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Portfolio in Educational Technology 2


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Portfolio in Educational Technology 2

  1. 1. The Presenters
  2. 2. Name: Rachelle Ann Gabinete Sendito Age: 19 years old Birth-date: May 16, 1997 Civil Status: Single Address: Brgy. Maasin, Brooke’s Point, Palawan School: Palawan State University- Brooke’s Point Campus Course and year: Bachelor of Elementary Education, 3rd year Motto in life: “The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and change.”
  3. 3. Name: Novelyn Teodosio Nalica Age: 19 years old Birth-date: November 25, 1996 Civil Status: Single Address: Brgy. Mainit, Brooke’s Point, Palawan School: Palawan State University- Brooke’s Point Campus Course and year: Bachelor of Elementary Education, 3rd year Motto in life: “Education is the most powerful weapon that you can use to change the world.”
  4. 4. Educational technology, sometimes shortened to EduTech or EdTech, is a wide field. Therefore, one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting. Educational technology as an academic field can be considered either as a design science or as a collection of different research interests addressing fundamental issues of learning, teaching and social organization.
  5. 5. According to other sources: Educational technology is defined by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. Educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational
  6. 6. theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: • educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning;
  7. 7. •educational technology as technological tools and media that •assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange; •educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS); •educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses
  8. 8. may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and communications technology (ICT)". Other meaning of Educational Technology:  Educational technology is the considered implementation of appropriate tools, techniques, or processes that facilitate the application of senses, memory and cognition to enhance teaching
  9. 9. practices and improve learning outcomes.  Educational technology is the area of technology that deals with facilitating e-learning, which is the learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.
  10. 10. Is technology
  11. 11. Technology is one of the greatest invention of mankind. It is so powerful that it shapes our thinking and our way of life within no time. It is ever evolving. Technology is a tool invented and sharpened by humans to make their life easier. Those who know the correct application of technology, be it any sphere of activity, have managed to make lives easier for themselves and to some extent also for others. I feel the best technological breakthrough was the invention of computers which basically led to further advancement in technology viz the creation of many software and hardware. Source:
  12. 12. Technology has gifted mankind with various boons but look closely and you will realise that technology have blessed mankind with two very important aspects – facility of communication and creation of time. Creation of phone, fax, paging services, mobile services, video conferencing etc are few of the facilities that the human mind has been able to conceive with the aid of technology. All have played a very important part in making the world a ‘Global Village’. Technology has ensured that one can easily communicate with anyone on land, in air(aeroplanes) or even when the person is under the calm waves of dark deep-sea (submarines).
  13. 13. But the Time Creation aspect of technology has now posed a challenge and threat which very few had ever thought of. Computers – They have evolved rapidly at the rate of knots. A few decades ago, a single computer was so big that it required a big room to fit in and it used to be surrounded with many fans and other cooling equipments to keep the temperatures down at functional level. Now that same computer can be carried in a pocket with an inbuilt capacity to sustain itself against any threats internal ( Disk Crash) and external (Virus Attack).
  14. 14. One of the main advertisement pointers for computers in the decades of 80’s and 90’s was its ability to save time and human efforts. Such a machine was welcomed with open arms.The ability of a computer to work on data and to enable a person to reach the logical end of a particular task is priceless.This activity helps a person to save time and valuable human effort. But also at the same time such an ability of computer provides a person with the cushion to challenge more tasks than what he would have attempted in the absence of computers.It is an ability that many take for granted and fall for the false assumption that they
  15. 15. can manage many tasks at the same time. In comes the element of multi tasking. Whether you do it once or twice or regularly, always remember that it is a feat best performed by a machine and not by a human. Multi Tasking deprives a human being from enjoying his task because he no longer focuses on the task at hand but rather focuses on the process of juggling many tasks at the same time. Such an activity also leads to unnecessary stress. Stress is the bane of modern world. Also, since computers can manage and complete a task usually taken by many people to complete, it also promotes unemployment in the society to some extent.
  16. 16. Yes, technology has helped man take a small step which in time has become a giant leap for man kind, but does anyone really know where this small step is leading us to? Technology was invented and developed to make progress and life easier and simpler. But due to the ill capacity of a human being to completely understand the marvel it has created, life for everyone is slowly changing into a Frankenstein movie wherein the creation is behind the creator’s life. Technology is important but it is time humans decided where to draw the line. Mother Nature has blessed us with many gifts which we so
  17. 17. eagerly neglect because of our over dependence on technology. Try to remember those gifts and master them. A human mind can solve complex mathematical problems even faster than a computer (Please refer Vedic Mathematics). The ancient scholars of India used the gifts of Mother Nature to solve the mysteries of the world (Invention of Zero, Calculus, Encryption – Refer Katapayadi System of Sanskrit Language etc.).Their discoveries were never dependent upon the functioning of machinery. Technology and machines were created to aid us and not to be our masters. Think wisely as to where technology is leading you to?
  18. 18. We believe that everything has its positive and negative sides. It depends upon us if how we use them. If you are saying that technology is boon, it means that you see its positive side/s only, but when you are saying that it is bane, maybe you see only its negative side/s.
  19. 19. Systematic Approach to Teaching
  20. 20. The systematic approach to teaching provides a method for the functional organization and development of instruction. This method applies to preparation of materials for classroom use, as well as for print and non-print media. Inputs to the systems approach include well defined objectives, analysis of the intended audience, special criteria desired by the customer, analysis and use of existing resources, and a team of instructional system specialists, subject matter experts, writers, and visual specialists. Outputs are functional relations trees, functional block diagrams, a teaching and visual sequence chart, and frames (a combination of words is on a specific topic from the teaching
  21. 21. sequence chart). The three step production flow consists of content requirements, content development, and use. Material is divided into levels of detail, so that the student studies only until he has reached the level he needs. At each level of detail, the material is treated as a whole, then in its parts, and finally recombined into a functional whole. Visuals illustrating the concepts are included. The system approach views the entire educational program as a system of interrelated parts. It is an orchestrated learning pattern with all parts harmoniously integrated in to the whole: the school, the teacher, the students, the objectives, the
  22. 22. media, the materials, and assessment tools and procedures. Such an approach integrates the older, more familiar methods and tools of instruction with the new ones such as the computer. SYSTEMATIZED INSTRUCTION ·Define objectives Considers the student’s need, interest and readiness. ·Choose appropriate method To be utilized and used by the teacher ·Choose appropriate exercises Learning Activities that could spell out the instructional objectives.
  23. 23. •Assigning personnel roles Who are the persons involved in the instruction and their tasks. ·Implement the instruction Actual mode of instruction in which all plans are being utilized. ·Evaluate Outcomes Examining if the instructional objective was attained or not ·Refine the process Getting the system fixed before entering to other cycle.
  24. 24. The ASSURE Model To become skilled in today's classrooms it is crucial to know when to use a wide range of instructional strategies and passive and interactive media. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, D. J., & Smaldino, E. S., (2002) stated to use media and technologies effectively a systematic plan for their use is necessary. They suggest utilizing the ASSURE model as a guide, which identifies six major steps in an instructional planning process.
  25. 25. The Assure Model is: Ø A procedural guide for planning and delivering instruction that integrates technology and media into the teaching process. Ø A systematic approach to writing lesson plans. Ø A plan used to help teachers organize instructional procedures. Ø A plan used to help teachers do an authentic assessment of student learning. Ø A model that can be used by all presenters.
  26. 26. Analyze learners: General Characteristics This is a description of the class as a whole. This includes such information as the number of students, grade or age level, gender, socioeconomic factors, exceptionalities, and cultural/ethnic/or other types of diversity. Entry Competencies This is a description of the types of knowledge expected of the learners. Ask questions such as: Do the learners have the knowledge base required to
  27. 27. enter the lesson? Do the learners have the entry competencies and technical vocabulary for this lesson? Have the learners already mastered the skills you are planning to teach? Do the learners have biases or misconceptions about the subject? Learning Style: This is a description of the learning stylistic preferences of the individual members of the class. First of all the instructor will want to find the learners perceptual preferences and strengths. The main choices are auditory, visual, and tactile/ kinaesthetic. Slower learners tend to prefer
  28. 28. kinesthetic experiences. The instructor will then determine the information processing habits of the learners. This category includes a broad range of variables related to how individuals tend to approach the cognitive processing of information. Finally the instructor will determine the motivational and physiological factors of the learners. When it comes to motivational factors the instructor needs to consider things such as anxiety, degree of structure, achievement motivation, social motivation, cautiousness, and competitiveness. The most prominent influences in physiological factors are sexual differences, health, and environmental conditions.
  29. 29. State Objectives Statements describing what the learner will do as a result of instruction. Things to keep in mind as you write your objectives are: Ø Focus on the learner, not the teacher Ø Use behaviors that reflect real world concerns Ø Objectives are descriptions of the learning outcomes and are written using the ABCD format. Audience: Who is the audience? Specifies the learner(s) for whom the objective is intended.
  30. 30. Behavior: What do you want them to do? The behavior or capability needs to be demonstrated as learner performance, an observable, measurable behavior, or a real-world skill. Use an action verb from the helpful verbs list if you have difficulty doing this. Condition: Under what circumstances or conditions are the learners to demonstrate the skill being taught? Be sure to include equipment, tools, aids, or references the learner may or may not use, and/or special environmental conditions in which the learner has to perform.
  31. 31. Degree: How well do you want them to demonstrate their mastery? Degree to which the new skill must be mastered or the criterion for acceptable performance (include time limit, range of accuracy, proportion of correct responses required, and/or qualitative standards.) Examples of Objective Statements: The Drama I class will be able to identify and draw stage directions using pencils and rulers with 100% accuracy. (Or) The kindergarten class will identify
  32. 32. the colours, red, green, and blue using blocks 9 out of 10 tries. (Or) The Tenth grade English class will identify and discuss the effects of symbolism in the short story "Young Goodman Brown" using their text, Paper, and Pen in one hour. Use as many objective statements needed in order to meet the different objectives for the lesson. Use the following questions to assess objectives. Does the objective allow you to do the following with your lesson? 1. Identify what the expectations are for the learner
  33. 33. 2. Identify the necessary requirements for the learning environment 3. Assess learning 4. Determine needs for appropriate media or materials How would you classify your objective? Is the learning outcome primarily: 1. Cognitive? 2. Affective? 3. Psychomotor / Motor Skill? 4. Interpersonal? 5. Intrapersonal?
  34. 34. Select, modify, design Methods, Media, & Materials This is the step where the Instructor will build a bridge between the audience and the objectives. You need to decide what method you will primarily use: a lecture, group work, a field trip, etc. What media you will use: photos, multimedia, video, a computer? Are you using store bought materials, getting an outside resource to provide materials, modifying something you already have, or making something from scratch?
  35. 35. Selection Criteria Media Selection Ø Media should be selected on the basis of student need. Ø We must consider the total learning situation. Ø Should follow learning objectives. Ø Must be appropriate for the teaching format. Ø Should be consistent with the students' capabilities and learning styles. Ø Should be chosen objectively. Ø Should be selected in order to best meet the learning outcomes. Ø No single medium is the total solution. Ø Does it match the curriculum?
  36. 36. Ø Is it accurate and current? Ø Does it contain clear and concise language? Ø Will it motivate and maintain interest? Ø Does it provide for learner participation? Ø Is it of good technical quality? Ø Is there evidence of its effectiveness (e.g., field-test results)? Ø Is it free from objectionable bias and advertising Ø Is a user guide or other documentation included?
  37. 37. Utilize Methods, Media, & Materials Plan of how you are going to implement your media and materials. For each type of media and/or materials listed under Select, modify, and design describe in detail how you are going to implement them into your lesson to help your learners meet the lesson's objective. Please write in full sentences; do this for each item.
  38. 38. In order to utilize materials correctly there are several steps to creating good student-centered instruction. 1.Preview the material- Never use anything in class you haven’t thoroughly checked out. 2.Prepare the material- Make sure you have everything you need and that it all works. 3.Prepare the environment- Set up the classroom so that whatever you’re doing will work in the space you have. 4.Prepare the learners- Give the students an overview, explain how they can take this information and use it and how they will be evaluated up front.
  39. 39. 5.Provide the learning experience- Teaching is simply high theatre. Showmanship is part of the facilitators job. Teaching and learning should be an experience not an ordeal. Require Learner Participation Describe how you are going to get each learner "actively and individually involved in the lesson. Ex: games, group work, presentations, skit, etc. Remember that the days of sage on the stage are gone. Our role in the classroom today is one of a
  40. 40. guide on the side and students, especially with technology connected lessons, need to experience learning. All activities should provide opportunities to manipulate the information and allow time for practice during the demonstration of the skill. Evaluate and Revise Describe how you will, in the future, measure whether or not the lesson objectives were met. Were the media and the instruction effective?
  41. 41. Evaluate student performance: How will you determine whether or not they met the lesson's objective? The evaluation should match the objective. Some objectives can be adequately assessed with a pen and paper test. If the objectives call for demonstrating a process, creating a product, or developing an attitude, the evaluation will frequently require observing the behaviour in action. Evaluate media components: How will you determine the media effectiveness?
  42. 42. TECHNOLOGY can play a traditional role, as delivery vehicles for instructional lessons or in a constructivist way as partners in the learning process. In the TRADITIONAL WAY: •The learner learns from the technology and the technology serves as a teacher. •In other words, the learner learns the CONTENT presented by the TECHNOLOGY in the same way that the learner learns knowledge presented by the teacher.
  43. 43. In the CONSTRUCTIVIST WAY: •TECHNOLOGY helps the learner build more meaningful personal interpretations of life and his/her world. •Technology is a learning TOOL to learn with, not from. •It makes the learner gather, think, analyze, synthesize information and construct meaning with what technology presents. Technology serves as a medium in representing what the learner knows and what he/she is learning.
  44. 44. ABSTRACTION •From the traditional point of view, technology serves as source and presenter of knowledge. It is assumed that “knowledge is embedded in the technology (such as content presented by films and TV programs or the teaching sequence in programmed instruction) and the technology presents that knowledge to the student. (David H. Jonassen, et al, 1999) •Technology like computers is seen as a productivity tool. The popularity of word processing, databases, spreadsheets, graphic programs and desktop publishing in the 1980s to this productive role of educational technology.
  45. 45. •With the eruption of the INTERNET in the mid 90s, communications and multimedia have dominated the role of technology in the classroom for the past few years. •From the CONSTRUCTIVIST POINT OF VIEW, educational technology serves as learning tools that learners learn with. It engages learners in “active, constructive, intentional, authentic, and cooperative learning. It provides opportunities for technology and learner interaction for meaningful learning.
  46. 46. •In this case, technology will not be mere delivery vehicle for content. Rather it is used as facilitator of thinking and knowledge construction. •From a constructivist perspective, the following are roles of technology in learning: 1. TECHNOLOGY AS TOOLS TO SUPPORT KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION: –For representing learners’ ideas, understandings and beliefs –For producing organized, multimedia knowledge bases by learners
  47. 47. 2. TECHNOLOGY AS INFORMATION VEHICLES FOR EXPLORING KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT LEARNING-BY- CONSTRUCTING –For accessing needed information –For comparing perspective, beliefs and world views 3. TECHNOLOGY AS CONTEXT TO SUPPORT LEARNING- BY-DOING –for representing and simulating meaningful real-world problems, situations and contexts –For representing beliefs, perspectives, arguments,
  48. 48. and stories of others –For defining a safe, controllable problem space for student thinking 4. TECHNOLOGY AS SOCIAL MEDIUM TO SUPPORT LEARNING BY CONVERSING –For collaborating with others –For discussing, arguing, and building consensus among members of community –For supporting discourse among knowledge-building communities
  49. 49. 5. TECHNOLOGY AS INTELLECTUAL PARTNER TO SUPPORT LEARNING BY REFLECTING –For helping learners to articulate and represent what they know –For reflecting on what they have learned and how they came to know it –For supporting learners’ internal negotiations and meaning making –For constructing personal representations of meaning for supporting mindful thinking
  50. 50. Whether used from the traditional or constructivist point of view, when used effectively, research indicates that technology “ increases students’ learning, understanding and achievement but also augments motivation to learn, encourages collaborative learning and supports the development of critical thinking and problem solving skills”. •Russel and Sorge (1999) also claims that the proper implementation of technology in the classroom gives students more “control of their own learning and... Tends to move classroom from teacher-dominated environments to ones that are more learner- centered. The use of
  51. 51. technology in the classroom enables the teacher to do differentiated instruction considering the divergence of students’ readiness levels, interests, multiple intelligences and learning styles. Technology also helps students become lifelong learners.
  52. 52. SUMMING UP : •Educational technology plays a various roles. From the traditional point of view, it serves as presenter of knowledge just like teachers. It also serves as a productivity tool. With internet, technology has facilitated communication among people. From the constructivist perspective, educational technology is a meaningful learning tool by serving as a learning partner.
  53. 53. Role of
  54. 54. Today’s generation of students are growing up in a digital world. Using digital devices is a huge part of their everyday experience out of school. Through Google they have access to a wide wealth of digital information, content and resources. With all of this so intrinsic to their ‘outside school’ experience, the challenge for the teaching profession is how to harness all this for learning within the classroom and at home. This generation of ‘digital natives’ has much lower need for libraries of physical
  55. 55. content for example, the traditional resource used by students half a generation ago. Learning styles are changing and teachers need to adapt their teaching styles accordingly. One crucial question is will this new technology actually improve education? The impact of ICT on learning outcomes has been inconclusive, billions of pounds/Euros spent – but is generally difficult to evaluate effectiveness in terms of improved results. Nonetheless there are outcomes that are conclusive, and which indirectly impact on learning outcomes. These
  56. 56. include improvements in: Engagement Motivation Independent learning Parental engagement Student and staff attendance and punctuality Extending the children’s learning time With the change in learning styles, the role of the teacher is changing too; as well as being a presenter of lesson material; they also assume the role of facilitator/coach in an increasingly
  57. 57. collaborative learning environment. These two key styles of learning; presenting and collaborating; link directly to some of the different types of technology employed in the classroom. Interactive White Boards have been the bastion of the presenting style of learning, where the teacher is at front of class, and all students are involved in interactive learning. For the more personalized learning, laptops, netbooks and tablets are increasingly
  58. 58. pervasive in the classroom. Globally 2% of students have a mobile computing device supplied by the school, forecast to increase to 7% by 2016. The crucial point is that the teacher will still want and need to be in charge of the classroom, they may decide to let students use technology for some parts of a lesson but they will still want to be the centre-point of attention and control. This may be at the front of the classroom or, as is becoming more relevant, to be able to move around the classroom and still
  59. 59. remain in control. In these styles of classroom environment clearly the ability of devices to talk to each other is the seamless connectivity between student tablets and front-of-class display, becomes increasingly key. Different teachers and schools will certainly want to use technology at different paces; in some schools the teachers will be working directly with the IWB all day whereas others will turn it on to highlight a key message and then turn it off. The same will happen with 1:1 computer learning.
  60. 60. Individual 1:1 teaching equipment is not new, in its most basic format many schools use small simple hand-held whiteboards for children to write on, allowing each to write an answer or create a picture which can be held up for the teacher or class to see. The first individual student communication technology was the voting system, allowing each student to answer questions which could then be automatically collated and attributed to them. Teachers would often start the lesson with a couple of short
  61. 61. questions to assess understanding of the previous lesson and if they needed to go back and recap – much more precise then just a show of hands. However mobile PCs (laptops, netbooks, tablets) truly unleash the full potential of 1:1 learning, allowing a fully personalised learning experience for each student. The concept of the “Flipped Classroom” is a method of teaching which is turning the traditional classroom on its head. Students do not need a teacher there when they are just viewing a lecture which can be done at home,
  62. 62. perhaps by watching a video created by the teacher, or when they are completing an assignment. Teachers do need to be present to help understand issues and work through problems and answer questions. The teacher then becomes a facilitator, tutor or guide and can spend more time one on one with the students. Teachers are finding that they can start to introduce this concept and slowly build on it and does not need to start as a complete radical change
  63. 63. Summary The transition to digital within education is leading to a raft of new exciting opportunities for education. The key factors for schools when considering technology investments are: • Carefully consider technology investments in the context of their impact on pedagogy; • A need for a clear vision as to how the devices would be utilised and add value to the learning experience.
  64. 64. • Some concepts can be introduced, and slowly built on, without having to start with a complete radical change e.g. the flipped classroom. • Take a broad approach to investment, considering both presentation style and collaborative style learning, and how the relevant devices communicate and interconnect. • Consider the student’s holistic learning experience, both in-class and at home and how
  65. 65. these can feed into each other. • Recognise the impact on teachers and the amount of training that will be needed to maximise the benefit of the technology.
  66. 66. Cone of Experience
  67. 67. The Cone was originally developed by Edgar Dale in 1946. It was intended as a way to describe various learning experiences. Essentially, the Cone shows the progression of experiences from the most concrete (at the bottom of the cone) to the most abstract (at the top of the cone). It is important to note that Dale never intended the Cone to depict a value judgment of experiences; in other words, his argument was not that more concrete experiences were better than more abstract ones. Dale believed that any and all of the approaches could and should be used, depending on the needs of the learner.
  68. 68. The Cone of Experience is a visual model meant to summarize Dale’s classification system for the varied types of mediated learning experiences. The original labels for Dale’s ten categories in the Cone of Experience were: 1. Direct, Purposeful Experiences 2. Contrived Experiences 3. Dramatic Participation 4. Demonstrations 5. Field Trips 6. Exhibits 7. Motion Pictures 8. Radio, Recordings, Still Pictures 9. Visual Symbols and 10. Verbal Symbols
  69. 69. When Dale researched learning and teaching methods he found that much of what we found to be true of direct and indirect (and of concrete and abstract) experience could be summarized in a pyramid or ‘pictorial device’ Dales called ‘the Cone of Experience’. In his book ‘Audio visual methods in teaching’ – 1957, he stated that the cone was not offered as a perfect or mechanically flawless picture to be taken absolutely literally. It was merely designed as a visual aid to help explain the interrelationships of the various types of audio- visual materials, as well as their individual ‘positions’ in the learning process. Dale points out that it would be a dangerous mistake to regard the bands on the cone as rigid,
  70. 70. inflexible divisions. He said “The cone device is a visual metaphor of learning experiences, in which the various types of audio-visual materials are arranged in the order of increasing abstractness as one proceeds from direct experiences” People Remember It is said that people remember: § 10% of what they read § 20% of what they hear § 30% of what they see § 50% of what they see and hear § 70% of what they write and say § 90% of what they say as they do
  71. 71. The percentages –> 10% of what they read 20% of what they hear 30% of what they see 50% of what they hear and see 70% of what they say or write 90% of what they say as they do a thing are not from Dale. The bogus percentages appear to have been first published by an employee of Mobil Oil Company in 1967, writing in the magazine “Film and Audio-Visual Communications”. These percentages have since been discredited. THEY ARE FICTION! This is one of the great training/ people development myths.
  72. 72. Old Chinese proverb “What I hear, I forget; What I see, I remember; What I do, I understand.” Stands true – but only again as a saying, and NOT as statistical fact.
  73. 73. Conceptual Model of Learning
  74. 74. The four conceptual models namely Meaning Learning, Discovery Learning, Generative Learning and Constructivism are useful in achieving instructional goals through preferred application of educational technology. With these conceptual models, we shall see how effective teachers best interact with their students in innovative learning activities while integrating technology to the teaching-learning process.
  75. 75. Meaningful Learning This gives focus to new experience that is related to what the learner already knows. A new experience departs from the learning of a sequence of words or memorization through rote memory but gives attention to meaning. It assumes that: Ø Students already have some knowledge that is relevant to new learning;
  76. 76. Ø Students are willing to perform class work to find connections between what they already know and what they can learn. In the learning process, the learner is encouraged to recognize relevant personal experiences. A reward structure is set so that the learner will have both interest and confidence, and this incentive system gives positive reinforcement to learning.
  77. 77. Discovery Learning This kind of learning is differentiated from reception learning in which ideas are presented directly to students in a well-organized way, such as through a detailed set of instructions to complete an experiment or task. To make a contrast, in discovery learning students perform tasks to uncover what is to be learned. New ideas and new decisions are generated in the learning process, regardless of the
  78. 78. need to move on and depart from organized set-off activities. In discovery learning, it is important that the student become personally involved and not subjected by the teacher to procedures he/she is not allowed to depart from. In applying technology, the computer can present a tutorial process by which the learner is given key concepts and the rules learning are directly presented for receptive
  79. 79. type of learning. But aside from that, the computer has other uses. In a computer simulation process, for example, the learner himself is made to identify key concepts by interacting with a responsive virtual environment. The learner thus discovers the concepts from the experience the virtual environment provides.
  80. 80. Generative Learning In generative learning we have active learners who attend to learning events and generate drawing from this experience and draw inferences thereby creating a personal model or explanation to the new experience in the context of existing knowledge. Generative learning is viewed as different from the simple process of storing information for motivation and responsibility is said to be crucial to
  81. 81. this domain of learning. Examples of this in the area of language comprehension are activities such as writing paragraph, summaries, developing answers and questions, drawing pictures, creating paragraph titles, organizing ideas/concepts, and others. In sum, generative learning gives emphasis to what can be done with the pieces of information not only just an access to them.
  82. 82. Constructivism In constructivism, the learner builds a personal understanding through appropriate learning activities and a good learning environment. The two accepted principles are: • Learning consists of what a person can actively assemble for himself and not what he can receive passively. • The role of learning is to help the individual live/adapt to his
  83. 83. personal world. With these two principles in turn lead to three practical implications: • The learner is directly responsible for learning. He creates personal understanding and transforms information into knowledge. The teacher plays an indirect role by modelling effective learning, assisting, facilitating, and encouraging learners.
  84. 84. • The context of meaningful learning consists in the learner “connecting” his school activity with real life. • The purpose of education is acquisition of practical and personal knowledge, not abstract or universal truths.
  85. 85. LearningthroughEducational Technology2
  86. 86. Lesson: IT FOR HIGHER THINKING SKILLS AND CREATIVITY Learning: A new challenge has arisen for today’s learners and this is not simply to achieve learning objectives but to encourage the development of students who can do more than receive, recall, recite and apply the knowledge they have acquired. Today, students are expected to be not only cognitive, but also flexible, analytically and creative. In this lesson, there are methods
  87. 87. proposed by the use of computer-based as an integral support to higher thinking skills and creativity. Lesson: THE COMPUTER AS A TUTOR Learning: Today, educators accept the fact that the computer has indeed succeeded in providing an individualized learning environment so difficult for a teacher handling whole classes. This is so, since the computer is able to allow individual students
  88. 88. to learn at their own pace, motivate learning through a challenging virtual learning environment, assist students through information needed during the learning process, evaluate students responses through immediate feedback during the learning process, and also give the total score to evaluate the student’s total performance
  89. 89. Lesson: Difference between the new millennial generation and parents 30 years ago Learning: There is a lot of differences between the new millennial generation and parents 30 years ago. We, as part of the new millennial generation should use the technology according to its function. We should use it properly so that we can have its benefits.
  90. 90. The Student after Educational Technology2
  91. 91. I learned in this subject on how to use technology in different ways in terms of education. It help me to explore any social networking sites like Instagram, e- mail and Twitter, because of social networking sites we became aware and updated of the different news and we can easily communicate in friends, family and loved ones. Lastly, I know what the available technology in old generation unlike in our present so that the old generation didn't adapt what the technology that we have now.
  92. 92. So we need to fill in the gap between 30 parents years ago and new millennial because now they more on technology users .As a future educator I have the knowledge for using technology in teaching students and it can help me to improve my teaching style and to fasten learning process. -NALICA
  93. 93. After this Educational Technology 2, the students are: • now more knowledgeable in making online accounts like Instagram, tweeter, and the like; • surely engaged in social networking sites which help in learning; • more creative in making powerpoint presentations; • more independent in manipulating computers for learning;
  94. 94. • love making presentations which help in learning; and • more innovative As a future teacher, these implications will help me a lot on how to become an effective teacher someday. These will make my instruction more effective, active, and student- centered. -SENDITO