SYNAPSE
SYNAPSE “ FASTEN TOGATHER” APPOSITION SITE between TWO  NEUORONS or A NEUORON &  ANOTHER CELL (EFFECTOR) UNIDIRECTIONAL...
CLASSIFICATION   ANATOMICAL NEURON & NEURON       AXODENDRITIC       AXOSOMATIC       AXOAXONIC       DENDRODNDRITIC   C...
STRUCTURE PRESYNAPTIC POSTSYNAPTIC SYNAPTIC CLEFT
PRESYNAPTIC BOUTON  TERMINAL ACTIVE ZONE     AREAOF SYNAPSE WHERE      NEUROTRANSMISSION TAKES PLACE     SUBMEMBRANE D...
SYNAPTIC CLEFT20 –30nmMACROMOLECULESEXTRACELLULAR ENDS OF TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEINSEXTRACELLULAR MATRIX MOLECULES
POST SYNAPTICPOST SYNAPTIC DENSITYRECEPTOR WITH AFFINITY FORNEUROTRANSMITTERSACTIN & ACTIN BINDING PROTEINSENZYMES
SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION   PRESYNAPTIC       DEPOLARIZATION       Ca GATED CHANNEL INFLUX OF Ca       FUSION OF SYNAPTIC ...
NEUROTRANSMITTERSNEUROMDULATORS CHEMICALS COMBINE WITH PROTEIN  RECEPTORS TO OPEN OR CLOSE ION  CHANNELS OR INITIATE SECO...
PERIPHERALENDINGSSENSORY NEURON RECEPTORSMOTOR NEURON EFFECTORS
RECEPTORS
RECEPTORS STRUCTURES SPECIALIZED TO  DETECT A STIMULUS TRANSDUCERS FOUR TYPES OF INFORMATION     MODALITY       LOCAT...
RECEPTORS   NEUROEPITHELIAL OLFACTORY    CELL BODY OF THE NEURONIS SITUATED PERIPHERALLY    NEAR A SENSORY SURFACE & AXON...
CLASSIFICATION1)   LOCATION      EXTROCEPTORS general & special      PROPIOCEPTORS      INTEROCEPTORS5)   STRUCTURAL      ...
NONENCAPSULATEDFREE NERVE ENDINGSMERKELS DISC
FREE NERVE ENDING C.T. SKIN. MYELINATED & NON MYELINATED MODERATE THERMAL ,LIGHT  MECHANICAL & NOXIOUS STIMULI
MERKELS DISC   EPIDERMIS of non hairy skin HAIR    FOLLICLE NAKED AXON DISC SPECIALIZED EPITHEIAL CELL merkel    cell ...
ENCAPSULATED
MEISSNERS CORPUSCLE   DERMAL PAPILLA OF THICK SKIN   CYLINDRICAL   C.T. CAPSULE CONTINOUS WITH ENDONEURIUM    SURROUNDI...
PACCINIAN CORPUSCLE   DERMIS JOINT CAPSULE MAMMARY GLAND    CAPSULE OF FLATTENED CELLS FIBERS &    MATRIX   INTREMEDIAT...
GOLGI TENDON ORGAN   TENDON MUSCLE   CAPSULE SHEETS OF CELLS SEPARATED BY A BASAL    LAMINA FIBERS ON THE OUTSIDE   BUN...
MUSCLE SPINDLE PROPIOCEPTORS > MUSCLES WITH FINE CONTROL DISTRIBUTED IN FLESHY PART OF  MUCLE
MUSCLE SPINDLE CAPSULE INTRAFUSAL 3-12 MODIFIED MUSCLE FIBERS    NUCLEAR CHAIN & BAG FIBER    MIDDLE PORTION ACTS AS STR...
NERVE FIBERS   PRIMARY AFFERNT & ANNULOSPIRAL    ENDING ONSET OF STRETCH   SECONDRY AFFERENT FLOWER SPRAY    PROLONGED S...
   When a muscle shortens the gamma    motor neurons stimulate the ends of    intrafusal muscle fibers to contract slight...
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  • DOPAMINE IS A NEUROTRANSMITTER PRODUCED BY CELLS OF SN AND BG IN THE BRAIN IT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN THE NERVE PATHWAY COORDINATING SMOOTH AND FOCUSSED ACTIVITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
  • SER IS A SOURCE OF NEW MEMBRANE
  • POST SYNAPTIC DENSITY IS A LAYER OF DENSE MATERIAL ON THE CYTOPLASMIC SIDE
  • IN INHIBITORY SYNAPSE NEUROTRANSMITTERS CAUSE OPENING UP OF ANION CHANNELS CAUSING CL TO ENTER THE CELL AND MAKE THE POST SYNAPTIC MEMEBRANE MORE NEGATIVE
  • Stimulus modality, a type of physical phenomenon that one can sense, such as temperature and sound
  • as "the neural processes of encoding and processing noxious stimuli ." [1] It is the afferent activity produced in the peripheral and central nervous system by stimuli that have the potential to damage tissue. [2] [3] This activity is initiated by nociceptors , (also called pain receptors), that can detect mechanical, thermal or chemical changes above a set threshold. Once stimulated, a nociceptor transmits a signal along the spinal cord , to the brain . Nociception triggers a variety of autonomic responses and may also result in a subjective experience of pain in sentient beings. [3]
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    1. 1. SYNAPSE
    2. 2. SYNAPSE “ FASTEN TOGATHER” APPOSITION SITE between TWO NEUORONS or A NEUORON & ANOTHER CELL (EFFECTOR) UNIDIRECTIONAL ELECTRICAL SIGNAL (PRESYNAPTIC)-----CHEMICAL (POST SYNAPTIC)
    3. 3. CLASSIFICATION ANATOMICAL NEURON & NEURON AXODENDRITIC AXOSOMATIC AXOAXONIC DENDRODNDRITIC CHEMICAL EXCITATORY acetylcholine glutamin serotinin INHIBITORY GABA glycine ELECTRICAL
    4. 4. STRUCTURE PRESYNAPTIC POSTSYNAPTIC SYNAPTIC CLEFT
    5. 5. PRESYNAPTIC BOUTON TERMINAL ACTIVE ZONE  AREAOF SYNAPSE WHERE NEUROTRANSMISSION TAKES PLACE  SUBMEMBRANE DENSITIES SYNAPTIC VESICLES MITOCHONDRIA SMOOTH ER
    6. 6. SYNAPTIC CLEFT20 –30nmMACROMOLECULESEXTRACELLULAR ENDS OF TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEINSEXTRACELLULAR MATRIX MOLECULES
    7. 7. POST SYNAPTICPOST SYNAPTIC DENSITYRECEPTOR WITH AFFINITY FORNEUROTRANSMITTERSACTIN & ACTIN BINDING PROTEINSENZYMES
    8. 8. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION PRESYNAPTIC  DEPOLARIZATION  Ca GATED CHANNEL INFLUX OF Ca  FUSION OF SYNAPTIC VESICLE TO PRESYAPTIC DENSITY  EXOCYTOSIS OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS  BINDS WITH RECEPTORS ON POST SYNAPTIC MEMBRANE EXCITATORY  LIGAND GATED Na channel  Voltage gated Na CHANNEL  DEPOLARIZATION INHIBITORY  ANION CHANNEL  Negatively charged Cl  hyperpolarization
    9. 9. NEUROTRANSMITTERSNEUROMDULATORS CHEMICALS COMBINE WITH PROTEIN RECEPTORS TO OPEN OR CLOSE ION CHANNELS OR INITIATE SECOND MESSENGER SYSTEM MODIFY NEURON SENSITIVITY TO SYNAPTIC STIMULATION OR INHIBITION
    10. 10. PERIPHERALENDINGSSENSORY NEURON RECEPTORSMOTOR NEURON EFFECTORS
    11. 11. RECEPTORS
    12. 12. RECEPTORS STRUCTURES SPECIALIZED TO DETECT A STIMULUS TRANSDUCERS FOUR TYPES OF INFORMATION  MODALITY  LOCATION  INTENSITY  DURATION
    13. 13. RECEPTORS NEUROEPITHELIAL OLFACTORY CELL BODY OF THE NEURONIS SITUATED PERIPHERALLY NEAR A SENSORY SURFACE & AXON PASSES TO CNS EPITHELIAL GUSTATORY & AUDITORY MODIFIED NON NERVOUS EPITHELIAL CELL INNERVATED BY AN AXON NEURONAL ALL CUTANEOUS & PROPRIOCEPTORS CELL BODY OF A PRIMARY SENSORY NEURON IN THE CRANIO SPINAL GANGLIA WITH AXON ACTING AS SENSORY TERMINAL
    14. 14. CLASSIFICATION1) LOCATION EXTROCEPTORS general & special PROPIOCEPTORS INTEROCEPTORS5) STRUCTURAL ENCAPSULATED NONENCAPSULATED8) STIMULUS MODALITY CHEMO THERM NOCICEPTORS MECHANO & PHOTORECEPTORS
    15. 15. NONENCAPSULATEDFREE NERVE ENDINGSMERKELS DISC
    16. 16. FREE NERVE ENDING C.T. SKIN. MYELINATED & NON MYELINATED MODERATE THERMAL ,LIGHT MECHANICAL & NOXIOUS STIMULI
    17. 17. MERKELS DISC EPIDERMIS of non hairy skin HAIR FOLLICLE NAKED AXON DISC SPECIALIZED EPITHEIAL CELL merkel cell SLOWLY ADAPTING MECHANORECEPTION light touch, texture, edges & shape
    18. 18. ENCAPSULATED
    19. 19. MEISSNERS CORPUSCLE DERMAL PAPILLA OF THICK SKIN CYLINDRICAL C.T. CAPSULE CONTINOUS WITH ENDONEURIUM SURROUNDING A CENTRAL CORE STACKS OF MODIFIED FLATTENED SCHWAN CELLS MYELINATED & NONMYELINATED FIBERS BRANCH & RAMIFY RAPIDLY ADAPTING TOUCH RECEPTORS, DISCRIMINATION END BULB OF KRAUSE MUCOUS MEMBRANE
    20. 20. PACCINIAN CORPUSCLE DERMIS JOINT CAPSULE MAMMARY GLAND CAPSULE OF FLATTENED CELLS FIBERS & MATRIX INTREMEDIATE GROWTH ZONE CELLULAR MITOSIS CONTRIBUTES TO BOTH ZONES SINGLE NON MYELINATED NERVE TERMINAL EXPANEDED END DEEP PRESSURE VIBRATION TENSION
    21. 21. GOLGI TENDON ORGAN TENDON MUSCLE CAPSULE SHEETS OF CELLS SEPARATED BY A BASAL LAMINA FIBERS ON THE OUTSIDE BUNDLE OF TENDON FIBERS HEAVILY MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS FORMING A SPRAY SLOWLY ADAPTING MECHANORECEPTOR
    22. 22. MUSCLE SPINDLE PROPIOCEPTORS > MUSCLES WITH FINE CONTROL DISTRIBUTED IN FLESHY PART OF MUCLE
    23. 23. MUSCLE SPINDLE CAPSULE INTRAFUSAL 3-12 MODIFIED MUSCLE FIBERS NUCLEAR CHAIN & BAG FIBER MIDDLE PORTION ACTS AS STRETCH RECEPTOR TWO ENDS HAVE SARCOMERE (CONTRACTION) NERVE FIBERS EXTRAFUSAL MUSCLE FIBERS
    24. 24. NERVE FIBERS PRIMARY AFFERNT & ANNULOSPIRAL ENDING ONSET OF STRETCH SECONDRY AFFERENT FLOWER SPRAY PROLONGED STRETCH GAMMA EFFERENT CONTRACTILE ENDS OF INTRAFUSAL FIBERS ADJUST TENSION IN THE MUSCLE SPINDLE TO VARIATION IN LENGTH OF MUSCLE
    25. 25.  When a muscle shortens the gamma motor neurons stimulate the ends of intrafusal muscle fibers to contract slightly keeping them taut & responsive without this during contraction of extrafusal fibers they would become flabby

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