Present day analytical method such as gas chromatography- mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography (LC-MS) and atomic absorption chromatography (AAS) are straight forward approach with high sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and reproducibility. These are succeeded in selective detection and identification of harmful contaminants from environmental, tissues or food samples. Mean while, suffers from a number of drawbacks such as, they are limited to a pre-determined set of substances, restricted to pre-programmed scope of analytes, fails to indicate bioavailable concentration, time consuming, expensive and requires lot of expertise. Bacteria have long been served as model for explaining the dose response dependent toxicity for specific chemicals in monitoring of environmental contamination. Ever since the conception of bacterial bioreporter in environmental microbiology has been an increases interest in the construction of well challenged report system based on genetic engineering concept. Bacterial bioreporter are living microorganisms that responds to changes in the environment by displaying specific and easily measurable signal. Based on gene expression in presence of toxic/ stress, resistance to heavy metal/ antibiotics, metabolism of organic compounds and other chemicals are explored for construction of reporter system in bacteria by fusion of specific reporter gene with promoter for detection of harmful contaminants. Assaying by using bioreporter for more complex real sample is more challenging because of presence of inhibitory compounds, unknown compounding effects on behavior and sorptive effects of matrix. The bacterial reporters are also explored for foodstuffs for monitoring of arsenic and tetracycline in rice and milk respectively. There are clear, assay miniaturization may provide the basis for the future incorporation of reporter cells into small devices, synthetic biology efforts will further streamline the construction and engineering of the new reporter strains. There are regulatory issues limiting the application of bioreporter assays, owing to the fact that the bacterial in question are genetically modified.