EARLY SIGNALING AND TELEGRAPHY Semaphore - a type of signaling, in which visual cues represent letters or words. Morse code - the transmission of a series of short and long pulses (dots and dashes) that represented characters. Duplexing - simultaneously transmitting a signal in both directions along the same wire. Multiplexing - simultaneously transmitting an indeterminate number of multiple signals over one circuit.
EARLY SIGNALING AND TELEGRAPHY 1856 - Western Union Telegraph Company was founded. 1861 – Over two thousand telegraph offices operated across the United States.
TELEPHONE TECHNOLOGY 1878- The first telephone exchange opened in New Haven, Connecticut. Connected 21 separate lines.
TELEPHONE TECHNOLOGY In the mid-20th century AT&T integrated electronics into crossbar switches 1965 – first electronic switching system was used Handled up to 65,000 two-way voice circuits. Until 1970 all telephone switches depended on a continuous physical connection to complete and maintain the call.
WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY 1894- Italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi a method of transmitting electromagnetic signals through the air. His invention relied on an induction coil.
WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Vacuum tube - a sealed container made of glass, metal, or ceramic, that contains, in a vacuum, a charged plate that transmits current to a filament. Audion - patented in 1907by DeForest, is a type of vacuum tube that contains an additional electrode in the middle of the positive and negative electrodes. Boosts or amplifies a signal. First instants of signal amplification and it formed the basis for all subsequent radio and television advances. 1912- Edwin Armstrong improved the Audion. He discovered that by feeding the signal back the tube the power of the Audion could be increased.
WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Geosynchronous - means that satellites orbit the earth at the same rate as the earth turns. Uplink - a broadcast from an earth-based transmitter to an orbiting satellite. At the satellite, a transponder receives the uplink, then transmits the signals to another earth-based location in a downlink.
THE ONSLAUGHT OF MOBILE BROADBAND: WIRED EXPECTATIONS IN A WIRELESS WORLD! 1995 2000 2006 2009 What it means! Voice + Text, Email + Narrowband + Mobile Internet Broadband Demand for broadband is an opportunity & threat Dual mode (Wi-Fi, Access Cellular) is here to stay Carriers MUST deliver “true” broadband Broadband = huge Multiple T1s backhaul demandBackhaul Metro Ethernet Fractional T1s T1s Today’s cellular data Microwave Wireless Mesh networks won’t scale Circuit switched voice Voice Data infrastructure declines Traffic Dominant Dominant Packet-based IP networks dominate True broadband is an economic imperative All About Voice Starts to All About Mobility premium based ARPU on data experience Voice Commoditize Data Great companies will emerge from transition Source: BelAir Networks 2007
WIRELESS BROADBAND EVOLUTION Network Evolution Mobile Device Evolution Service Evolution• All-IP Network For Fixed-Mobile • Convergence of Communication, • User Behaviors Trend Convergence (VoIP & data) Computing & CE Platforms from Wired to Wireless• Co-existence of Different Access • Same Rich IP Apps and • Multi-mode Devices Connect Networks for Various Needs Services in all Environments to Various Access Networks –Coverage, Mobility, Capacity, –Ubiquitous & Consistent QoS, Data Rates … –Service Requirements, Experience Desired Availability, Cost …
Trend of Telecom Convergence 14 - Mobile evolution Mobile technologies are rolling out 3G and HSDPA to provide a access network with higher speeds. Speed (bit/s) 10MHSDPA High quality video3G/ 1MWCDMA Medium quality video 384 k Mobile officeEDGE Internet Graphics 115 kGPRS Internet Text 56 k VoiceGSM 10 k Messaging SMS 1k
NATIONAL TELECOM POLICY Divided into 22 Jammu & Kashmir circles Punjab Himachal Pradesh Uttar North Eastern 4 metros Haryana Pradesh W States DELHI 19 circles Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh E Bihar Further divided into Gujarat Madhya Pradesh West Bengal A, B and C category Maharashtra Orissa KOLKATA based on economic MUMBAI Andhra parameters and Karnataka Pradesh METRO Circles revenue potential CHENNAI A Circles Each circle has a licenses Kerala Tamil Nadu B Circles Four operators per circle C Circles are allowed Source :COAI 15 Licenses are saleable
9/11/2012 Various important regulations and laws have been passed in the Indian telecom industry post-liberalisation era Department of Telecommunication (DoT) is the main body formulating laws and various regulations for the Indian telecom industry. BSNL was Intra-circle establishe merger Independent ILD services Private d by DoT guidelines Number regulator, was opened to Attempted players were to boost portability was TRAI, was competition Calling Party established Rural were proposed established Go-ahead to Pays (CPP) was allowed in telephony (pending) the CDMA implemented Value technology Added 1994 1999 2002 2003 2004 2005 2007 Services 1992 2000 Internet Unified 2006 1997INDIA telephony Access initiated Licensing Broadband (UASL) policy 2004 Decision on 3G National Telecom NTP-99 led to Reduction regime was was services migration from of licence Reference introduced formulated— Policy (NTP) Interconne (awaited) high-cost fixed fees targeting 20 was ct order license fee to million formulated was issued low-cost subscribers by 2010 FDI limit revenue was sharing regime increased from 49 to 74 percent ILD – International Long Distance 16
BASIC TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES1.1 Digitalization• The development from analogue to digital is by far the most fundamental precondition for any other technological changes we have witnessed in recent years.• Digitalization enables the integration of different services in the same network and enables synergy to be reaped in the whole value chain of service- production, distribution and consumption.• Furthermore, digitalization enables expansion of resources in the access and core networks in a technical and cost efficient way.Three main technologies that have been important to realise digitalization ofcommunication technologies and infrastructures:1. Compression2. Modulation3. Forward Error Correction (FEC) 19
BASIC TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES1.2 Computerization• Another vital fundamental development has been the deployment of computers in the production and consumption parts as well as within the network infrastructures.• The role of computers in production and consumption parts is quite obvious, but seen in the light of the objective of this Toolkit, it is important to emphasize the role of computers in the development of network infrastructures, including the deployment of computers in the network nodes as a replacement for switches and as devices adding intelligence to the network nodes.• Furthermore, the processing power affects the spectrum use and management. 20
BASIC TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES1.3 Packet-based Switching• Packet switched technologies have had an important role in the more efficient utilization of the available resources in different network infrastructures and the creation of platforms enabling multi-service delivery in the same network, enabling real convergence.• Different packet technologies have been developed with different advantages/disadvantages. Internet Protocol (IP) is the most successful packet- based technology and the dominant paradigm of today’s ICT infrastructures. 21
CUSTOMER NEEDS Simultaneous Phone + Internet Use Enhanced Graphics & Email Faster Access to Maps, Directions, Directory ServicesAudio and Video Streaming Telecommuting Distance Learning Secure Transactions Telewebbing
Telephony services (mobile and basic) and Internet servicesdominate the Indian telecom servicesThe Indian telecom market generated revenues of approximately USD 20 billion in 2006–07. It registered a CAGR ofapproximately 22 percent from 2002–03 to 2006–07. The CAGR from 2006–07 to 2009–10 is expected to stabilise at 21percent. Apart from mobile telephony services, other value-added services are also gaining importance. Revenues of Indian Telecom Industry: 2002–07 (USD billion) 50 Revenues (USD billion) 43 Registered an 40 annual growth of 33 percent in 2006–07 30 Telecom Services – India 20 20 15 9 10 11 10 0 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 ….. …. 2009-10 The Indian telecom services can be divided predominantly into basic, mobile and Internet services. It also comprises smaller segments, such as radio paging services, Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), Public Mobile Radio Trunked Services (PMRTS) and Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite (GMPCS). The growth witnessed in the mobile services and Internet services segments was higher as compared to other services, such as basic services and radio paging services. 25
9/11/2012MAJOR PLAYERS IN DIFFERENT SEGMENTS OF INDIANTELECOM INDUSTRY BASIC SERVICES OPERATORS MOBILE SERVICES GSM SERVICES BSNL OPERATORS Airtel MTNL Vodafone Reliance Idea TTSL Reliance BSNL INTERNET SERVICES OPERATORS BSNL CDMA Services Operators MTNL Reliance Reliance TTSL TTSL BSNL Airtel TTSL – Tata 26 Teleservices Ltd.
Names of CompaniesAAircel Cellular LimitedAishwarya Telecom LtdAksh Optifibre Ltd.Anco Communications Ltd.Astra Microwave Products Ltd.Avaya Globalconnect LtdBBhagyanagar India Ltd.Bharti AirtelBharti TeletechBirla Ericsson Optical Ltd.CCable Corporation of India Ltd.CMI Ltd.Cybele Industries Ltd.DDelton Cables Ltd.Dhanus Technologies Ltd.
VValiant Communications Ltd.Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd.Vindhya Telelinks LtdVodafone Group PlcXXL Telecom & Energy Ltd.
EMERGING TREND “IP-TELEPHONY” •IP telephony has emerged as the dominant architecture for future voice communications. As the line between voice and data applications continues to blur, new innovative features and services will continue to emerge that will drive measurable business value. While most IP growth today is concentrated in smaller, more nimble organizations, some large deployments are under way. •IP based voice is universally regarded as the future of telecommunications.
EMERGING TREND “Long Term Evolution (LTE)” Long Term Evolution (LTE), the emerging cellular networking approach that is in the midst of a widescale rollout, is one of highest profile new technologies. It has taken hold and today is providing users with mobile connectivity comparable to a cable modem or DSL connection. To date, however, LTE only carries data. Next on the agenda is the far more demanding task of carrying voice over LTE, or VoLTE. Planning and testing is well under way, and services are likely by the end of this year or the beginning of next.
EMERGING TREND “NGWs”Next Generation Networks, multiple access networks canconnect customers to a core network based on IPtechnology. These access networks include fiber optics orcoaxial cable networks connected to fixed locations orcustomers connected through Wi-Fi as well as to 3Gnetworks connected to mobile users.As a result, in the future, it would be impossible to identifywhether the next generation network is a fixed or mobilenetwork and the wireless access broadband would be usedboth for fixed and mobile services. It would then be futile todifferentiate between fixed and mobile networks both fixedand mobile users will access services through a single corenetwork. Cloud based data services are expected to come.
9/11/2012EMERGING TREND “4G”One standard known as IEEE 802.16e (belonging to the Mobile WiMax family) is now commercially available and is a 37 precursor to 4G.Comprehensive IP SOLUTION on “Anytime Anywhere” basis.BSNL has license in India.To make India a leader in telecom technology TeNet created CeWiT (Centre of Excellence in Wireless Technology) to do research in 4G.
EMERGING TREND “Nanotechnology:5G”A practical method for direct writing of metal lines less than fivenanometers (5 nm) wide, a big step in creating contacts to andinterconnects between nanoscale device structures like carbonnanotubes and graphene that have potential uses in electronicsapplications.
INDIA PRESENTS A HOST OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR TELECOM COMPANIES Infrastructure Rural Sharing Managed Telephony Services Value-Added Growth Virtual Private Services Avenues Network WiMax Enterprise Telecom 3G Services To reduce their network deployment costs, many service providers are considering infrastructure sharing offers the following advantages:Virtual Private Network is a private data network Improved service qualitythat provides connectivity within closed user groups via Increased affordability for customerspublic telecommunication infrastructure. Competition is Faster roll out of services in rural and remote areaslikely to heat up in the VPN segment as DoT has Significant reduction in initial set up costsrelaxed the norms for private players. Increased environmental aesthetics Lower operating costs for service providersEnterprise Telecom Services includes keyservices, such as voice over Internet protocol (VoIP), Managed services is another segment that is attracting telecom companies.dedicated telecom communication systems, IT On account of the rapidly growing subscriber base, service providers find it difficultinfrastructure enabled unified communication services, to manage their infrastructure and network management operations. In suchetc. Telecom service providers are increasingly targeting cases, they completely or partially outsource their infrastructure or networkenterprises by providing dedicated services and is management operations.expected to witness major developments in near future. 39
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES – 3G AND WIMAX TO ASSIST IN PENETRATION OFTELECOM SERVICES IN INDIA The Indian government plans to auction the spectrum for 3G services by inviting bids from domestic as well as foreign players, and creating a competitive environment that offers better services to consumers. Therefore, the 3G spectrum is among the major investment opportunities and growth drivers of the telecom industry. The immense potential for 3G is reflected by the 30–40 percent annual growth in Value- Added Services. Cell phone manufacturers are striving to develop USD 100 priced 3G handsets for the Indian market. India expects to replicate its 2G growth in 3G services. WiMAX has been one of the most significant developments in wireless communication in the recent past. Since this mode of communication provides network access in inaccessible locations at a speed of more than 4 Mbps, it is expected to be a major factor in driving telecom services in India, especially wireless services. Thus, it will lead to the increased use of telecom services, Internet, value-added services and enterprise services. WiMAX is expected to accelerate economic growth and assist in providing better education, healthcare and entertainment services. It is estimated that India will have 13 million WiMAX subscribers by 2012. Aircel is the pioneer in WiMAX technology in India. The state-owned player, BSNL, aims to connect 74,000 villages through WiMAX. Bharti, Reliance and VSNL have acquired licenses in the 3.3GHz range to utilise the opportunities offered by this domain. 40
Value-Added Services and Rural Telephony holds large marketpotential in IndiaValue-Added Services in India (2006–07) The VAS industry was worth USD 632 million in Person to Application & Game & Data, 7% 2006–07. The industry is estimated to grow by 60 Application to Others (MMS percent in 2007–08 and become an USD 1,011 Person SMS, 15% etc.), 3% million opportunity. Ringtone Dow nload, 35% Person to Person SMS, 40% The VAS industry is currently focussing on the entertainment sector, such as the Indian film industry and cricket; however, there is scope for growth in other avenues as utility-based services, such as location information and mobile transactions. Rural Telephony Urban Rural Teledensity in India 50 As the government targets to increase rural teledensity 40 Teledensity (%) from the current 2 percent to 25 percent by 2012, rural telephony will require major investments. This 30 segment will boost the demand for telecom services, 20 equipment, Internet services and other value-added 10 services; thereby, offering great market opportunities for telecom players. 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 At Year Ending March Urban Total Rural 41
9/11/2012•Internet Protocol TV•Also called Triple play.• Currently available in Jaipur , Delhi, Mumbai, Jodhpur,and a few more cities have been added to the list. 42