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SC/ST welfare
Subject:-Introduction to fields of social work-I
PRESENTED BY:
PROF. RAHUL MAHIDA
What is a “caste”?
Since the great majority of Indians are Hindu, the caste
system has played an enormous role in the history of
India, and it continues to exert tremendous influence on
modern Indian culture and politics.
"Caste" is the term used to describe the complex system
of social divisions that pervades life in India. Caste is an
ancient hereditary system that developed alongside and
became intertwined with Hinduism. Caste determines
whom a person can marry, specifies what kind of work he
can do, and even controls what he can eat or touch.
Where does this system come from?
The most widely accepted
theory is that the four
basic divisions of the
Hindu caste system—the
varna—developed in the
period 1500-1000 B.C. as
a result of the Aryan
conquest of India.
Where does this system come from?
The earliest known mention of caste is found in
the Aryan’s Vedic hymns, perhaps dating from
about 1000 B.C.E. In a famous passage, the
metaphor of the human body was used to
describe Indian society. The brahman, or
priestly, caste represents society's head; the
kshatriya, or warrior, caste are its arms; the
vaishya caste—traders and landowners—are
the legs; and the sudra caste—the servants of
the other three—are the feet.
This metaphor stresses the idea of hierarchy as
well as that of interdependence.
What is SC/ST??
SC stand for Schedule
caste
&
ST stand for Schedule
Tribes
Scheduled caste
 We can define the Schedule castes as those
economically, socially, educationally, and
politically backward caste which are kept at a
distance by the other caste as “untouchable”
 They also known as:
 Chamars, Jatavs, Mahars, Billavas, Dhobi, edigas, korama,
Machigars, samagaras.
And many more you can find on Government of India
web Site.
Scheduled Castes : 166,635,700 16.2%
Untouchable
s
Inevitably, there were certain people who
failed to live up to their caste dharma.
Such people and their children were
considered outcasts from Hindu society.
They had to live apart from other castes
and were given the jobs that no one else
wanted to perform. Because of their
contact with things considered unclean
or polluted, the outcasts were believed to
be deeply tainted. They came to be
thought of as "untouchable" because
people believed that their touch—or even
the sight of them—would compromise a
brahman's purity. The untouchables were
not admitted into Hindu temples and
instead formed religious sects of their
own.
Harijans or “Scheduled Castes”
Over the centuries, they also
organized into sub-castes much
like those of orthodox Hindu
society. In the 20th century,
Mahatma Gandhi made it one of
his life's goals to bring the
untouchables back into Hindu
society. He renamed them the
harijans, or "children of God,"
and tried to convince orthodox
Hindus to admit them into their
temples and their everyday lives.
Harijans or “Scheduled Castes”
However, other leaders doubted that
upper-caste Hindus would ever treat
the harijans as equals. Dr. B. R.
Ambedkar, a distinguished scholar who
had been born an "untouchable," was
a leading spokesman for this view. He
used the term scheduled castes when
referring to this group, for he believed
that the term harijans was demeaning.
The scheduled castes, he said, should
withdraw from Hinduism altogether
and join another religion, such as
Buddhism, which does not recognize
caste distinctions.
Problems of the Scheduled
Castes
Social Restriction and Disabilities of the scheduled castes
1. Lowest status in the hierarchy
2. Education disabilities
3. Civic disabilities prevention from the use of the public
places
-Religious disabilities
-Economic disabilities
-Political disabilities
Reality
 The Varna system which was existed during the Vedic
period in course of time degenerated into the caste
system. Since then, the schedule caste who are know
as “untouchables” have been suffering from various
social, religious, legal, political, economic, educational,
and other disabilities.
 For the centuries they were denied political
representation, legal rights, civic facilities, educational
privileges and economic opportunities.
 During the British rule also nothing was done to uplift
the SC/ST and to a relieve them from their bondages.
 Even today the Varna system is still exist in India. And
still practicing.
Upliftment of the scheduled caste
Introduction
• Of all the sections the shudras, once put on the lowest rung of the social
hierarchy were destined to suffer all types of deprivations. These untouchables
and depressed classes came to be designated as Scheduled Castes.
• The term first appeared in the Government of India Act, 1935. In April 1936,
the British Government had issued the Government of India (Scheduled Castes)
Order, 1936 specifying certain castes, races, and tribes as Scheduled Castes in
the then provinces of Assam, Bombay, Bengal, Bihar, Central Provinces and
Berar, Madras, Orissa, Punjab and United Provinces.
PROGRAMMES
1.APPOINTMENT OF A NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE WELFARE
OF SC.
2. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES.
3. EXPANSION OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES.
4. EXPANSION OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND RESERVATION.
5. UPLIFTMENT OF SC THROUGH FIVE YEAR PLANS.
6. OTHERS PROGRAMMES.
Scheduled Tribes
The tribal people were the earliest among the present
inhabitants of India. there still in primitive stages and are far
from them impact of modern civilization. They live in forest
areas , hills, mountainous places and deep valley.
The known by various names such as – primitive tribes, animists, jungle people,
adivasis, aboriginals, original inhabitants of India and so on.
Scheduled Tribes : 84,326,240 8.2%
A tribe is a group of local communities which lives in a common area, speaks a
common dialect and follow a common culture. - Gillin and Gillin
Distribution of Tribes:
•North-eastern zone
•The central zone
•The southern zone
The scheduled tribes population
• The 2001 census put the number of persons belonging to
Scheduled Tribes in India at 84.3 million which is 8.2% of
the total population.
• -There were about 60 major tribal groups
• -Over 100 medium tribal groups and 130 minor tribal
groups.
• According to 2001 census, STs are largest in MP followed by
Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Jharkhand. The ST
formed the largest proportion of the total population in
Lakshadweep, Mizoram and Nagaland.
• The decadal population growth between the census years
1981-1991 in tribal population has been higher at 31.64%
than that for the entire population at 23.51.
Exploitation and Unrest of the
tribes For ages tribals are considered primitive segment of Indian
society. They lived in forests and hills without any contact with
civilizations.
 During British rule they consolidated their position and their
political aspirations and administrative needs necessitated to
open up the entire country.
 The British introduced the system of landownership and revenue.
Annual tax was trebled which was beyond the paying capacity of
tribal cultivators.
 Many nontribals began to settle in the tribal areas offering credit
facilities. Initially it provided relief to tribals but gradually the
system became exploitative.
 Over the years the tribal population faced all types of
exploitation. This aroused the tribal leaders to mobilize the tribals
and start agitations.
Thus it is the cumulative result of a number of factors. Indifference
from administrators and bureaucracy in dealing with tribal
grievances.
 Harsh and unfriendly forest laws and regulations.
 Lack of legislation to prevent the passing of tribal land
into the hands of non-tribals.
 Lack of credit facilities.
 Ineffective government measures to rehabilitate tribal
population.
 Delay in implementation of recommendations of different
committee
 Discrimination in implementation of reform measures.
Problems of tribal communities
Land Alienation:
Began during British colonialism in India when the British interfered
in the tribal region for the purpose of exploiting the tribal natural
resources. Coupled with this tribal lands were occupied by
moneylenders, zamindars and traders by advancing them loans
etc.
• After the British came to power, the Forest policy of the British
Government was more inclined towards commercial
considerations rather than human.
• Some forests were declared as reserved ones where only
authorized contractors were allowed to cut the timber and the
forest -dwellers were kept isolated deliberately within their
habitat without any effort to ameliorate their economic and
educational standards.
Poverty and Indebtedness
Majority tribes live under poverty line. The tribes follow
many simple occupations based on simple technology.
• Most of the occupation falls into the primary occupations
such as hunting, gathering, and agriculture.
• The technology they use for these purposes belong to the
most primitive kind. There is no profit and surplus making in
such economy.
• Hence there per capita income is very meager much lesser
than the Indian average. Most of them live under abject
poverty and are in debt in the hands of local moneylenders
and Zamindars.
• In order to repay the debt they often mortgage or sell their
land to the moneylenders.
• Indebtedness is almost inevitable since heavy interest is to
be paid to these moneylenders.
Health and Nutrition
In many parts of India tribal population suffers from chronic
infections and diseases out of which water borne diseases are life
threatening.
 They also suffer from deficiency diseases. The Himalayan tribes
suffer from goiter due to lack of iodine. Leprosy and tuberculosis
are also common among them.
 Infant mortality was found to be very high among some of the
tribes. Malnutrition is common and has affected the general
health of the tribal children as it lowers the ability to resist
infection, leads to chronic illness and sometimes leads to brain
impairment.
 The ecological imbalance like cutting of trees have increased the
distances between villages and the forest areas thus forcing tribal
women to walk longer distances in search of forest produce and
firewood.
Education
 Educationally the tribal population is at different levels of development but
overall the formal education has made very little impact on tribal groups.
 Earlier Government had no direct programme for their education. But in
the subsequent years the reservation policy has made some changes.
 There are many reasons for low level of education among the tribal people:
Formal education is not considered necessary to discharge their social
obligations.
 Superstitions and myths play an important role in rejecting education.
Most tribes live in abject poverty. It is not easy for them to send their
children to schools, as they are considered extra helping hands.
 The formal schools do not hold any special interest for the children.
 Most of the tribes are located in interior and remote areas where teachers
would not like to go from outside.
Tribal Struggles
Numerous uprisings of the tribals have taken place beginning with the one
in Bihar in 1772 followed by many revolts in Andhra Pradesh, Andaman and
Nicobar Islands,Arunchal Pradesh,Assam,Mizoram and Nagaland.The
important tribes involved in revolt in the 19th century were Mizos
(1810),Kols(1795&1831),Mundas (1889),Daflas (1875),Khasi and Garo (1829)
After independence the Tribal struggle may be classified into three groups:
 Struggles due to exploitation of the outsiders.
 Struggles due to economic deprivations
 Struggle due to separatist tendencies
The tribal movements may also be classified on the basis of their orientation
into four types:
 Movements seeking political autonomy and formation of separate state.
 Agrarian movement
 Forest -based movements
 Socio-religious movements
Most of the tribal movements were result of oppression and
discrimination, neglect and backwardness and apathy of
government towards tribal problems.
Tana Bhagat Movement
In the Tana Bhagat movement an attempt was made to emulate
the way of life of the Hindu higher castes.
• It emerged among the Oraon of Chotanagpur; Bihar.
• It tried to raise the status of its members in the eyes of the
surrounding Hindu society and was characterized by a large scale
incorporation of Hindu belief-practices into its ideology.
Birsa Munda Movement
During the second half of the 19th century the whole of
Chotanagpur underwent a tremendous change.
• The old Munda system of Khuntakatti tenure gave way to a new
and alien system of exploitation by the landlords known as jagirdar
and thikadar.
• In 1895 Birsa Munda of Chalkad started a movement. In him the
Munda found the embodiment of their aspiration.
• He gave them leadership, a religion and a code of life. He held
before them the prospect of Munda Raj in place of foreign rule.
SC, ST, OBC
 Scheduled Castes (SC) 16.8%
 Scheduled Castes (ST) 8%
 Other Backward Classes 27% (or more)
Even with conservative estimates, it appears that more than 50%
of India’s population suffers systematic disadvantage and
depravation
THE CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE MEASURES
THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA HAS INCORPORATED SOME SPECIAL PROVISIONS
IN ITS CONSTITUTION FOR THE REMOVAL OF UNTOUCHABILITY AND TO
PROMOTE THE WELFARE OF ST AND SC
ARTICLES 15,16,17,38 AND 46 GUARANTEE THAT THE STATE SHALL NOT
DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN PERSONS ON ACCOUNT OF THEIR RELIGION OR REGION
AND CASTE OR CLASS.
A - 15 PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF RELIGION, CASTE, RACE,
SEX OR PLACE OF BIRTH.
A - 17 ABOLISHES UNTOUCHABILITY. IT IS FURTHER PROVIDED THAT THE
ENFORCEMENT OF ANY DISABILITY ARISING OUT OF UNTOUCHABILITY SHALL BE
AN OFFENCE PUNISHABLE IN ACCORDANCE WITH LAW.
A - 46 PROMOTES EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS OF SC, ST AND
OTHER WEAKER SECTION.
A - 330 RESERVES REPRESENTATION FOR SC AND ST IN HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE.
A - 334 RELATES TO RESERVATION OF SEATS AND SPECIAL REPRESENTATION TO
CEASE AFTER FIFTY YEARS.
A - 335 MENTIONS THE CLAIMS OF SC AND ST TO SERVICES COMMISSION FOR
SC AND ST.
‘ATROCITY ACT’
 DEFINING ATROCITY:
 The term was not defined until act was passed
by the parliament.
 Atrocity is an expression commonly used to
refer to crime against ST/SC in India.
 It signifies crime where victims are member of
SC and offender do not belong to SC
considerations are really root cause of crime.
ABOUT THE ATROCITY ACT
 The act was enacted by the parliament of India
on 9th september,1989 (Act 33).
 The act was implemented to prevent the
atrocities against SC/ST.
 It extends whole of India except the state of
Jammu & Kashmir.
 Article 17 enacted in 1955 to abolish
untouchability with objective to remove
humiliation &multifaceted harassments of
dalits.
Major provisions
 Provision of criminal law: It establishes criminal
liability for a no. of specifically defined atrocities &
extends scope of certain categories of penalties given
in Indian penal code.
 Provision for relief and compensation for victims of
atrocities.
 Provision that establishes special authorities for the
implementation & monitoring of the act.
 Provision made to organize seminar on prevention of
untouchability with expenditure of Rs 30,000 at
district level & Rs 3000 at taluka level.
 Provision to establish 25 awareness centres at all 25
district through non-government organizations to
sanction grant up to 15,000.
Offences
 Forceful consumption of uneatable substance or drinking harmful drink.
 Sustaining injury, insult and harassment.
 Act of humiliation.
 Unlawful occupation of land or cultivation etc.
 Offence with respect to land, space and water.
 Bonded, forced labor.
 Prevention of Casting of vote.
 False biased or harassing legal proceedings.
 False and insignificant information.
 Insult, threats and humiliation.
 Outraging the modesty of a woman.
 Sexual exploitation of a woman.
 Polluting water.
 Completely demolished/ burnt houses etc……
Compensation
 Every person victimized shall be paid compensation of Rs.
25,000 or more as under in proportionate to the disrespect, insult
and injury of defamation sustained by him according to the kind
of offence and its gravity –
(1) 25% at the time of filing charge sheet before the Court:
(2) 75% at the time when the accused is held guilty by the lower
court
 Compensation up to Rs. 20,000 to each victim on the basis
of the nature and gravity of the offence.
 After the trial of accused is over, a compensation of Rs.
25,000 or the actual loss and expenditure incurred,
whichever is less.
 In case houses are demolished or put to flame, same to be
reconstructed at Government cost with bricks and stones
and provide to the victims.
Thank
you
Presentation By:
Prof. Rahul Mahida
Faculty of Social Work
Parul University

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SC ST (schedule caste ,Schedule Tribe)welfare

  • 1. SC/ST welfare Subject:-Introduction to fields of social work-I PRESENTED BY: PROF. RAHUL MAHIDA
  • 2. What is a “caste”? Since the great majority of Indians are Hindu, the caste system has played an enormous role in the history of India, and it continues to exert tremendous influence on modern Indian culture and politics. "Caste" is the term used to describe the complex system of social divisions that pervades life in India. Caste is an ancient hereditary system that developed alongside and became intertwined with Hinduism. Caste determines whom a person can marry, specifies what kind of work he can do, and even controls what he can eat or touch.
  • 3. Where does this system come from? The most widely accepted theory is that the four basic divisions of the Hindu caste system—the varna—developed in the period 1500-1000 B.C. as a result of the Aryan conquest of India.
  • 4. Where does this system come from? The earliest known mention of caste is found in the Aryan’s Vedic hymns, perhaps dating from about 1000 B.C.E. In a famous passage, the metaphor of the human body was used to describe Indian society. The brahman, or priestly, caste represents society's head; the kshatriya, or warrior, caste are its arms; the vaishya caste—traders and landowners—are the legs; and the sudra caste—the servants of the other three—are the feet. This metaphor stresses the idea of hierarchy as well as that of interdependence.
  • 5. What is SC/ST?? SC stand for Schedule caste & ST stand for Schedule Tribes
  • 6. Scheduled caste  We can define the Schedule castes as those economically, socially, educationally, and politically backward caste which are kept at a distance by the other caste as “untouchable”  They also known as:  Chamars, Jatavs, Mahars, Billavas, Dhobi, edigas, korama, Machigars, samagaras. And many more you can find on Government of India web Site. Scheduled Castes : 166,635,700 16.2%
  • 7. Untouchable s Inevitably, there were certain people who failed to live up to their caste dharma. Such people and their children were considered outcasts from Hindu society. They had to live apart from other castes and were given the jobs that no one else wanted to perform. Because of their contact with things considered unclean or polluted, the outcasts were believed to be deeply tainted. They came to be thought of as "untouchable" because people believed that their touch—or even the sight of them—would compromise a brahman's purity. The untouchables were not admitted into Hindu temples and instead formed religious sects of their own.
  • 8. Harijans or “Scheduled Castes” Over the centuries, they also organized into sub-castes much like those of orthodox Hindu society. In the 20th century, Mahatma Gandhi made it one of his life's goals to bring the untouchables back into Hindu society. He renamed them the harijans, or "children of God," and tried to convince orthodox Hindus to admit them into their temples and their everyday lives.
  • 9. Harijans or “Scheduled Castes” However, other leaders doubted that upper-caste Hindus would ever treat the harijans as equals. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, a distinguished scholar who had been born an "untouchable," was a leading spokesman for this view. He used the term scheduled castes when referring to this group, for he believed that the term harijans was demeaning. The scheduled castes, he said, should withdraw from Hinduism altogether and join another religion, such as Buddhism, which does not recognize caste distinctions.
  • 10. Problems of the Scheduled Castes Social Restriction and Disabilities of the scheduled castes 1. Lowest status in the hierarchy 2. Education disabilities 3. Civic disabilities prevention from the use of the public places -Religious disabilities -Economic disabilities -Political disabilities
  • 11. Reality  The Varna system which was existed during the Vedic period in course of time degenerated into the caste system. Since then, the schedule caste who are know as “untouchables” have been suffering from various social, religious, legal, political, economic, educational, and other disabilities.  For the centuries they were denied political representation, legal rights, civic facilities, educational privileges and economic opportunities.  During the British rule also nothing was done to uplift the SC/ST and to a relieve them from their bondages.  Even today the Varna system is still exist in India. And still practicing.
  • 12. Upliftment of the scheduled caste Introduction • Of all the sections the shudras, once put on the lowest rung of the social hierarchy were destined to suffer all types of deprivations. These untouchables and depressed classes came to be designated as Scheduled Castes. • The term first appeared in the Government of India Act, 1935. In April 1936, the British Government had issued the Government of India (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1936 specifying certain castes, races, and tribes as Scheduled Castes in the then provinces of Assam, Bombay, Bengal, Bihar, Central Provinces and Berar, Madras, Orissa, Punjab and United Provinces.
  • 13. PROGRAMMES 1.APPOINTMENT OF A NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE WELFARE OF SC. 2. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES. 3. EXPANSION OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES. 4. EXPANSION OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND RESERVATION. 5. UPLIFTMENT OF SC THROUGH FIVE YEAR PLANS. 6. OTHERS PROGRAMMES.
  • 14. Scheduled Tribes The tribal people were the earliest among the present inhabitants of India. there still in primitive stages and are far from them impact of modern civilization. They live in forest areas , hills, mountainous places and deep valley. The known by various names such as – primitive tribes, animists, jungle people, adivasis, aboriginals, original inhabitants of India and so on. Scheduled Tribes : 84,326,240 8.2% A tribe is a group of local communities which lives in a common area, speaks a common dialect and follow a common culture. - Gillin and Gillin Distribution of Tribes: •North-eastern zone •The central zone •The southern zone
  • 15. The scheduled tribes population • The 2001 census put the number of persons belonging to Scheduled Tribes in India at 84.3 million which is 8.2% of the total population. • -There were about 60 major tribal groups • -Over 100 medium tribal groups and 130 minor tribal groups. • According to 2001 census, STs are largest in MP followed by Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Jharkhand. The ST formed the largest proportion of the total population in Lakshadweep, Mizoram and Nagaland. • The decadal population growth between the census years 1981-1991 in tribal population has been higher at 31.64% than that for the entire population at 23.51.
  • 16. Exploitation and Unrest of the tribes For ages tribals are considered primitive segment of Indian society. They lived in forests and hills without any contact with civilizations.  During British rule they consolidated their position and their political aspirations and administrative needs necessitated to open up the entire country.  The British introduced the system of landownership and revenue. Annual tax was trebled which was beyond the paying capacity of tribal cultivators.  Many nontribals began to settle in the tribal areas offering credit facilities. Initially it provided relief to tribals but gradually the system became exploitative.  Over the years the tribal population faced all types of exploitation. This aroused the tribal leaders to mobilize the tribals and start agitations. Thus it is the cumulative result of a number of factors. Indifference from administrators and bureaucracy in dealing with tribal grievances.
  • 17.  Harsh and unfriendly forest laws and regulations.  Lack of legislation to prevent the passing of tribal land into the hands of non-tribals.  Lack of credit facilities.  Ineffective government measures to rehabilitate tribal population.  Delay in implementation of recommendations of different committee  Discrimination in implementation of reform measures.
  • 18. Problems of tribal communities Land Alienation: Began during British colonialism in India when the British interfered in the tribal region for the purpose of exploiting the tribal natural resources. Coupled with this tribal lands were occupied by moneylenders, zamindars and traders by advancing them loans etc. • After the British came to power, the Forest policy of the British Government was more inclined towards commercial considerations rather than human. • Some forests were declared as reserved ones where only authorized contractors were allowed to cut the timber and the forest -dwellers were kept isolated deliberately within their habitat without any effort to ameliorate their economic and educational standards.
  • 19. Poverty and Indebtedness Majority tribes live under poverty line. The tribes follow many simple occupations based on simple technology. • Most of the occupation falls into the primary occupations such as hunting, gathering, and agriculture. • The technology they use for these purposes belong to the most primitive kind. There is no profit and surplus making in such economy. • Hence there per capita income is very meager much lesser than the Indian average. Most of them live under abject poverty and are in debt in the hands of local moneylenders and Zamindars. • In order to repay the debt they often mortgage or sell their land to the moneylenders. • Indebtedness is almost inevitable since heavy interest is to be paid to these moneylenders.
  • 20. Health and Nutrition In many parts of India tribal population suffers from chronic infections and diseases out of which water borne diseases are life threatening.  They also suffer from deficiency diseases. The Himalayan tribes suffer from goiter due to lack of iodine. Leprosy and tuberculosis are also common among them.  Infant mortality was found to be very high among some of the tribes. Malnutrition is common and has affected the general health of the tribal children as it lowers the ability to resist infection, leads to chronic illness and sometimes leads to brain impairment.  The ecological imbalance like cutting of trees have increased the distances between villages and the forest areas thus forcing tribal women to walk longer distances in search of forest produce and firewood.
  • 21. Education  Educationally the tribal population is at different levels of development but overall the formal education has made very little impact on tribal groups.  Earlier Government had no direct programme for their education. But in the subsequent years the reservation policy has made some changes.  There are many reasons for low level of education among the tribal people: Formal education is not considered necessary to discharge their social obligations.  Superstitions and myths play an important role in rejecting education. Most tribes live in abject poverty. It is not easy for them to send their children to schools, as they are considered extra helping hands.  The formal schools do not hold any special interest for the children.  Most of the tribes are located in interior and remote areas where teachers would not like to go from outside.
  • 22. Tribal Struggles Numerous uprisings of the tribals have taken place beginning with the one in Bihar in 1772 followed by many revolts in Andhra Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands,Arunchal Pradesh,Assam,Mizoram and Nagaland.The important tribes involved in revolt in the 19th century were Mizos (1810),Kols(1795&1831),Mundas (1889),Daflas (1875),Khasi and Garo (1829) After independence the Tribal struggle may be classified into three groups:  Struggles due to exploitation of the outsiders.  Struggles due to economic deprivations  Struggle due to separatist tendencies The tribal movements may also be classified on the basis of their orientation into four types:  Movements seeking political autonomy and formation of separate state.  Agrarian movement  Forest -based movements  Socio-religious movements
  • 23. Most of the tribal movements were result of oppression and discrimination, neglect and backwardness and apathy of government towards tribal problems. Tana Bhagat Movement In the Tana Bhagat movement an attempt was made to emulate the way of life of the Hindu higher castes. • It emerged among the Oraon of Chotanagpur; Bihar. • It tried to raise the status of its members in the eyes of the surrounding Hindu society and was characterized by a large scale incorporation of Hindu belief-practices into its ideology. Birsa Munda Movement During the second half of the 19th century the whole of Chotanagpur underwent a tremendous change. • The old Munda system of Khuntakatti tenure gave way to a new and alien system of exploitation by the landlords known as jagirdar and thikadar. • In 1895 Birsa Munda of Chalkad started a movement. In him the Munda found the embodiment of their aspiration. • He gave them leadership, a religion and a code of life. He held before them the prospect of Munda Raj in place of foreign rule.
  • 24. SC, ST, OBC  Scheduled Castes (SC) 16.8%  Scheduled Castes (ST) 8%  Other Backward Classes 27% (or more) Even with conservative estimates, it appears that more than 50% of India’s population suffers systematic disadvantage and depravation
  • 25. THE CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE MEASURES THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA HAS INCORPORATED SOME SPECIAL PROVISIONS IN ITS CONSTITUTION FOR THE REMOVAL OF UNTOUCHABILITY AND TO PROMOTE THE WELFARE OF ST AND SC ARTICLES 15,16,17,38 AND 46 GUARANTEE THAT THE STATE SHALL NOT DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN PERSONS ON ACCOUNT OF THEIR RELIGION OR REGION AND CASTE OR CLASS. A - 15 PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF RELIGION, CASTE, RACE, SEX OR PLACE OF BIRTH. A - 17 ABOLISHES UNTOUCHABILITY. IT IS FURTHER PROVIDED THAT THE ENFORCEMENT OF ANY DISABILITY ARISING OUT OF UNTOUCHABILITY SHALL BE AN OFFENCE PUNISHABLE IN ACCORDANCE WITH LAW. A - 46 PROMOTES EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS OF SC, ST AND OTHER WEAKER SECTION. A - 330 RESERVES REPRESENTATION FOR SC AND ST IN HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE. A - 334 RELATES TO RESERVATION OF SEATS AND SPECIAL REPRESENTATION TO CEASE AFTER FIFTY YEARS. A - 335 MENTIONS THE CLAIMS OF SC AND ST TO SERVICES COMMISSION FOR SC AND ST.
  • 26. ‘ATROCITY ACT’  DEFINING ATROCITY:  The term was not defined until act was passed by the parliament.  Atrocity is an expression commonly used to refer to crime against ST/SC in India.  It signifies crime where victims are member of SC and offender do not belong to SC considerations are really root cause of crime.
  • 27. ABOUT THE ATROCITY ACT  The act was enacted by the parliament of India on 9th september,1989 (Act 33).  The act was implemented to prevent the atrocities against SC/ST.  It extends whole of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.  Article 17 enacted in 1955 to abolish untouchability with objective to remove humiliation &multifaceted harassments of dalits.
  • 28. Major provisions  Provision of criminal law: It establishes criminal liability for a no. of specifically defined atrocities & extends scope of certain categories of penalties given in Indian penal code.  Provision for relief and compensation for victims of atrocities.  Provision that establishes special authorities for the implementation & monitoring of the act.  Provision made to organize seminar on prevention of untouchability with expenditure of Rs 30,000 at district level & Rs 3000 at taluka level.  Provision to establish 25 awareness centres at all 25 district through non-government organizations to sanction grant up to 15,000.
  • 29. Offences  Forceful consumption of uneatable substance or drinking harmful drink.  Sustaining injury, insult and harassment.  Act of humiliation.  Unlawful occupation of land or cultivation etc.  Offence with respect to land, space and water.  Bonded, forced labor.  Prevention of Casting of vote.  False biased or harassing legal proceedings.  False and insignificant information.  Insult, threats and humiliation.  Outraging the modesty of a woman.  Sexual exploitation of a woman.  Polluting water.  Completely demolished/ burnt houses etc……
  • 30. Compensation  Every person victimized shall be paid compensation of Rs. 25,000 or more as under in proportionate to the disrespect, insult and injury of defamation sustained by him according to the kind of offence and its gravity – (1) 25% at the time of filing charge sheet before the Court: (2) 75% at the time when the accused is held guilty by the lower court  Compensation up to Rs. 20,000 to each victim on the basis of the nature and gravity of the offence.  After the trial of accused is over, a compensation of Rs. 25,000 or the actual loss and expenditure incurred, whichever is less.  In case houses are demolished or put to flame, same to be reconstructed at Government cost with bricks and stones and provide to the victims.
  • 31. Thank you Presentation By: Prof. Rahul Mahida Faculty of Social Work Parul University