Career Planning and Succession Planning - Principles of Human Resource Management
Career Planning and Succession
Meaning of Career Planning
Career planning is the process by which one selects career goals and the
path to these goals.
Career development is those personal improvements one undertakes to
achieve a personal career plan.
Career management is the process of designing and implementing
goals, plans and strategies to enable the organization to satisfy
employee needs while allowing individuals to achieve their career goals
Need for Career Planning
Career Planning is necessary due to the following reasons:
To attract competent persons and to retain them in the organization.
To provide suitable promotional opportunities.
To enable the employees to develop and take them ready to meet the
To increase the utilization of managerial reserves within an
Process of Career Planning and Development
i. Analysis of individual skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitudes etc.
ii. Analysis of career opportunities both within and outside the organization.
iii. Analysis of career demands on the incumbent in terms of skills, knowledge,
abilities, aptitude etc., and in terms of qualifications, experience and
training received etc.
iv. Relating specific jobs to different career opportunities.
v. Establishing realistic goals both short-term and long-term.
vi. Formulating career strategy covering areas of change and adjustment.
vii. Preparing and implementing action plan including acquiring resources for
Steps involved in Career Development
Step 1: Needs: Defining the present system
Step 2: Vision: Determining New Directions and Possibilities
Step 3: Action Plan: Deciding on practical first steps
Step 4: Results: Maintaining the change
Pre-requisites for the success of career
Strong commitment of the top management in career planning, succession
planning and development.
Organization should develop, expand and diversify its activities at a phased
Organization should frame clear corporate goals.
Organization should have self-motivated, committed and hard working
Organization’s goal in selection should be selecting the most suitable
man and place him in the right job.
Organization should take care of the proper age composition in
manpower planning and in selection.
Organization should take steps to minimize career stress.
Organization should have fair promotion policy.
Organization should publicize widely the career planning and
Advantages of Career Planning and
satisfies employee esteem needs
improves employee’s performance
on the job
enhances employee commitment
Increases morale of an employee.
ensures the availability of
human resources with required
skill, knowledge and talent.
improve the organization’s
ability to attract and retain
highly skilled employees.
satisfy the employee
Protecting employees’ interest
Limitations of career planning
Dual Career Families
Declining Career Opportunities
Low ceiling careers
Downsizing/Delayering and careers
Suggestions for effective career development
Challenging Initial Job Assignments
Dissemination of Career Option Information
Succession may be from internal employees or external people.
Succession from internal employees is advantageous to the organization as
well as to the internal employees.
Organization can buy the employees loyalty and commitment,
belongingness, shared feeling of development along with the organization by
promoting the internal employees.
Employees get the benefits of growth in the organization.
The organization mostly prefers to encourage the growth and development of its
employees and as such tends to prefer succession from within.
Organizations, appraise employee’s potentialities, identify training gaps for
future vacancies, and develop them for higher and varied jobs.
The scope of succession plan would be more when the organization grows
steadily and employees have potentialities to take up higher responsibilities.
Need for Succession Planning
Key staff will need to be replaced
Work outputs and corporate objectives must continue to be met despite
resignations, illness, vacations and restructuring.
To meet staff’s desire for new and challenging roles.
To fill the skill and knowledge shortages
Natural Selection : Filling positions from those internal employees that
are fittest or best or hiring from outside the organization if not enough
people found within.
Acceleration pool : Investing in nurturing the skills of high potential
staff through coaching, training, leadership positions and important
Enabling seamless transition
Back up staff
Having skills and knowledge for
emergency situations as well as
Enhanced staff motivation
Reduced cost and time for
training for replacement
Difficulty in selecting the right
people and determining their
Potential for grooming for
positions that may not be there
in the future
Difficulties in maintaining the
Possibility of poaching by other
Inherent cost of training and
Clarity of purpose and desired results of the program, and desired
i. Effective follow up and review of the progress
ii. Documentation of competencies
iii. Rewards for both the mentor and the mentee
iv. Evaluate results – through availability of staff with key skills
v. CEO and leadership involvement in the process