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of breasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Widening of the pelvis. </li></ul><ul><li>Further development of vagina and uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of pubic hair. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in fat tissue. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Testes <ul><li>Produce testosterone which aids in sperm production and the development of secondary sex characteristics (facial hair, deepening of the voice) in males. </li></ul>