Perspectives on consumer Behaviour


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Perspectives on consumer Behaviour

  1. 1. Consumer decision Making Process
  2. 2. Problem recognition Occurs when the consumer perceives a need and becomes motivated to solve the problem. Sources of Problem Recognition:  Out of stock – consumers use their existing supply and it must be replenished  Dissatisfaction – consumers become dissatisfied with the current state of affairs and/or product being used  New needs/wants – changes in consumers’ lives often result in new needs/wants  Related products/purchases – other needs are stimulated by the purchase of a product  Market-induced recognition – marketers encourage consumers to be dissatisfied with their current situation, and they try to create new needs and wants  New products – innovative products are introduced and brought to the attention of consumers
  3. 3. Motivation Motivations in subconscious • Strong inhibitions • Symbolic meaning of products and brands • Surrogate behaviors • Complex and unclear motivesMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Freudian Psychoanalytic Probing the Minds of Consumers In-depth interviews Association tests Projective techniques Focus groups
  4. 4. Information Search Once consumers perceive a problem or need they begin to search for information needed to make a purchase decision sources of information  Personal sources – friends, relative, co-workers  Market sources – information from advertisers, salespeople, in-store displays and the Internet  Public sources, etc. – articles in magazines or newspapers  Personal experience – handling, examining, or using the product
  5. 5. Perception Process Process by which an individual receives, selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world It depends on internal factors, such as a person’s beliefs, experiences, needs, moods, and expectations. Selective perception occurs as:  Selective exposure – occurs as consumers choose whether to make themselves available to information  Selective attention – occurs when the consumer chooses whether to focus attention on certain stimuli while excluding others.  Selective comprehension – occurs when consumers interpret information on the basis of their own attitudes, beliefs, motives, and experiences.  Selective retention – occurs as consumers cannot recall all of the information they receive but may choose to retain information of particular relevance.
  6. 6. Evaluation of Alternatives In this stage, the consumer compares the various brands or products he or she has identified as being capable of solving the consumption problem or satisfying needs. The brands identified as potential purchase options are referred to as the consumer’s evoked set. The goal of most advertising and promotional strategies is to increase the likelihood that a brand will be included in the consumer’s evoked set and considered during alternative evaluation Evaluative criteria are the dimensions or attributes of a product or service that are used to compare different alternatives.  Objective– based on concrete attributes that are tangible and can be directly judged or experienced by the consumer, such as price or warranty.  Subjective – based on abstract attributes that are intangible and more subjective in nature, such as style, appearance, or product image.
  7. 7. Attitude Multiattribute Attitude Models How marketers can influence consumer attitudes, including:  Increasing or changing the strength or belief rating of a brand on a particular attribute.  Changing consumers’ perceptions of the importance or value of an attribute.  Adding a new attribute to the attitude formation process.  Changing perceptions of beliefs ratings for a competing brand.
  8. 8. Purchase Decision and EvaluationPre-evaluation Decision Post evaluation Satisfaction Integration Purchase intention processes Dis-satisfaction Heuristics Brand loyaltyAffect referral Cognitivedecision rule dissonance
  9. 9. Thank you