2014 SEU228 Ekonomi Malaysia Sektor Perindustrian

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4 fasa perindustrian di Malaysia (selepas kemerdekaan) & dasar-dasar berkaitan:
a. penghujung 1950-an-1960-an: ISI (gantian import)
b. 1960-1970-an: EOI (berorientasikan eksport)
c. 1980-an: fasa ke-2 ISI (industri berat)
d. deregulasi & liberalisisi sektor perindustrian

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2014 SEU228 Ekonomi Malaysia Sektor Perindustrian

  1. 1. SEU 228 EKONOMI MALAYSIA Sektor Perindustrian di Malaysia (Oleh: Dr. Radziah Adam, PPPJJ)
  2. 2. Introduction: Malaya Tin & Rubber industry in 1956 iframe width="420" height="315" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/VbyqBlsbnSQ" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
  3. 3. http://hasnulyakin.blogspot.com/2011/11/rubber-estate-in-malaysia-nikon-af-s.html
  4. 4. http://www.ready4work.my/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/TC-EE-Brochure.pdf
  5. 5. Sumbangan Sektor Perindustrian Contribution of the Industrial Sector
  6. 6. http://penangmonthly.com/penang-economic-outlook-2013-penang-updates/
  7. 7. http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/download_Economics/files/DATA_SERIES/2013/pdf/01Akaun _Negara.pdf
  8. 8. Manufacturing Growth in Selected East Asian Countries
  9. 9. Structural changes in labor market: migration of the rural workforce to the urban- based industries, agriculture (and mining & quarrying) sector had contracted considerably, manufacturing (as well as services) sector increased significantly . http://irep.iium.edu.my/30533/5/Wage_rate_and_employment_in_manufacturing_industry_of_Malaysia__BEIJING_CONFERENCE_2013__REVISED% 255B1%255D_(2).pdf
  10. 10. 1. Latar belakang sektor perindustrian di Malaysia (fasa perindustrian sejak selepas merdeka; jenis industri) 2. Sumbangan sektor perindustrian (contribution of GDP, employment, foreign investment, trade etc.) 3. Cabaran perindustrian (Challenges faced by industrial sector as a whole, e.g. labour, competition, technology, etc. or specific challenges faced by particular sub- sectors, e.g. in the case of emerging industries) 4. Dasar-dasar perindustrian Objektif pelajaran:
  11. 11. A. late 1950s-1960s: Perindustrian Gantian Import (Import Substituting Industrialization, ISI) B. 1970s: Perindustrian Berasaskan Eksport (Export- Oriented Industrialization, EOI) C. 1980s: Penggalakan Industri Berat (Heavy & Resource- Based Industrial Development), 2nd round of ISI D. 1986 onwards: Further liberalization & continued promotion of EOI 1988 onwards: Industrial upgrading through enhanced technological development Fasa Perindustrian di Malaysia Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  12. 12. ★ ISI was promoted through tax exemption under the Pioneer Industries Ordinance (1958); tariff protection; provision of infrastructural facilities; setting up of industrial zones & the provision of cheap credit ★ Intervention by the state at this juncture was largely functional (education, health, infrastructure, legal system & macro- economic stability) ★ A few institutions, like the Malayan Industrial Estates Ltd & the Malayan Industrial Development Finance (MIDF) were set up to promote ISI A. Dasar Perindustrian: Fasa Pertama ISI (1960-1970) Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  13. 13. A. Fasa Pertama ISI (1960-1970) http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  14. 14. A. Fasa Pertama ISI (1960-1970) http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20-%20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  15. 15. http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf A. Fasa Pertama ISI (1960-1970)
  16. 16. ❏ High import content of intermediate & capital goods leading to limited linkage effects, little technology transfer as well as low value-added ❏ High effective rate of protection giving rise to rent-seeking ❏ A weakness of policy intervention was the lack of coercion on protected industries to export after a certain period of time; thus no pressure to reduce costs, improve product quality & enhance efficiency ❏ Protected industries were largely foreign-owned, leading to huge leakages ❏ Regional concentration, leading to regional imbalances A. Kekangan (Limitations of) ISI Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  17. 17. ❏ Towards the end of the 1960s, when ISI reached the limits of the small domestic market, the state switched to EOI ❏ A national body called the Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA) was set up to spur industrial development ❏ An Investment Incentives Act (1968), the Free Trade Zone Act (1971) & Licensed Manufacturing Warehouse Act (1973) were promulgated to promote both domestic & foreign direct investment (FDI) ❏ These offered an array of investment credits, tariff exemption for inputs, tax concessions & exemption for exports, the granting of import licenses, development of social infrastructure & full foreign ownership for firms producing for export ❏ Export Processing Zones (EPZs) were established to attract export- oriented multinational companies (MNCs) to invest in Malaysia B. Dasar Perindustrian: Fasa EOI (1970- an) Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  18. 18. B. Fasa EOI (1970-an)
  19. 19. B. Fasa EOI (1970-an)
  20. 20. B. Fasa EOI (1970-an)
  21. 21. ❏ During the period of the 70s, 80s and up till the middle of the 90s, Malaysia’s industrial sector underwent rapid expansion. ❏ Malaysia, in particular Penang, became a major investment centre for foreign direct investments (FDI). ❏ The major product manufactured was the assembly & testing of electrical & electronic (E&E) components like semi-conductors, hard disk drives & telecommunications equipment. Other products are textiles and garments, wood & wood-products, oleo-chemicals and food. B. Kejayaan (Success of) EOI Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  22. 22. ❏ Substantial employment generation which successfully brought down the rate of unemployment ❏ FDI helped spawn the growth and development of indigenous ancillary industries ❏ Some transfer of technology via intra-firm diffusion from the HQs to Malaysian subsidiaries B. Kejayaan (Success of) EOI (samb.) Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  23. 23. ➔ Success in drawing-in FDI as the launch into EOI coincided with the international re-division of labor ➔ Initial favorable factor endowments, in particular the availability of competitively-priced & relatively well-educated labor, for the labor intensive electronics & textile industries ➔ State support by way of designing a fiscal strategy that grants generous tax concessions to foreign capital; a free trade regime that allows of mobility of finance capital; a relatively stable foreign exchange rate and the provision of subsidized social capital ➔ Favorable global economic conditions B. Faktor Kejayaan EOI: Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  24. 24. ➔ Heavy reliance on a few manufactured products, in particular E&E goods, with a significant foreign component makes Malaysia highly vulnerable to the vicissitudes of global demand ➔ Low local content leads to limited linkages with domestic manufacturing firms ➔ EO industries are largely insulated from the rest of the domestic economy, giving rise to a dualistic industrial structure, that lacks integration ➔ MNCs perform few high value-added & technologically demanding tasks. Technology transfer was hence limited to basic operational technological skills. ➔ Malaysian exporters have not developed independent marketing capabilities ➔ The result was a shallow industrial structure that is unreliable for industrialization and progressive structural change B. Kelemahan (Weaknesses of) EOI:
  25. 25. Source: USAINs E&E CoE, 2013
  26. 26. ● Heavy industrialization was launched in the early 1980s. ● The objectives are: (a) to develop a capital goods sector in a bid to deepen Malaysia’s industrial development; (b) nurture greater linkages with local small and medium-scale industries (SMIs) and (c) promote greater technological development through R&D. ● Heavy Industries Corporation (HICOM) was set-up in 1980 to promote the development of heavy industries . ● In 1986, the first Industrial Master Plan (IMP) (1986-1995) was launched to guide industrial development. ● The industries targeted include iron & steel, cement, the national car, motorcycle engine, petroleum refining & petrochemicals, pulp & paper mill and aluminium smelting. C. Fasa ke-2 ISI: Pengembangan Perindustrian Berat (Heavy Industry) Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  27. 27. ● A lot of the capital goods sector involved direct state participation (the national car, steel, motorcycle engine), with some foreign participation, especially from Japan & the Republic of Korea ● Selective protection of certain heavy industries like the national car and steel through tariff protection, mandatory import licensing, the granting of tax incentives & direct grants to promote R&D capacity like the Industry R&D Grant Scheme ● The government also introduced the Industrial Linkage Program & the Vendor Development Program to nurture the growth of local suppliers of parts and components. C. Dasar Perindustrian: Promote Heavy Industry Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  28. 28. C. Fasa ke-2 ISI: Heavy Industry http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  29. 29. C. Fasa ke-2 ISI: Heavy Industry http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  30. 30. C. Fasa ke-2 ISI: Heavy Industry http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20-
  31. 31. C. Fasa ke-2 ISI: Heavy Industry http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20-
  32. 32. C. Fasa ke-2 ISI: Heavy Industry
  33. 33. ● Poor financial performance (many suffered losses) due to the limited domestic market ● Such losses require the state to resort to financial rescues, thus causing considerable drain on the fiscal coffers ● Underutilization of production capacity and an inability to achieve economies of large-scale meant high costs and hence an inability to compete in international markets ● Considerable loss of consumers’ welfare as a result of the high costs of protection ● The heavy industry program was poorly conceived and launched without considering Malaysia’s pre-existing base of industrial experience, skills and technological expertise and feasibility of infant C. Kelemahan (Weaknesses of Heavy Industrialization)
  34. 34. ❏ From around the mid-80s, the state adopted measures to deregulate and liberalize the general macro-economy and industrial sector, without completely abandoning the state’s direct involvement ❏ Privatization of many state-owned enterprises was undertaken ❏ Greater reliance on FDI again from the mid-eighties ❏ All these were motivated by the state’s desire to transform the economy into a more modern, industrialized & developed nation by 2020 ❏ Investment incentives continued to be granted but targeted at high value-added, low volume & high technology industries, particularly in the E&E sub-sector D. Greater deregulation, liberalization & targeting of investment incentives Toh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons
  35. 35. D. Deregulasi & Liberalisasi http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20-
  36. 36. D. Deregulasi & Liberalisasi http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  37. 37. D. Deregulasi & Liberalisasi http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  38. 38. D. Deregulasi & Liberalisasi http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  39. 39. D. Deregulasi & Liberalisasi http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  40. 40. Policies on Industrialisation
  41. 41. 1. Menjadikan sektor perkilangan sebagai catalyst pertumbuhan perindustrian negara. 2. Menggalakkan penggunaan sepenuhnya sumber asli negara & 3. Meninggikan tahap penyelidikan dan pembangunan (R&D) teknologi tempatan sebagai asas bagi Malaysia menjadi sebuah negara perindustrian. Objektif Pelan Induk Perindustrian (PIP) 1986
  42. 42. http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%2 0Kaziah%20-%20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf
  43. 43. Cabaran Masa Hadapan (E&E) Future Challenges faced by the Industrial Sector
  44. 44. Figure 3.1b ETP Report - E&E industry analysis
  45. 45. EPU, 2011. Moving Up the Value Chain: A Study of Malaysia’s Solar & Medical Device Industries
  46. 46. EPU, 2011. Moving Up the Value Chain: A Study of Malaysia’s Solar & Medical Device Industries
  47. 47. Rujukan RToh Kin Woon, Malaysia’s Industrial Policy: Some Lessons, http://www.em.gov.lv/images/modules/items/Kin%20Woon%20Tohs%20Presentation.pdf Yeow Teck Chai & Ooi Chooi Im, 2009. The Development of Free Industrial Zones–The Malaysian Experience. World Bank. http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/251665/ Sri Wulandari. Malaysia’s Free Industrial Zones: Reconfiguration of the Electronics Production Space. Asia Monitor Resource Centre (AMRC). http://www.amrc.org.hk/system/files/Malaysia%20Free%20Industrial%20Zone.pdf Kaziah Abdul Kadir, 2005. Investment Incentives: Malaysia’s Perspective. Workshop on Improving the Investment Climate in Indonesia. November 16-17, http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/205682/7%20Dato%20Kaziah%20- %20Session%207%20Plenary%20Incentives.pdf Dan banyak lagi….
  48. 48. Contoh soalan: Explain briefly the phases of industrialisation and state clearly the policies that have significant influence on the process of industrialisation in Malaysia. Boleh cuba!

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