Body image & eating disorders


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  • People with bulimia, known as bulimics, consume large amounts of food and then try to rid themselves of the food and calories by  fasting , excessive exercising, vomiting, or by using  laxatives . The behavior often serves to reduce  stress  and relieve  anxiety . Because bulimia results from an extreme concern with weight control and self-image, and is often accompanied by depression, it is also considered a psychiatric illness.
  • Dieting triggers bulimia’s destructive cycle of binging and purging. The irony is that the more strict and firm the diet is, the more likely it is that the person will become preoccupied, even obsessed, with food. When you starve yourself, your body responds with powerful cravings—its way of asking for needed nutrition. As the tension, hunger, and feelings of deprivation build, the compulsion to eat becomes too powerful to resist: a “forbidden” food is eaten; a dietary rule is broken. With an all-or-nothing mindset, you feel any diet slip-up is a total failure. After having a bite of ice cream, you might think, “I’ve already blown It, so I might as well go all out.” Unfortunately, the relief that binging brings is extremely short-lived. Soon after, guilt and self-loathing set in. And so you purge to make up for binging and regain control. Unfortunately, purging only reinforces binge eating. Though you may tell yourself, as you launch into a new diet, that this is the last time, in the back of your mind there’s a voice telling you that you can always throw up or use laxatives if you lose control again. What you may not realize is that purging doesn’t come close to wiping the slate clean after a binge.
  • Binge eating signs and symptoms Lack of control over eating  – Inability to stop eating. Eating until the point of physical discomfort and pain. Secrecy surrounding eating  – Going to the kitchen after everyone else has gone to bed. Going out alone on unexpected food runs. Wanting to eat in privacy. Eating unusually large amounts of food  with no obvious change in weight. Disappearance of food , numerous empty wrappers or food containers in the garbage, or hidden stashes of junk food. Alternating between overeating and fasting  – Rarely eats normal meals. It’s all-or-nothing when it comes to food. Purging signs and symptoms Going to the bathroom after meals  – Frequently disappears after meals or takes a trip to the bathroom to throw up. May run the water to disguise sounds of vomiting. Using laxatives, diuretics, or enemas  after eating. May also take diet pills to curb appetite or use the sauna to “sweat out” water weight. Smell of vomit  – The bathroom or the person may smell like vomit. They may try to cover up the smell with mouthwash, perfume, air freshener, gum, or mints. Excessive exercising  – Works out strenuously, especially after eating. Typical activities include high-intensity calorie burners such as running or aerobics. Physical signs and symptoms of bulimia Calluses or scars on the knuckles or hands  from sticking fingers down the throat to induce vomiting. Puffy “chipmunk” cheeks  caused by repeated vomiting. Discolored teeth  from exposure to stomach acid when throwing up. May look yellow, ragged, or clear. Not underweight  – Men and women with bulimia are usually normal weight or slightly overweight. Being underweight while purging might indicate a purging type of anorexia. Frequent fluctuations in weight  – Weight may fluctuate by 10 pounds or more due to alternating episodes of bingeing and purging.
  • There is no single cause of bulimia. While low self-esteem and concerns about weight and body image play major roles, there are many other contributing causes. In most cases, people suffering with bulimia—and eating disorders in general—have trouble managing emotions in a healthy way. Eating can be an emotional release so it’s not surprising that people binge and purge when feeling angry, depressed, stressed, or anxious.
  • When you are living with bulimia, you are putting your body—and even your life—at risk. The most dangerous side effect of bulimia is dehydration due to purging. Vomiting, laxatives, and diuretics that can cause electrolyte imbalances in the body, most commonly in the form of low potassium levels. Low potassium levels trigger a wide range of symptoms ranging from lethargy and cloudy thinking to irregular heartbeat and death. Chronically low levels of potassium can also result in kidney failure.
  • Bulimia treatment resistance is often encountered because of the shame, embarrassment, and guilt. Lack of insight Not really about food. It is imperative to treatment that the origins of the behaviors be understood. Because eating disorders are not really about food, underlying psychological and emotional issues must be dealt with.
  • Many theorists believe that the current Western standards of female attractiveness have contributed to increases in eating disorders. These standards have changed throughout history with a noticeable shift toward preference for a thin female frame in recent decades. Today, the average model weighs 23% less than the average American woman. One study that tracked the height and weight of playboy models and Miss America contestants found that a significant portion of these women met diagnostic criteria for anorexia. Women’s bodies in the media have become increasingly thinner. For instance, if we go back in time 150 years ago, we find that the ideal woman of the past was considerably larger than today’s ideal. This thin Ideal can be traced back to the British model Twiggy from the 60s. And to the heroine chick of the calvin klein models and kate moss.
  • Body image & eating disorders

    1. 1. Body Image & Eating Disorders
    2. 2. Pathways to Eating Disorders
    3. 3. Three Types of Eating Disorders <ul><li>Anorexia nervosa characterized by a pursuit of thinness that leads to self-starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by a cycle of binging followed by extreme behaviors to prevent weight gain, such as purging . </li></ul><ul><li>Binge-eating disorder also called “Night Eating Syndrome”- characterized by regular binging, but do not engage in purging behaviors usually leads to obesity although it can occur in normal weight individuals. </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is anorexia ? <ul><li>Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric illness (illness of the mind) that describes an eating disorder (when human beings stop eating in a normal way), characterized by extreme low body weight and body image distortion, with an obsessive fear of gaining weight </li></ul>
    5. 5. Anorexia nervosa is a complex eating disorder with three key features : <ul><ul><li>1. refusal to maintain a healthy body weight . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. an intense fear of gaining weight . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. a distorted body image. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Healthy Dieting Anorexia Healthy dieting is an attempt to control weight Anorexia is an attempt to control your life and emotions Your self-esteem is based on more than just weight and body image . Your self-esteem is based entirely on how much you weigh and how thin you are You view weight loss as a way to improve your health and appearance . You view weight loss as a way to achieve happiness Your goal is to lose weight in a healthy way . Becoming thin is all that matters; health is not a concern
    7. 7. Anorexic food behavior signs and symptoms <ul><li>.   Dieting despite being thin </li></ul><ul><li>Obsession with calories, fat grams, and nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Pretending to eat or lying about eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Preoccupation with food. </li></ul><ul><li>. Strange or secretive food rituals </li></ul>
    8. 8. Anorexic appearance and body image signs and symptoms <ul><li>Dramatic weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling fat, despite being underweight </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation on body image </li></ul><ul><li>Harshly critical of appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Denial that you’re too thin </li></ul><ul><li>Purging signs and symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Using diet pills, laxatives, or diuretics. </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing up after eating Compulsive exercising </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological causes and risk factors for anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Family and social pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Biological causes of anorexia </li></ul>
    10. 10. Some of the physical effects of anorexia include <ul><li>1- Severe mood swings; depression </li></ul><ul><li>2-Lack of energy and weakness </li></ul><ul><li>3-Slowed thinking; poor memory </li></ul><ul><li>4-Dry, yellowish skin and brittle nails </li></ul><ul><li>5-Constipation and bloating </li></ul><ul><li>6-Tooth decay and gum damage </li></ul><ul><li>7-Dizziness, fainting, and headaches </li></ul><ul><li>8-Growth of fine hair all over the body and face </li></ul>
    11. 11. Getting help for anorexia <ul><li>  Steps to anorexia recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Admit you have a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to someone </li></ul><ul><li>Stay away from people, places, and activities that trigger your obsession with being thin </li></ul><ul><li>Seek professional help </li></ul>
    12. 12. Treating anorexia involves three steps <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Getting back to a healthy weight </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Starting to eat more food </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Changing how you think about yourself and food </li></ul>
    13. 13. What is bulimia? <ul><li>is a serious and sometimes life-threatening eating disorder affecting mainly young women. </li></ul>
    14. 14. The binge and purge cycle
    15. 15. Two subtypes of bulimia <ul><li>purging type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-induced vomiting and laxatives as a way to get rid of the extra calories they have taken in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>non-purging type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use a period of fasting and excessive exercise to make up for the binge </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Signs and symptoms of bulimia <ul><ul><li>Binge eating signs and symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purging signs and symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical signs and symptoms of bulimia </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Bulimia causes and risk factors <ul><li>Bulimia is a complex emotional issue. Major causes and risk factors for bulimia include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor body image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of trauma or abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major life changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance-oriented professions or activities </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Effects of bulimia
    19. 19. Bulimia therapy <ul><li>Because poor body image and low self-esteem lie at the heart of bulimia, therapy is an important part of recovery. It’s common to feel isolated and shamed by your bingeing and purging, and therapists can help with these feelings. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Bulimia treatment  <ul><li>The treatment of choice for bulimia is cognitive-behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy targets the unhealthy eating behaviors of bulimia and the unrealistic, negative thoughts that fuel them. Here’s what to expect in bulimia therapy: </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking the binge-and-purge cycle  </li></ul><ul><li>Changing unhealthy thoughts and patterns  </li></ul><ul><li>Solving emotional issues   </li></ul>
    21. 21. Challenges to treatment <ul><li>Lack of motivation to change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intrinsically reinforced by the weight loss, because it feels good to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may deny the existence of the problem, or the severity of it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of insight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not really about food. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The Thin-Ideal <ul><li>The avg. model weighs 23% less than the avg. American woman </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study from 1979-1988 showed that 69% of playboy models and 60% of Miss America contestants met weight criteria for anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s bodies in the media have become increasingly thinner </li></ul>
    23. 23. The Impact on Women <ul><li>One study showed that 55% of college women thought that they were overweight though only 6% were </li></ul><ul><li>94% of one sample of women wanted to be smaller than they currently were </li></ul><ul><li>96% thought that they were larger than the current societal ideal </li></ul><ul><li>Half the women in a study said they would rather be hit by a truck than be fat </li></ul>
    24. 24. Thank you for listing