3 1 water notes


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3 1 water notes

  1. 1. The Nature of Molecules<br />Water Notes<br />
  2. 2. Big Ideas:<br />Living Systems are made up of 5 types of molecule<br />a. Water<br />b. Carbohydrates <br />c. Lipids <br />d. Proteins<br />e. Nucleic Acid<br />Sugars/Starches<br />All help to maintain HOMEOSTASIS<br />Fats<br />DNA & RNA<br />
  3. 3. 2. Organisms are made up of different arrangements of these molecules, giving all life a biochemical framework. <br />
  4. 4. II. Inorganic vs. Organic<br />Living systems can be categorized into inorganic and organic molecules.<br /> 1. INORGANIC: <br />molecules containing 1 or no carbon atoms<br />Ex: H2O, CO2, NaCl<br />
  5. 5. 2. ORGANIC:<br />molecules containing 2 or more carbon atoms<br />Ex: hydrocarbons (fuels like methane), Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids <br />
  6. 6. III. Chemistry of Water<br />Essentials:<br />Most CELLS are surrounded by water and cells themselves are about 70-95% water<br />The abundance of water is the major reason Earth is habitable and essential for all living things.<br />
  7. 7. B. 6 Characteristics of WATER:<br />Structure:<br /><ul><li>Water contains 2 HYDROGEN atoms and 1 OXYGEN atom</li></ul>Attached by COVALENT bonds<br />Chemical Formula = H2O<br />Structural Formula=<br /> O<br /> H H<br />
  8. 8. 2. Polarity:<br />What demo/activity demonstrated polarity?<br /><ul><li>Water has slightly POSITIVE and NEGATIVE ends
  9. 9. Ex: Electrons in water molecules spend more time near the oxygen side than the hydrogen side, creating partially charged ends. </li></li></ul><li>
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Lewis Structure of Water:<br />Lone pairs of electrons<br />(-)<br />Covalent bond…shared electron between H and O<br />(+)<br />(+)<br />
  13. 13. 3. Bond Type:<br />What demo/activity demonstrated bonds in water molecules?<br /><ul><li>Water is bonded together by COVALENT BONDS: which is the sharing of valence electrons</li></li></ul><li>Two types of covalent bonds:<br />Nonpolar Covalent: <br />Share electrons EQUALLY<br />even distribution means no charge<br />Ex:<br />H2 Gas <br /> Cl2<br />
  14. 14. b. Polar Covalent:<br />Share electrons UNEQUALY<br />causes a negative charge at one end and a positive charge at the other<br />Ex. H2O HCl<br />
  15. 15. So…Why does water “stick” to itself and to other objects?<br />Zero Gravity Water Balloons<br />
  16. 16. 4. Creates Hydrogen Bonds:<br />What demo/activity demonstrated hydrogen bonds?<br /><ul><li>Water can bond with other WATER molecules or other POLAR molecules
  17. 17. Form hydrogen bonds: which are WEAK ATTRACTIONS between molecules. </li></li></ul><li>Hydrogen bonding is the cause of <br />ADHESION<br />COHESION<br />CAPILLARY<br /> ACTION<br />SURFACE<br />TENSION<br />
  18. 18. <ul><li>Rule: Usually form between H, F, O, N</li></ul>**This property is what orders other molecules into a higher level of structural organization. Ex: Cell membrane, DNA, Proteins<br />
  19. 19. Hydrogen bonding song<br />
  20. 20. 5. Relationship to other molecules<br />What activity/demo does this fit with?<br /><ul><li>HYDROPHILLIC: Water loving</li></ul>Ex: Water molecules attract other polar molecules<br />
  21. 21. <ul><li>HYDROPHOBIC: Water “fearing”</li></ul>Ex: water molecules repel non polar molecules – do not form hydrogen bonds<br />
  22. 22. **Keep in mind that large molecules may have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties!<br />
  23. 23. 6. Make Chemical Reactions Happen:<br /><ul><li>Water is NEEDED for chemical reactions within the body
  24. 24. Most reactions take place in AQUEOUS solutions…”in water”</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Water is a UNIVERSAL SOLVENT and due to its polar properties it has the ability to break apart or combine molecules</li></li></ul><li>a. Dehydration Synthesis: Loss of water molecule resulting in a combination of molecules.<br />
  25. 25. b. Hydrolysis: Addition of a water molecule results in the breaking apart of molecules.<br />