Guide to project management 60 s


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  • If you take nothing away from this presentation except this one slide. You have the basic knowledge you need about project management.
  • The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is an inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As with other professions such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics that apply and advance it. The full project management body of knowledge includes knowledge of proven traditional practices that are widely applied, as well as knowledge of innovative and advanced practices that have seen more limited use, and includes both published and unpublished material.
  • Project Management is an emerging profession. This presentation provides a basic reference for anyone interested in the profession of project management.
  • A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (referenced as the PiMBOK) defines a project as "a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service."
  • Meeting or exceeding stakeholders needs and expectations invariably involves balancing competing demands among:
    * Competing demands for: scope, time, cost, risk and quality.
    * Stakeholders with differing needs and expectations.
    Identified requirements.
    Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. Project management is accomplished through the use of the processes such as: Initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing.
  • Much of the knowledge needed to manage projects is unique to project management (e.g., critical path analysis and work breakdown structures). However, the PMBOK does overlap other management disciplines.
    General management encompasses planning, organizing, staffing, executing and controlling the operations of an ongoing enterprise. General management also includes supporting disciplines such as law, strategic planning, logistics, and human resources management. The PMBOK overlaps or modifies general management in many areas – organizational behavior, financial forecasting, and planning techniques, to name a few.
    Application areas are categories of projects that have common elements significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of:
    Functional departments and supporting disciplines, such as legal, production and inventory management, marketing, logistics and personnel.
    Technical elements, such as software development, pharmaceuticals, water and sanitation engineering, or construction engineering.
    Management specializations, such as government contracting, community development, or new product development.
    Industry groups, such as automotive, chemicals, agriculture, or financial services.
  • Certain types of endeavors are closely related to projects. There is often a hierarchy of strategic plans, programs, projects, and subprojects, in which a program consisting of several associated pro4ejcts will contribute to the achievement of a strategic plan. These related undertakings are described as:
    Programs – A program is a group of projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. Many programs also includes elements of ongoing operations.
    Subprojects – Projects are frequently divided into more manageable components or subprojects. Subprojects are often contracted to an external enterprise or to another functional unit in the performing organization.
    Project Portfolio Management – Project portfolio management refers to the selection and support of projects or program investments. These investments in projects and programs are guided by the organization’s strategic plan and available resources.
  • Projects and project management operate in an environment broader than that of the project itself. The management team must understand this broader context – managing the day-to-day activities of the project is necessary for success but not sufficient. The project management context consists of:
    Project phases and the project life cycle
    Characteristics of project phases
    Characteristics of the project life cycle
    Representative project life cycles
    Project Stakeholders
    Project Manager
    Performing organization
    Organizational influences
    Organization systems
    Organizational cultures and styles
    Organizational structure
    Project office
    Key General Management Skills
    Problem Solving
    Influencing the Organization
    Social-Economic Environmental Influences
    Standards and Regulations
    Cultural influences
    Social-Economic-Environmental Sustainability
  • Project management is an integrative endeavor – an action, or failure to take action, in one area will usually affect other areas. The interactions may be straightforward and well understood, or they may be subtle and uncertain. For example, a scope change will almost always affect project cost, but it may or may not affect team morale or product quality.
    These interactions often require tradeoffs among project objectives-performance in one are may be enhanced only by sacrificing performance in anther.
    Project Processes
    Projects are composed of processes. A process is “a series of actions bringing about a result”. Project processes are performed by people and generally fall into one of two major categories:
    Project Management processes
    Product-oriented processes
    Process Groups
    Initiating processes
    Planning processes
    Executing processes
    Controlling processes
    Closing processes
    Process Interactions
    Within each process group, the individual processes are linked by their inputs and outputs. By focusing on these links, we can describe each process in terms of its:
    Tools and Techniques
    Customizing process interactions
    Mapping of project management processes
  • This chart reflects the mapping of the thirty-nine project management processes to the five project management process groups of initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing and the nine project management knowledge areas.
    This diagram is not meant to be exclusive, but to indicate generally where the project management processes fit into both the project management process groups and the project management knowledge areas.
  • Project Integration Management includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. It involves making tradeoffs among competing objectives and alternative to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations. While all project management processes are integrative to some extent, the processes described here are primarily integrative.
    Project Plan Development – integrated and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document.
    Project Plan Execution – carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein.
    Integrated Change Control – coordinating changes across the entire project.
  • Project plan development uses the outputs of the other planning processes, including strategic planning, to create a consistent, coherent document that can be used to guide both project execution and project control. This process is almost always iterated several times. For example, the initial draft may include generic resource requirements and an undated sequence of activities while the subsequent versions of the plan will include specific resources and explicit dates. The project scope of the work is an iterative process that is generally done by the project team with the use of a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), allowing the team to capture and then decompose all of the work of the project. All of the defined work must be planned, estimated and scheduled, and authorized with the use of detailed integrated management control plans sometimes called Control Account Plans, or CAPs, in the EVM process. The sum of all the integrated management control plans will constitute the total project scope.
  • Project plan execution is the primary process for carrying out the project plan – the vast majority of the project’s budget will be expended in performing this process. In this process, the project manager and the project management team must coordinate and direct the various technical and organizational interfaces that exist in the project. It is the project process that is most directly affected by the project application area in that the product of the project is actually created here. Performance against the project baseline must be continuously monitored so that corrective actions can be taken based on actual performance against the project plan. Periodic forecasts of the final cost and schedule results will be made to support this analysis
  • Integrated change control is concerned with:
    Influencing the factors that create changes to ensure that changes are agreed upon
    Determining that a change has occurred
    Managing the actual changes when and as they occur
    The original defined project scope and the integrated performance baseline must be maintained by continuously managing changes to the baseline, either by rejecting new changes or by approving changes and incorporating them into a revised project baseline. Integrated change control requires:
    Maintaining the integrity of the performance measurement baselines
    Ensuring that changes to the product scope are reflected in the definition of the project scope
    Coordinating changes across knowledge areas, a proposed schedule change will often affect cost, risk, quality, and staffing
  • Project scope management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is or is not included in the project.
    Scope Initiation – authorizing the project or phase
    Scope Planning – developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions
    Scope Definition – Subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components
    Scope Verification – formalizing acceptance of the project scope
    Scope Change Control – controlling changes to project scope
  • Initiation is the process of formally authorizing a new project or that an existing project should continue into its next phase. This formal initiation links the project to the ongoing work of the performing organization. In some organizations, a project is not formally initiated until after completion of a needs assessment, a feasibility study, a preliminary plan, or some other equivalent form of analysis that was itself separately initiated. Some types of projects, especially internal service projects and new product development projects, are initiated informally, and some limited amount of work is done to secure the approvals needed for formal initiation. Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following:
    A market demand
    A business need
    A customer request
    A technological advance
    A legal requirement
    A social need
    These stimuli may also be called problems, opportunities, or business requirements. The central theme of all of these terms is that management generally must make a decision about how to respond.
  • Scope planning is the process of progressively elaborating and documenting the project work that produces the product of the project. Project scope planning starts with the initial inputs of product description, the project charter, and the initial definition of constraints and assumptions. Note that the product description incorporates product requirements that reflect agreed-upon customer needs and the product design that meets the product requirements. The outputs of scope planning are the scope statement and scope management plan, with the supporting detail. The scope statement forms the basis for an agreement between the project and the project customer by identifying both the project objectives and the project deliverables. Project teams develop multiple scope statements that are appropriate for the level of project work decomposition.
  • Scope definition involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to:
    Improve the accuracy of cost, duration and resource estimates
    Define a baseline for performance measurement and control
    Facilitate clear responsibility assignments
    Proper scope definition is critical to the projects success.
  • Scope verification is the process of obtaining formal acceptance of the project scope by the stakeholders (sponsor, client, customer, etc.). It requires reviewing deliverables and work results to ensure that all were completed correctly and satisfactorily. If the project is terminated early, the scope verification process should establish and document the leve3l and extend of completion. Scope verification differs from quality control in that it is primarily concerned with acceptance of the work results while quality control is primarily concerned with the correctness of the work results. These processes are generally performed in parallel to ensure both correctness and acceptance.
  • Scope change control is concerned with:
    Influencing the factors that create scope changes to ensure that changes are agreed upon
    Determining that a scope change has occurred
    Managing the actual change when and if they occur
    Scope change control must be thoroughly integrated with the other control processes.
  • Project time management includes the process required to ensure timely completion of the project.
    Activity definition – identifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables
    Activity sequencing – identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies.
    Activity duration estimating – estimating the number work periods that will be needed to complete individual activities
    Schedule development – analyzing activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements to create the project schedule
    Schedule control – controlling changes to the project schedule
    These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project. Each process generally occurs at least once in every project phase.
  • Risk management is the systematic process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It includes maximizing the probability and consequences of adverse events to project objectives.
    These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other knowledge areas. Each process generally occurs at least once in every project. Although processes are presented here as discrete elements with well-defined interfaces, in practice they may overlap and interact in ways not detailed here.
  • Risk management planning is the process of deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for a project. It is important to plan for the risk management process that follow to ensure that the level, type and visibility of risk management are commensurate with both the risk and importance of the project to the organization.
  • Risk identification involves determining which risks might affect the project and documenting their characteristic.
    Participating in risk identification generally include the following as possible:
    Project Team
    Risk management team
    Subject matter experts from other parts of the company
    End users
    Other project managers
    Outside experts
    Risk identification is an iterative process. The first iteration may be performed by a part of the project team, or by the risk management team. The entire project team and primary stakeholders may make a second iteration. TO achieve an unbiased analysis, persons who are not involved in the project may perform the final iteration.
    Often simple and effective risk responses can be developed and even implemented as soon as the risk is identified.
  • Qualitative risk analysis is the process of assessing the impact and likelihood of identified risks. This process prioritizes risks according to their potential effect on project objectives. Qualitative risk analysis is one way to determine the importance of addressing specific risks and guiding risk responses. The time-criticality of risk-related actions may magnify the importance of a risk. AN evaluation of the quality of the available information also helps modify the assessment of the risk. Qualitative risk analysis requires that the probability and consequences of the risks be evaluated using established qualitative-analysis methods and tools.
    Trends in the results when qualitative analysis is repeated can indicate the need for more or less risk-management actions. Use of these tools helps correct biases that are often in a project plan. Qualitative risk analysis should be revisited during the project’s life cycle to stay current with changes in the project risks. This process can lead to further analysis in quantitative risk analysis or directly to risk response planning.
  • The quantitative risk analysis process aims to analyze numerically the probability of each risk and its consequences on project objectives, as well as the extent of overall project risk. This process uses techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation and decision analysis to:
    Determine the probability of achieving a specific project objective
    Quantify the risk exposure for the project, and determine the size of cost and schedule contingency reserves that may be needed
    Identify risks requiring the most attention by quantifying their relative contribution to project risk
    Identify realistic and achievable cost, schedule or scope targets
    Quantitative risk analysis generally follows qualitative risk analysis. It requires risk identification. The qualitative and quantitative risk analysis processes can be used separately or together. Considerations of time and budget availability and the need for qualitative or quantitative statements about risk and impacts will determine method(s) to use. Trends in the results when quantitative analysis is repeated can indicate the need for more or less risk management action.
  • Risk response planning is the process of developing options and determining actions to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to the project’s objectives. It includes the identification and assignment of individual or parties to take responsibility for each agreed risk response. This process ensures that identified risks are properly addressed. The effectiveness of response planning will directly determine whether risk increases or decreases for the project.
    Risk response planning must be appropriate to the severity of the risk, cost effective in meeting the challenge, timely to be successful, realistic within the project context. Agreed upon by all parties involved, and owned by a responsible person. Selecting the best risk response from several options is often required.
  • Risk monitoring and control is the process of keeping track of the identified risks, monitoring residual risks and identifying new risks, ensuring the execution of risk plans, and evaluating their effectiveness in reducing risk. Risk monitoring and control records risk metrics that are associated with implementing contingency plans. Risk Monitoring and control is an ongoing process for the life of the project. The risks change as the project matures, new risks develop or anticipated risks disappear.
    Good risk monitoring and control processes provide information that assists with making effective decisions in advance of the risk’s occurring. Communication to all project stakeholders is needed to assess periodically the acceptability of the level of risk on the project.
    The purpose of risk monitoring is to determine if:
    Risk responses have been implemented as planned
    Risk response actions are as effective as expected, or if new responses should be developed
    Project assumptions are still valid
    Risk exposure has changed from its prior state, with analysis of trends
    A risk trigger has occurred
    Proper policies and procedures are followed
    Risks have occurred or arisen that were not previously identified
    Risk control may involve choosing alternative strategies, implementing a contingency plan, taking corrective action, or replanning the project. The risk response owner should report periodically to the project manager and the risk team leader on the effectiveness of the plan, any unanticipated effects, and any mid-course correction needed to mitigate the risk.
  • Project Procurement Management includes the processes required to acquire goods and services, to attain project scope, from outside the performing organization. For simplicity, goods and services, whether one or many, will generally be referred to as a product.
  • Procurement planning is the process of identifying which project needs can be best met by procuring products or services outside the project organization and should be accomplished during the scope definition effort. It involves consideration of whether to procure, how to procure, what to procure, how much to procure and when to procure.
    When the project obtains products and services from outside the performing organization, the processes from solicitation planning through contract closeout would be performed once for each product or service item. The project management team may want to see support from specialists in the disciplines of contracting and procurement when needed and involves them early in the process as a member of the project team.
    When the project does not obtain products and services from outside the performing organization, the processes from solicitation planning through contract closeout would not be performed.
    Procurement planning should also include consideration of potential sellers, particularly if the buyer wishes to exercise some degree of influence or control over contracting decisions.
  • Solicitation planning involves preparing the documents needed to support solicitation.
  • Solicitation involves obtaining responses from prospective sellers on how project needs can be met. Most of the actual effort in this process is expended by the prospective sellers, normally at no to the project.
  • Source selection involves the receipt of bids or proposals and the application of the evaluation criteria to select a provider. Many factors aside form cost or price may need to be evaluated in the source selection decision process.
    Price may be the primary determinant for an off-the-shelf item, but the lowest proposal price may not be the lowest cost if the seller proves unable to deliver the product in a timely manner.
    Proposals are often separated into technical and commercial sections with each evaluated separately.
    Multiple sources may be required for critical products.
  • Contract administration is the process of ensuring that the seller’s performance meets contractual requirements. On larger projects with multiple product and service providers, a key aspect of contract administration is managing the interfaces among the various providers. The legal nature of the contractual relationship makes it imperative that the project team be acutely aware of the legal implications of actions taken when administering the contract.
  • Contract closeout is similar to administrative closure in that it involves both product verification and administrative closeout. The contract terms and conditions may prescribe specific procedures for contract closeout. Early termination of a contract is a special case of contract closeout.
  • Guide to project management 60 s

    1. 1. A Guide to Project Management
    2. 2. 6 Basic Principles to Project Management • • • • Define the job in detail Get the right people involved Estimate the time and costs Break the job down using the 40-hour rule • Establish a change procedure • Agree on acceptance criteria
    3. 3. Project Management Framework • Introduction • Project Management Context • Project Management Process
    4. 4. Introduction • What is a Project? • What is Project Management? • Relationship to Other Management Disciplines • Related Endeavors
    5. 5. What is a Project? • Performed by people • Constrained by limited resources • Planned, executed and controlled
    6. 6. What is Project Management? • Competing demands for: • • • • • Scope Time Cost Risk Quality • Stakeholders with differing needs and expectations • Identified requirements
    7. 7. Relationship to Other Management Disciplines • Functional departments and supporting disciplines • Technical elements • Management specializations • Industry groups
    8. 8. Related Endeavors • Programs • Project portfolio management • Subprojects
    9. 9. Project Management Context • Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle • Project Stakeholders • Organizational Influences • Key General Management Skills • Social-Economic-Environmental Influences
    10. 10. Project Management Processes • • • • Project Processes Process Groups Process Interaction Customizing Process Interactions • Mapping of Project Management Processes
    11. 11. Mapping of Project Management Process Process Group Initiating Planning Executing Controlling Closing Knowledge Area Project Scope Management Project Scope Management Project Time Management •Project Plan Development •Initiation •Project Plan Execution •Integrated Change Control •Scope Planning •Scope Verification •Scope Definition •Scope Change Control •Activity Definition •Schedule Control •Activity Sequencing •Activity Duration Estimating •Schedule Development Project Cost Management •Resource Planning •Cost Control •Cost Estimating •Cost Budgeting Project Quality Management •Quality Planning •Quality Assurance Project Human Resource Management •Organizational Planning •Team Development Project Communications Management •Communications Planning Risk Project Management •Risk Management Planning •Quality Control •Staff Acquisition •Information Distribution •Performance Reporting •Administrative Closure •Risk Monitoring and Control •Risk Identification •Qualitative Risk Analysis •Quantitative Risk Analysis •Risk Response Planning Project Procurement Management •Procurement Planning •Solicitation •Solicitation Planning •Source Selection •Contract Administration •Contract Closeout
    12. 12. Project Management Knowledge Areas • • • • • • • • • Project Project Project Project Project Project Project Project Project Integration Management Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management Human Resource Management Communications Management Risk Management Procurement Management
    13. 13. Project Integration Management • Project Plan Development • Project Plan Execution • Integrated Change Control
    14. 14. Project Plan Development • Inputs • • • • • Other planning outputs Historical information Organizational policies Constraints Assumptions • Tools and Techniques • Project planning methodology • Stakeholders skills and knowledge • Project management information systems (PMIS) • Earned value management (EVM) • Outputs • Project plan(s) • Supporting detail
    15. 15. Project Plan Execution • Inputs • • • • • Project plan Supporting detail Organizational policies Preventive action Corrective action • Tools and Techniques • Outputs • General management skills • Product skills and knowledge • Work authorization system • Status review meetings • Project management information system • Organizational procedures • Work results • Change requests
    16. 16. Integrated Change Control • Inputs • Project plan • Performance reports • Change requests • Tools and Techniques • Change control system • Configuration management • Performance measurement • Additional planning • Project management information system • Output • Project plan updates • Corrective action • Lessons learned
    17. 17. Project Scope Management • • • • • Scope Scope Scope Scope Scope Initiation Planning Definition Verification Change Control
    18. 18. Scope Initiation • Inputs • Product description • Strategic plan • Project selection criteria • Tools and Techniques • Project selection methods • Expert judgement • Outputs • Project charter • Project manager identified/assigned • Constraints • Assumptions
    19. 19. Scope Planning • Inputs • • • • Product description Project charter Constraints Assumptions • Tools and Techniques • Product analysis • Benefit/cost analysis • Alternatives identification • Expert judgement • Outputs • Scope statement • Supporting detail • Scope management plan
    20. 20. Scope Definition • Inputs • • • • Scope statement Constraints Assumptions Other planning outputs • Historical information • Tools and Techniques • Work breakdown structure • Decomposition • Outputs • Work breakdown structure • Scope statement updates
    21. 21. Scope Verification • Inputs • Work results • Product documentation • Work breakdown structure • Scope statement • Project plan • Tools and Techniques • Inspection • Outputs • Formal acceptance
    22. 22. Scope Change Control • Inputs • Work breakdown structure • Performance reports • Change requests • Scope management plan • Tools and Techniques • Scope change control system • Performance measurement • Additional planning • Outputs • • • • Scope changes Corrective action Lessons learned Adjusted baseline
    23. 23. Project Time Management • • • • • Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
    24. 24. Activity Definition • Inputs • Work breakdown structure • Scope statement • Historical information • Constraints • Assumptions • Expert judgement • Tools and Techniques • Decomposition • Templates • Outputs • Activity list • Supporting detail • Work breakdown structure updates
    25. 25. Activity Sequencing • Inputs • Activity list • Product description • Mandatory dependencies • Discretionary dependencies • External dependencies • Milestones • Tools and Techniques • Precedence diagramming methods (PDM) • Arrow diagramming method (ADM) • Conditional diagramming methods • Network templates • Outputs • Project network diagram • Activity list updates
    26. 26. Activity Duration Estimating • Inputs • • • • Activity list Constraints Assumptions Resource requirements • Resource capabilities • Historical information • Identified risks • Tools and Techniques • Expert judgement • Analogous estimating • Quantitatively based durations • Reserve time (contingency) • Outputs • Activity duration estimates • Basis of estimates • Activity list updates
    27. 27. Schedule Development • Inputs • Project network diagrams • Activity duration estimates • Resource requirements • Resource pool description • Calendars • Constraints • Assumptions • Leads and lags • Risk management plan • Activity attributes • Tools and Techniques • Outputs • • • • Mathematical analysis Duration compression Simulation Resource leveling heuristics • Project management software • Coding structure • Project schedule • Supporting detail • Schedule management plan • Resource requirements updates
    28. 28. Schedule Control • Inputs • • • • Project schedule Performance reports Change requests Schedule management plan • Tools and Techniques • Schedule change control system • Performance measurement • Additional planning • Project management software • Variance Analysis • Outputs • Schedule updates • Corrective action • Lessons learned
    29. 29. Project Cost Management • • • • Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control
    30. 30. Resource Planning • Inputs • Work breakdown structure • Historical information • Scope statement • Resource pool description • Organization policies • Activity duration estimates • Tools and Techniques • Expert judgement • Alternatives identification • Project management software • Outputs • Resource requirements
    31. 31. Cost Estimating • Inputs • Work breakdown structure • Resource requirements • Resource rates • Activity duration estimates • Estimating publications • Historical information • Chart of accounts • Risks • Tools and Techniques • • • • • Analogous estimating Parametric modeling Bottom-up estimating Computerized tools Other cost estimating methods • Outputs • Cost estimates • Supporting detail • Cost management plan
    32. 32. Cost Budgeting • Inputs • Cost estimates • Work breakdown structure • Project schedule • Risk management plan • Tools and Techniques • Cost budgeting tools and techniques • Outputs • Cost baseline
    33. 33. Cost Control • Inputs • • • • Cost baseline Performance reports Change requests Cost management plan • Tools and Techniques • Outputs • Cost change control system • Performance measurement • Earned value management (EVM) • Additional planning • Computerized tools • • • • • • Revised cost estimates Budget updates Corrective action Estimate at completion Project closeout Lessons learned
    34. 34. Project Quality Management • Quality Planning • Quality Assurance • Quality Control
    35. 35. Quality Planning • Inputs • • • • Quality policy Scope statement Product description Standards and regulations • Other process outputs • Tools and Techniques • • • • • Benefit/cost analysis Benchmarking Flow-charting Design of experiments Cost of quality • Outputs • Quality management plan • Operational definitions • Checklists • Inputs to other processes
    36. 36. Quality Assurance • Inputs • Quality management plan • Results of quality control measurements • Operations definitions • Tools and Techniques • Quality planning tools and techniques • Quality audits • Outputs • Quality improvement
    37. 37. Quality Control • In puts • Work results • Quality management plan • Operational definitions • Checklists • Tools and Techniques • • • • • • Inspection Control charts Pareto Diagrams Statistical sampling Flow-charting Trend analysis • • • • • Quality improvements Acceptance decisions Rework Completed checklists Process adjustments • Outputs
    38. 38. Project Human Resource Management • Organizational Planning • Staff Acquisition • Team Development
    39. 39. Organizational Planning • Inputs • Project interfaces • Staffing requirements • Constraints • Tools and Techniques • Templates • Human resource practices • Organizational theory • Stakeholder analysis • Outputs • Role and responsibilities assignments • Staffing management plan • Organization chart • Supporting detail
    40. 40. Staff Acquisition • Inputs • Staffing management plan • Staffing pool description • Recruitment practices • Tools and Techniques • Negotiations • Pre-assignment • Procurement • Outputs • Project staff assigned • Project team directory
    41. 41. Team Development • Inputs • Project staff • Project plan • Staffing management plan • Performance reports • External feedback • Tools and Techniques • Team-building activities • General management skills • Reward and recognition systems • Collocation • Training • Outputs • Performance improvements • Input to performance appraisals
    42. 42. Project Communications Management • • • • Communications Planning Information Distribution Performance Reporting Administrative Closure
    43. 43. Communications Planning • Inputs • Communications requirements • Communications technology • Constraints • Assumptions • Tools and Techniques • Stakeholder analysis • Outputs • Communications management plan
    44. 44. Information Distribution • Inputs • Work results • Communications management plan • Project plan • Tools and Techniques • Communications skills • Information retrieval systems • Information distribution methods • Outputs • Project records • Project reports • Project presentations
    45. 45. Performance Reporting • Inputs • Project plan • Work results • Other project records • Tools and Techniques • • • • • Performance reviews Variance analysis Trend analysis Earned value analysis Information distribution tools and techniques • Outputs • Performance reports • Change requests
    46. 46. Administrative Closure • Inputs • Performance measurement documentation • Product documentation • Other project records • Tools and Techniques • Performance reporting tools and techniques • Project reports • Project presentations • Outputs • Project archives • Project closure • Lessons learned
    47. 47. Project Risk Management • • • • • • Risk Management Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Risk Monitoring and Control
    48. 48. Risk Management Planning • Inputs • Project charter • Organization’s risk management policies • Defined roles and responsibilities • Template for the organization’s risk management plan • Work breakdown structure • Tools and Techniques • Planning meeting • Outputs • Risk management plan
    49. 49. Risk Identification • Tools • Risk management plan • Project planning outputs • Risk categories • Historical information • Tools and techniques • Documentation review • Information-gathering techniques • Checklists • Assumptions analysis • Diagramming techniques • Outputs • Risks • Triggers • Inputs to other processes
    50. 50. Qualitative Risk Analysis • Inputs • • • • • • Risk management plan Identified risks Project status Project type Data precision Scales of probability and impact • Assumptions • Tools and Techniques • Outputs • Risk probability and impact • Probability/impact risk rating matrix • Project assumptions testing • Data precision ranking • Overall risk ranking for the project • List of prioritized risks • List of risk for additional analysis and management • Trends in qualitative risk analysis results
    51. 51. Quantitative Risk Analysis • Inputs • • • • Risk management plan Identified risks List of prioritized risks List of risks for additional analysis and management • Historical information • Expert judgement • Other planning outputs • Tools and Techniques • • • • Interviewing Sensitivity analysis Decision tree analysis Simulation • Outputs • Prioritized list of quantified risks • Probabilistic analysis of the project • Probability of achieving the cost and time objectives • Trends in quantitative risk analysis results
    52. 52. Risk Response Planning • Inputs • Risk management plan • List of prioritized risks • Risk ranking of the project • Prioritized list of quantified risks • Probabilistic analysis of the project • Probability of achieving the cost and time objectives • List of potential responses • Risk thresholds • Risk owners • Common risk causes • Trends in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis results • • Tools and Techniques • Avoidance • Transference • Mitigation • Acceptance Outputs • Risk response plan • Residual risks • Secondary risks • Contractual agreements • Contingency reserve amounts needed • Inputs to other processes • Inputs to a revised project plan
    53. 53. Risk Monitoring and Control • Inputs • Risk management plan • Risk response plan • Project communication • Additional risk identification and analysis • Scope changes • Tools and Techniques • • • • • • Project risk response audits Periodic project risk reviews Earned value analysis Technical performance measurement Additional risk response planning Outputs • • • • • • Workaround plans Corrective action Project change requests Updates to the risk response plan Risk Database Updates to risk identification checklists
    54. 54. Project Procurement Management • • • • • • Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration Contract Closeout
    55. 55. Procurement Planning • Inputs • Scope statement • Product description • Procurement resources • Market conditions • Other planning outputs • Constraints • Assumptions • Tools and Techniques • Make-or-buy analysis Expert judgement • Contract type selection • Outputs • Procurement management plan • Statement(s) of work
    56. 56. Solicitation Planning • Inputs • Procurement management plan • Statement(s) of work • Other planning outputs • Tools and Techniques • Standard forms • Expert judgement • Outputs • Procurement documents • Evaluation criteria • Statement of work updates
    57. 57. Solicitation • Inputs • Procurement documents • Qualified seller lists • Tools and Techniques • Bidder conferences • Advertising • Outputs • Proposals
    58. 58. Source Selection • Inputs • Proposals • Evaluation criteria • Organizational policies • Tools and Techniques • • • • Contract negotiation Weighting system Screening system Independent estimates • Outputs • Contract
    59. 59. Contract Administration • Inputs • • • • Contract Work results Change requests Seller invoices • Tools and Techniques • Contract change control system • Performance reporting • Payment system • Outputs • Correspondence • Contract changes • Payment requests
    60. 60. Contract Closeout • Inputs • Contract documentation • Tools and Techniques • Procurement audits • Outputs • Contract file • Formal acceptance and closure