Biological containment (BC): In consideration of biological containment, the vector (plasmid, organelle, or virus) for the recombinant DNA and the host (bacterial, plant, or animal cell) in which the vector is propagated in the laboratory will be considered together. Physical Containment (PC): The objective of physical containment is to confine recombinant organisms thereby preventing the exposure of the researcher and the environment to the harmful agents. Physical containment is achieved through the use of i) Laboratory Practice, ii) Containment Equipment, and iii) Special Laboratory Design. Facility Design (Secondary barriers): The design of the facility is important in providing a barrier to protect persons working in the facility but outside of the laboratory and those in the community from infectious agents which may be accidentally released from the laboratory.
rDNA Technology-Biosafety Regulations and Guidelines
Biosafety Regulations and Guidelines
University School of chemical Technology-GGSIP University
Capability to manipulate genetic material present
tremendous potential to use in novel experiments and
Concern among the scientists: how to safely research in
Involves various micro-organisms and pathogens.
rDNA advisory committee(RDAC) was setup by dept. of
The document aims at:
• Guidelines in research
• Meet the regulatory requirements by those in
production testing and use of Genetically modified
Scope of the Guidelines
Genetically Engineered organisms
Genetically transformation of animals and Green plants
rDNA technology in vaccine development
Based on the principle of GLP-Good Laboratory Practices.
▪ Large scale operations
▪ Use of GMO in large scale fermentation processes or application of it in the environment.
▪ Based on the principle of GLSP-Good Large Scale Practices.
▪ Involves-containment, quality control, Personnel Protection and Medical surveillance.
▪ Environmental Risks
▪ Release of Engineered organisms in Environment-serious Ecological Consequences.
▪ Guideline prescribed Criteria: assessment of ecological aspects on a case by case basis.
▪ Planned introduction of rDNA organisms into the Environment.
▪ Also covers quality control methods as: safety, purity and Efficacy of rDNA products.
Components of Guidelines
▪ Definition of recombinant DNA
▪ Classification of a pathogenic microorganisms
▪ Bio-safety levels
▪ Guidelines for rDNA research activities
▪ Large scale experiments
▪ Release to the environment
▪ Import and shipment
▪ Quality control of biologicals produced by rDNA technology
What is rDNA Technology?
Recombinant DNA is the general name for taking a piece
of one DNA, and combining it with another strand of
Recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) by definition
involves in vitro introduction of different segments of
DNA (one being the vector and the others normally
unrelated DNA sequences) that are capable of
replication in a host cell either autonomously or as an
integral part of host's genome and maintenance of their
Classification of pathogenic microorganisms
Mode of transmission
Capability to cause
Access factor of the
Expression factor of the
Damage factor of
The term "Containment" is used in describing the safe methods for managing infectious agents in the laboratory
environment where they are being handled or maintained.
Purpose of containment
To reduce exposure of laboratory workers, other persons, and outside environment to potentially hazardous agents.
Containment Laboratory Practice and Technique
Safety Equipment(primary barriers)
Design Facility(Secondary Barrier)
It consists of a combination of laboratory practices and techniques, safety equipment and laboratory facilities
appropriate for the operations performed and the hazard posed by the infectious agents.
Level-1 Level-2 Level-3 Level-4
Guidelines for rDNA research activities:
Which are exempt for the purpose of intimation and
approval of competent authority.
Those requiring prior intimation of competent
Those requiring review and approval of competent
authority before commencement.
Large Scale Experiments
▪ Large scale production of bio-molecules from genetically engineered microorganisms
▪ Experiments beyond 20 liters capacity for research as well as industrial purposes are included
in the category of large scale experimentation/operations.
▪ For such activities it is recommended that one should seek approval of the competent authority
as described in Chapter-III.
▪ For approval: furnish Details to GEAC
Release into the Environment
▪ Release or rDNA products and waste into the environment with assessment of
potential risks and Consequences.
▪ Treatment of pathogenic waste in order to destroy their pathogenic character.
▪ All must be done upon the basis of risk assessment criteria.
▪ Release of any strain for field testing should be done with the permission of
Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC)
Import and Shipment
▪ The import or receipt of etiologic agents and vectors of human and animal disease
or their carriers is subject to the quarantine regulations
▪ Specifying conditions under which the agent or vector is shipped, handled and
used are issued by the Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation.
▪ Large scale imports for industrial use are regulated by Genetic Engineering
▪ Subject to applicable packaging, labeling and shipping requirements specified for
Quality Control of rDNA products.
▪ A new license for the product or drug application would be required on products
made of recombinant DNA technology.
▪ A recombinant DNA product demonstrated to be identical to normally occurring
substance would not require toxicological and pharmacological data.
▪ Fresh clinical trial if found.
Mechanism of Implementation of guidelines
▪ Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC)
▪ Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC)
▪ Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM)
▪ Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC)
GOI - Government of India
DBT - Department of Biotechnology
RDAC - Recombinant DNA Advisory
IBSC - Institutional Biosafety Committee
RCGM - Review Committee on Genetic
DOEn - Department of Environment
GEAC - Genetic Engineering Approval
SBCC - State Biotechnology
PI - Principal Investigator
FA - Funding Agency (Govt./Private &
Institutional mechanism for implementation of guidelines
frame work for implementation
Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC):
▪ Developments at national and international levels in Biotechnology
▪ Currentness of the safety regulation for India on recombinant research use and applications
▪ To evolve long term policy for research and development in Recombinant DNA research.
▪ To formulate the safety guidelines for Recombinant DNA Research to be followed in India.
▪ To recommended type of training programme for technicians and research fellows for making them
adequately aware of hazards and risks involved in recombinant DNA research and methods of
Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC)
▪ Constituted in all centers engaged in genetic engineering research and production activities.
▪ The Institutional Biosafety Committee shall be the nodal point for interaction within institution for
implementation of the guidelines.
▪ Any research project which is likely to have biohazard during the execution stage or which involve
the production of either microorganisms or biologically active molecules that might cause bio-
hazard should be notified to IBSC.
Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation
▪ To establish procedural guidance manual - procedure for regulatory process with respect to activity
involving genetically engineered organisms in research, production and applications related to
▪ Recommend containment facility.
▪ To assist the Bureau of Indian Standards to evolve standards for biologics produced by rDNA
▪ To advise on intellectual property rights with respect to rDNA technology on patents.
Genetic Engineering Approval Committee
▪ Body for review and approval of activities involving large scale use of genetically engineered
organisms and their products in research and development, industrial production,
environmental release and field applications.
▪ Import, export, transport, manufacture, process, selling of any microorganisms or genetically
▪ Discharge of Genetically engineered/classified organisms/cells from Laboratory, hospitals and
related areas into environment.
▪ Large scale use of genetically engineered organisms/classified microorganisms in industrial
production and applications.