Problem recognition Occurs when the consumer perceives a need and becomes motivated to solve the problem. Sources of Problem Recognition: Out of stock – consumers use their existing supply and it must be replenished Dissatisfaction – consumers become dissatisfied with the current state of affairs and/or product being used New needs/wants – changes in consumers’ lives often result in new needs/wants Related products/purchases – other needs are stimulated by the purchase of a product Market-induced recognition – marketers encourage consumers to be dissatisfied with their current situation, and they try to create new needs and wants New products – innovative products are introduced and brought to the attention of consumers
Motivation Motivations in subconscious • Strong inhibitions • Symbolic meaning of products and brands • Surrogate behaviors • Complex and unclear motivesMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Freudian Psychoanalytic Probing the Minds of Consumers In-depth interviews Association tests Projective techniques Focus groups
Information Search Once consumers perceive a problem or need they begin to search for information needed to make a purchase decision sources of information Personal sources – friends, relative, co-workers Market sources – information from advertisers, salespeople, in-store displays and the Internet Public sources, etc. – articles in magazines or newspapers Personal experience – handling, examining, or using the product
Perception Process Process by which an individual receives, selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world It depends on internal factors, such as a person’s beliefs, experiences, needs, moods, and expectations. Selective perception occurs as: Selective exposure – occurs as consumers choose whether to make themselves available to information Selective attention – occurs when the consumer chooses whether to focus attention on certain stimuli while excluding others. Selective comprehension – occurs when consumers interpret information on the basis of their own attitudes, beliefs, motives, and experiences. Selective retention – occurs as consumers cannot recall all of the information they receive but may choose to retain information of particular relevance.
Evaluation of Alternatives In this stage, the consumer compares the various brands or products he or she has identified as being capable of solving the consumption problem or satisfying needs. The brands identified as potential purchase options are referred to as the consumer’s evoked set. The goal of most advertising and promotional strategies is to increase the likelihood that a brand will be included in the consumer’s evoked set and considered during alternative evaluation Evaluative criteria are the dimensions or attributes of a product or service that are used to compare different alternatives. Objective– based on concrete attributes that are tangible and can be directly judged or experienced by the consumer, such as price or warranty. Subjective – based on abstract attributes that are intangible and more subjective in nature, such as style, appearance, or product image.
Attitude Multiattribute Attitude Models How marketers can influence consumer attitudes, including: Increasing or changing the strength or belief rating of a brand on a particular attribute. Changing consumers’ perceptions of the importance or value of an attribute. Adding a new attribute to the attitude formation process. Changing perceptions of beliefs ratings for a competing brand.