Polygeneration and CCS India


Published on

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Polygeneration and CCS India

  1. 1. CCS Options for Co-production of Electricity and Synthetic Fuels from indigenous Coal in an Indian Context <ul><li>Presented at the International Conference on Advances in Energy Research, ICAER-07, Mumbai, India, 12-14 December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Jens Hetland, PhD, </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Scientist, SINTEF Energy Research, Norway </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Co-author </li></ul><ul><li>Rahul Anantharaman </li></ul><ul><li>The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway </li></ul>
  2. 2. Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006 Europe : EU holds 4% of the proven coal reserves, and has 18% of the world’s electric generating capacity. EU expects that by 2020 2/3 of its total energy demand will be imported. CO 2 emission: 3 853 Mtpa. CO 2 per capita: 8.4 tpa. Energy intensity: 208 toe/M€ (2003, ec 1995, Ref. EU DG-Tren Statistics). Installed electric capacity: 652.9 GW (2005) EU-27: 490,4 mill. citizens (July 2007 est.) Area: 4 324 782 km 2 Coal R/P: 63 years (2006) India: 1 129.9 mill. citizens Area: 3 287 590 km 2 Coal R/P: 207 (2006) Comparing statistics India/EU: Population: 2.3:1 Area: 1:1.3 CO 2 emission: 1:3.5 CO 2 per capita: 1:8.4 Energy intensity: 1:1.3 Installed el-generating capacity: 1:5 India : The World’s second-most populous nation, and fifth largest importer of oil, and polluter number six. CO 2 emission: 1 113 Mtpa from oil (27%), coal (67%), natural gas (6%). CO 2 per capita: 1.0 tpa. Energy intensity: 159.4 toe/M€. Installed electric capacity: 131.4 GW / roughly 94% conventional thermal (oil 33%, coal 53%, natural gas 8%), 1% nuclear, 5% hydropower (2006)
  3. 3. Setting the scene: Security of energy supply Oil situation of India – mainly to fuel the transport sector <ul><li>Fast increasing energy demand and rather limited supply capacity; </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of liquid fuel , especially fuels for the transport sector; </li></ul><ul><li>Local and regional air pollution , mainly from coal burning; </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-increasing greenhouse gas emissions . </li></ul>Production Demand Import ~2 Mbbl per day, increasing 100 kbbl per day year on year Source: EIA International Energy Annual 2004, Country Analysis Briefs, India, 2007 Oil demand growth comparison 2006-2009 India’s production and consumption of oil 1990-2006
  4. 4. Setting the scene: Security of energy supply World R/P ratio – recent trends, local variations (2001-2006) Per definition “reserves” are sources that are know and deemed economically exploitable. China: 48 years India: 207 years EU-27: 63 years USA: 234 years Australia: 210 years Former Soviet Union: 464 years  EC/EEA, 2004: India is supposed to double its CO 2 emission from year 2000 by 2012 Mitigating climate change: cannot ignore fossil fuels
  5. 5. Market trends: Generating cost of new power generating capacity Fuel price development for European deliveries 1985-2006
  6. 6. Understanding the market: Long Term Energy Market <ul><li>Different needs world-wide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uneven access to modern energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth of Renewable Energy and increasing resurgence of nuclear but …. </li></ul>IEA projections of global power station build to 2030 Capacity IEA World Energy Outlook 2004 Clean Coal Technologies needed for ~1400GW of new coal plant Courtesy ALSTOM Power Sum: Ref. 33750 TWh Alt. 29835 TWh BAPS 28018 TWh (Beyond Alternative Policy Scenario). Global total 2004: 17408 TWh ( Scenarios : http://unfccc.int/files/cooperation_and_support/financial_mechanism/application/pdf/methodology.pdf) Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2006 Reference, Alternative Policy Scenario and Beyond the Alternative Policy Scenario (BAPS)
  7. 7. CO 2 formation from coal - relating to the state of technology Estimated annual CO 2 emission per GW e installed (in Mtpa) versus plant efficiency (%) at given capture rate (CR).
  8. 8. Advanced clean coal – carbon emission reduction while maintaining efficiency p crit = 221.2 bar, t crit = 374.15 o C Source: Efficiency in Electricity Generation, Eurelectric July 2003
  9. 9. CCS technology options Hydrogen Chemicals Retrofit options Alternative power cycles Polygeneration Efficiency reduction: goal < 5%-points Cost of CO 2 avoided: goal < 20 €/t CO2
  10. 10. CO 2 CAPTURE SOLUTIONS – Coal gasification Pre Combustion Solution for New Plants: IGCC+Capture <ul><li>CO 2 capture techniques are proven economical in other industries </li></ul><ul><li>High Capital and Operating Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Limited operation flexibility, more fuel-dependent solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Plant retrofit generally not possible </li></ul><ul><li>Land space ~ 1,5 x post-combustion plant for same MW yield </li></ul>Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station, 252 MW e , Mulberry, USA (FL) Hydrogen-fired gas turbines Courtesy ALSTOM Power
  11. 11. COACH - Overall objective <ul><li>To prepare for large-scale polygeneration [1] from coal with CO 2 capture and storage with special impact on China . </li></ul><ul><li> T opical areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Coal gasification facilitating polygeneration schemes combined with carbon capture and storage . </li></ul><ul><li>Improved power cycles requiring a large-scale topping cycle based on gas turbines that operate on hydrogen-rich fuels (still to be developed for their intended purpose). </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of reliable storage of CO 2 in China , via capture, pre-treatment, transport, and injection of CO 2 into geological structures with - optionally - enhanced oil/gas and coal-bed methane recovery stages (EOR/EGR/ECMB). </li></ul><ul><li>Societal anchorage , including legal, regulatory, funding and economic aspects, and public issues. </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Options for electric power and hydrogen production as well as production of synthetic fuels with provisions for heat integration with surrounding industries. </li></ul>Courtesy TPRI
  12. 12. GreenGen Stage II (2010-2012) <ul><li>Targeting: R&D for key technologies; improving the IGCC concept </li></ul><ul><li>IGCC polygeneration improvements (electricity, heat, syngas) </li></ul><ul><li>1x3500 tpd or 2x2000tpd gasification schemes with proved economic and technical viability </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 production </li></ul><ul><li>Separation techniques for the isolation of H 2 and CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel-cell based co-generation of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the GreenGen demonstration (2013-2015) </li></ul>GreenGen Stage I (2006-2009) <ul><li>Targeting: IGCC plant </li></ul><ul><li>Gasification 2000tpd </li></ul><ul><li>250 MW IGCC polygeneration (electricity, heat, syngas) </li></ul><ul><li>Establisment of GreenGen Laboratory </li></ul>
  13. 13. Polygeneration studies Emphasis on yield and fuel penalty – Pre-combustion capture
  14. 14. East China sedimentary basins (Courtesy GeoCapacity) Bohai Basin and Shandong Provins Source: Point sources refer to IEAGHG 2006, Oil fields refer to Geocarto International Centre 1988. GIS information is made available by BGS
  15. 15. Norwegian experience: The Sleipner saline aquifer CO 2 storage project – operating since 1996 – storing 1 Mtpa CO 2 The offshore storage principle: Sleipner (Courtesy Statoil) (Courtesy Statoil) (Courtesy Statoil)
  16. 16. Concluding remarks <ul><li>The energy situation in India is a matter of growing concern especially in terms of security of energy supply , which may bring India into advanced coal-gasification technology to co-produce electricity and synthetic fuels  polygeneration. </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions is rather high in Europe, India is evenly concerned because of severe impacts of global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition India is (probably) more concerned about cost and the continued use of domestic coal reserves . </li></ul><ul><li>As the isolation of CO 2 constitutes an inherent feature in polygeneration , capture is a logical step to pursue. </li></ul><ul><li>CCS offers the option of extending the fossil era , and to justify the harnessing of carbonaceous fuels and indigenous coal as a compatible option within a sustainable framework . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Acknowledgements The European Commission for sponsoring the COACH project (EC/FP6 Contract #038966, Cooperation Action within CCS China-EU) backed by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Peoples’ Republic of China